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1.
Head Neck Pathol ; 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35025056

RESUMO

Adamantinoma-like Ewing sarcoma (ALES) is a rare malignant tumor characterized by EWSR1::FLI1 related fusions and complex epithelial differentiation. ALES poses a tremendous diagnostic challenge owing to its resemblance to a wide variety of common head and neck malignancies. We aimed to study the clinicopathologic spectrum of ALES diagnosed at our institute. A retrospective review of the clinical and pathologic features of all EWSR1-rearranged ALES cases was performed after confirming the diagnosis. The cases lacking EWSR1 rearrangement were excluded. A total of 7 patients were analyzed. The median age was 27 years (range 7-42 years). There were 4 males and 3 female patients. Tumors were distributed as follows: maxilla (n = 2), parotid (n = 2), nasal cavity (n = 1), ethmoid/maxilla (n = 1), and thyroid (n = 1). Tumor size ranged from 2.2 to 5.5 cm. On microscopy, tumors displayed nested-lobular architecture, monomorphic cells, and interlobular fibrotic stroma. Other features included: palisading (n = 5), squamous differentiation (n = 2), keratinization (n = 1), colonisation of salivary ducts (n = 1) and thyroid follicles (n = 1), follicle-like cysts (n = 3), calcification (n = 2), necrosis (n = 3). Mitotic rate was 4-15/2 mm2. On immunohistochemistry, cytokeratins (100%), p40 (100%), strong/diffuse membranous CD99 (100%), NKX2.2 (100%), Fli-1 (71%), and synaptophysin (71%) was positive. Patients received chemotherapy (n = 7) and radiotherapy (n = 4). Two patients developed recurrence at 6 and 10 months; 3 developed metastases at 0, 6, and 25 months. ALES is a rare and aggressive malignancy that mimics diverse neoplasms common in the head and neck region. Awareness of the morphologic and immunohistochemistry spectrum of this tumor is essential to avoid diagnostic errors.

2.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1868(1): 166282, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600083

RESUMO

Recurrent metastatic epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is challenging and associated with treatment limitations, as the mechanisms governing the metastatic behavior of chemoresistant EOC cells remain elusive. Using orthotopic xenograft mouse models of sensitive and acquired platinum-taxol-resistant A2780 EOC cells, we studied the mechanistic role of insulin like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) signaling in the regulation of organ-specific metastasis of EOC cells undergoing acquirement of chemoresistance. Biochemical assays and organ-specific fibroblast-EOC cell co-culture were used to study the differential metastatic characteristics of sensitive vs. chemoresistant EOC cells, and the key molecule/s underlying the organ-specific homing of chemoresistant EOC cells were identified through subtractive LC/MS profiling of the co-culture secretome. The role of the identified molecule was validated through genetic/pharmacologic perturbation experiments. Acquired chemoresistance augmented organ-specific metastasis of EOC cells and enhanced lung homing, particularly for the late-stage chemoresistant cells, which was abrogated after IGF1R silencing. Escalation of chemoresistance (intrinsic and acquired) conferred EOC cells with higher adhesion toward primary lung fibroblasts, largely governed by the α6 integrin-IGF1R dual signaling axes. Subtractive analysis of the co-culture secretome revealed that interaction with lung fibroblasts induced the secretion of S100A4 from highly resistant EOC cells, which reciprocally activated lung fibroblasts. Genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of S100A4 significantly lowered distant metastases and completely abrogated lung-tropic nature of late-stage chemoresistant EOC cells. These results indicate that chemoresistance exacerbates organ-specific metastasis of EOC cells via the IGF1R-α6 integrin-S100A4 molecular network, of which S100A4 may serve as a potential target for the treatment of recurrent metastatic EOC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Integrina alfa6/genética , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/genética , Proteína A4 de Ligação a Cálcio da Família S100/genética , Animais , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Camundongos , Metástase Neoplásica , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Platina/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Skeletal Radiol ; 51(1): 209-217, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110448

RESUMO

Adamantinoma-like Ewing sarcoma is uncommonly reported in the skeletal sites, including small bones of the feet.A 15-year-old girl presented with pain and swelling in her left foot, leading to difficulty in walking for 8 months. Plain radiograph revealed an ill-defined, lytic-sclerotic lesion without significant periosteal reaction in her left calcaneus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an expansile lesion involving the anterior calcaneus, which was hypointense on T1 and heterogeneously hyperintense on T2-weighted sequences, infiltrating the adjacent bones and soft tissues. On imaging, the differential diagnoses considered were a giant cell tumor and other primary bone tumors.Histopathological examination revealed a tumor composed of small round cells, with interspersed keratin pearls. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for CD99/MIC2, pan-cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), p40, p63, NKX2.2, and synaptophysin. Diagnosis of adamantinoma-like Ewing sarcoma was offered on the initial biopsy. Furthermore, the tumor cells revealed EWSR1 gene rearrangement by fluorescence in situ hybridization, confirming this diagnosis. The patient underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy, had a poor response, and finally underwent below-knee amputation.This constitutes a rare case of adamantinoma-like Ewing sarcoma in the calcaneus. Ewing sarcoma may be considered as a differential diagnosis for intraosseous lytic-sclerotic lesions, even without significant periosteal reaction, at unusual sites, such as the bones of the foot. Awareness of this entity and application of ancillary techniques is recommended for its exact diagnosis and in differentiating this rare variant from its diagnostic mimics. This case also indicates a poor chemotherapy response in this unusual variant of Ewing sarcoma, occurring in the calcaneus.


Assuntos
Adamantinoma , Calcâneo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Sarcoma de Ewing , Adamantinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Adamantinoma/genética , Adolescente , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Calcâneo/diagnóstico por imagem , Diferenciação Celular , Feminino , Rearranjo Gênico , Proteínas de Homeodomínio , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Proteínas Nucleares , Proteína EWS de Ligação a RNA/genética , Sarcoma de Ewing/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcoma de Ewing/genética , Fatores de Transcrição
4.
Indian J Med Res ; 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34854425

RESUMO

Background & objectives: Aetiology of cervical cancer (CaCx) is multifactorial. Besides human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, many immunogenetic factors are involved in this complex process. The present study was carried out to investigate one such factor, interleukin-6 (IL-6), a central pro-inflammatory cytokine and a polymorphism at its promoter region -174 G/C (rs1800795) with CaCx. Methods: HPV-infected women with or without CaCx were enrolled in group I and II, respectively. Another group of uninfected healthy women was also included as group III for comparison. Polymorphism in IL-6-174 G/C and IL-6 levels were analyzed by sequence-specific primer PCR (PCR-SSP) and ELISA, respectively. Results: Groups I (n=111) and II (n=87) had significantly higher frequency of IL-6-174 GG genotype [odds ratios (OR)=3.9; P<0.001 and OR=3.2; P<0.001, respectively] as compared to group III (n=163). Furthermore, individuals with GG or GC genotypes had high IL-6 levels than those with CC genotypes. IL-6 levels were significantly (P<0.001) elevated in group I. This was also significantly high in untreated cases as compared to treated (P<0.05) ones. IL-6 levels of treated group were comparable with groups II and III. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results suggested a possible association of IL-6-174 GG with CaCx, which was also associated with high IL-6 levels. Decreased levels of IL-6 following treatment indicate its possible prognostic use in CaCx cases.

5.
South Asian J Cancer ; 10(2): 102-106, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604126

RESUMO

Objectives Peritoneal tuberculosis can mimic advanced abdominal malignancy. We describe clinical and laboratory characteristics in a series of female patients with peritoneal tuberculosis who were referred to a tertiary cancer center with a diagnosis of suspected advanced ovarian/primary peritoneal cancer. Materials and Methods Details of clinical features, laboratory results including serum tumor markers, radiological findings, and ascitic fluid evaluation were retrospectively collected from hospital records for patients diagnosed to have peritoneal tuberculosis and reported descriptively. Statistical Analysis Descriptive statistics was performed using SPSS Statistics for Windows software, version 20.0 (SPSS, Chicago, Illinois). Results Between January 2009 and December 2017, 120 patients of peritoneal tuberculosis with a median age 41 years (range, 15-79 years) were identified. Of these 112 (93.3%; 95% CI 88.9-97.8%) patients had ascites and 63 (52.5%; 95% CI 43.6-61.4%) had adnexal mass at presentation. Mean serum cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) level was 666.9 (range, 38-18,554) U/mL. Ascitic fluid was negative for malignant cells in all patients and lymphocyte rich exudate was seen in 103 (91.9%; 86.9-97.0%) patients. Ascitic fluid adenosine deaminase (ADA) level was more than 40 U/L in 107 (95.5%; 95% CI 91.7-99.4%). Ascitic fluid Ziel-Neelsen staining was positive in 4/62 (6.5%; 95% CI 0.3-12.6%) patients while ascitic fluid culture examination for mycobacterium tuberculosis was positive in 7/59 (11.9%; 95% CI 3.6-20.1%) patients. The diagnosis of tuberculosis was based on image-guided biopsy in 44 (36.7%) patients, surgical biopsy in 8 (6.7%) patients, and a combination of clinicoradiological and laboratory features in 68 (56.7%) patients. All patients received standard antitubercular treatment. Conclusions The study results suggest that peritoneal tuberculosis has clinical, radiological, and serological profile which may mimic advanced ovarian/primary peritoneal cancer. Peritoneal tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of advanced abdominal malignancy.

6.
Radiother Oncol ; 164: 216-222, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of dose-escalated image guided-intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) in osteosarcoma (OGS), chondrosarcoma (CS) and chordoma (CH) of head and neck (H&N) and pelvis. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In this prospective non-randomized study, 65 patients of H&N or pelvic OGS (24), CS (7) and CH (34) mandating definitive or post-operative radiotherapy from May 2013 to December 2018 were included. Radiotherapy doses in definitive setting were 72.0 Gy for CH and 70.2 Gy for OGS and CS; while in post-operative setting it was 66.6 Gy and 64.8 Gy respectively (at 1.8 Gy per fraction). RESULTS: Planned doses of radiotherapy could be completed in 61 (93.8%) patients; with grade III or higher acute and late toxicities of 3% and 0% respectively. With a median follow-up of 52 (range 6-92) months, the five-year actuarial local control (LC) rates were 66% in OGS, 38.1% in CS and 75.9% in CH; while cause-specific survival (CSS) rates were 54.7%, 64.3% and 92.2% respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in outcomes for patients receiving definitive and post-operative radiotherapy. Locally controlled disease at first follow-up after radiotherapy was associated with improved CSS and OS in CS (p = 0.014) and CH (p < 0.001). Radiotherapy resulted in significant and sustained improvement in Musculoskeletal tumour society (MSTS) score and reduction in pain score. Salvage re-irradiation was feasible in local progression after radiotherapy, with good outcomes and tolerability. CONCLUSION: Dose-escalated IG-IMRT results in good LC & functional improvement with minimal toxicity in OGS, CS and CH.

8.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 64(4): 767-770, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673600

RESUMO

Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) and certain perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms (PEComas) exhibit overlapping histopathological features, including immunohistochemical expression of TFE3, as well as TFE3 gene rearrangement. PEComas with an epithelioid morphology are known to exhibit variable immunoexpression of muscle markers. At the same time, aberrant immunoreactivity of HMB45 immunostain, which is invariably, used to substantiate a diagnosis of a PEComa, has been reported in various other tumors. Herein, we discuss two rare cases of soft tissue tumors with overlapping morphological and immunohistochemical features. Case1: A 34-year-old male underwent a biopsy for a recurrent, right-sided nasal polyp. Biopsy showed polygonal tumor cells, containing prominent nucleoli, arranged in a "nesting-type"/alveolar growth pattern. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells displayed TFE3 positivity and an aberrant positivity for HMB45. Special stain (PAS-diastase) highlighted intracytoplasmic granules and crystals. Diagnosis of ASPS was offered. Furthermore, the tumor cells displayed TFE3 gene rearrangement. Case 2: A 29-year-old female underwent an aural polypectomy. Microscopic examination revealed a tumor with a "nesting-type"/alveolar arrangement of tumor cells with vacuolated cytoplasm, arranged around thin-walled blood vessels. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were diffusely positive for HMB45 and TFE3 and focally for SMA. A diagnosis of a PEComa was offered. This report constitutes the first documentation of aberrant HMB45 immunoreactivity in case of ASPS, and one of the first reported cases of a PEComa in the ear. It emphasizes the value of integrating clinicopathological features with immunohistochemical and molecular results in differentiating two rare, but distinct soft tissue tumors with overlapping features. An exact diagnosis of both these tumor entities has therapeutic implications.

9.
Front Oncol ; 11: 710585, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568037

RESUMO

Background: Treatment of malignant melanoma has undergone a paradigm shift with the advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) and targeted therapies. However, access to ICI is limited in low-middle income countries (LMICs). Patients and Methods: Histologically confirmed malignant melanoma cases registered from 2013 to 2019 were analysed for pattern of care, safety, and efficacy of systemic therapies (ST). Results: There were 659 patients with a median age of 53 (range 44-63) years; 58.9% were males; 55.2% were mucosal melanomas. Most common primary sites were extremities (36.6%) and anorectum (31.4%). Nearly 10.8% of the metastatic cohort were BRAF mutated. Among 368 non-metastatic patients (172 prior treated, 185 de novo, and 11 unresectable), with a median follow-up of 26 months (0-83 months), median EFS and OS were 29.5 (95% CI: 22-40) and 33.3 (95% CI: 29.5-41.2) months, respectively. In the metastatic cohort, with a median follow up of 24 (0-85) months, the median EFS for BSC was 3.1 (95% CI 1.9-4.8) months versus 3.98 (95% CI 3.2-4.7) months with any ST (HR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.52-0.92; P = 0.011). The median OS was 3.9 (95% CI 3.3-6.4) months for BSC alone versus 12.0 (95% CI 10.5-15.1) months in any ST (HR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.28-0.50; P < 0.001). The disease control rate was 51.55%. Commonest grade 3-4 toxicity was anemia with chemotherapy (9.5%) and ICI (8.8%). In multivariate analysis, any ST received had a better prognostic impact in the metastatic cohort. Conclusions: Large real-world data reflects the treatment patterns adopted in LMIC for melanomas and poor access to expensive, standard of care therapies. Other systemic therapies provide meaningful clinical benefit and are worth exploring especially when the standard therapies are challenging to administer.

10.
Indian J Cancer ; 58(3): 326-335, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558441

RESUMO

Primary bone tumors, including sarcomas, are rare tumors and require a multidisciplinary approach, including inputs from a radiologist, pathologist, medical oncologist, and surgical and radiation oncologist, for optimal management. Over the years, there has been a paradigm shift toward the treatment of bone sarcomas, from radical resections to conservative surgical procedures, to achieve improved clinical and functional outcomes. This has led to receiving and processing various types of specimens in orthopedic oncopathology. Grossing and reporting of bone tumors require expertise. This review focuses upon the types of biopsies, grossing techniques of various specimens in orthopedic oncology and reporting, with rationale and recommendations from pathologists, actively involved in reporting and pursuing a special interest in bone tumors, based on current evidence. Furthermore, there is a section on some of the updates in the diagnosis of bone tumors, based on the recent fifth edition of the World Health Organization classification of tumors of soft tissues and bone.

11.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 55: 151809, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482218

RESUMO

Poorly differentiated chordoma is a newly recognized entity in the recent World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of soft tissue and bone. Slightly over 60 such cases have been documented. Herein, we present a clinicopathological profile, including radiological features, of nine cases, which occurred in five males and four females, with age varying from 1 to 29 years (median = 43), in the cervical spine (n = 2), skull base (n = 2), clivus (n = 2), thoracic spine (n = 1) lumbar spine (n = 1) and coccyx (n = 1) Average tumor size was 4.8 cm. None of the 6-referral cases was diagnosed as a poorly differentiated chordoma at the referring laboratory. Histopathologically, all cases displayed a cellular tumor comprising polygonal cells (n = 9) displaying moderate to marked nuclear pleomorphism with prominent nucleoli (n = 7), eosinophilic (n = 9) to vacuolated cytoplasm (n = 7), rhabdoid morphology (n = 4), interspersed mitotic figures (n = 5), focal necrosis (n = 6) and inflammatory cells (n = 9). A single tumor displayed areas resembling classic chordoma, transitioning into poorly differentiated areas. There were multinucleate giant cells and physaliphorous cells in two tumors, each, respectively. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were positive for AE1/AE3 (7/7), EMA (7/7), cytokeratin (CK) MNF116 (1/1), OSCAR (1/1), brachyury (9/9, diffusely), S100P (4/7, mostly focally), and glypican 3(2/4). SMARCB1/INI1 was completely lost in all nine tumors. A single case tested by FISH showed homozygous deletion of the SMARCB1 gene. Therapeutically (n = 7), all patients were treated with surgical resection (invariably incomplete) (n = 5), followed by adjuvant radiation therapy (n = 4) and chemotherapy (n = 4). While a single patient partially responded to treatment and another patient is alive with no evidence of disease after 23 years, three patients died of disease, six, eight, and 11 months post-diagnosis, despite adjuvant treatments. A single patient presented with a metastatic lung nodule, while another developed widespread metastasis. Poorly differentiated chordomas display a spectrum of features, are associated with a lower index of suspicion for a diagnosis, and display aggressive outcomes. Critical analysis of radiological and histopathological features, including necessary immunostains (brachyury and SMARCB1/INI1), is necessary for their timely diagnosis. These tumors show loss of SMARCB1/INI1 immunostaining and homozygous deletion of INI1/SMARCB1 gene.

12.
Turk Patoloji Derg ; 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514569

RESUMO

This case report aims to present clinicopathological features of an extremely rare case of multifocal pseudomyogenic hemangioendothelioma (PMHE) in the scalp. A 21-year-old male developed multiple, focally ulcerated, nodules over the root of his nose and scalp. One of the skin lesions was sampled at another dermatology clinic, where this was diagnosed as a sarcoma. A review of biopsy sections showed well-circumscribed dermal lesions, comprising plump spindle and epithelioid cells, mimicking rhabdomyoblasts. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were positive for AE1/AE3, CD31, FLI-1 and ERG. INI-1 was retained. A diagnosis of PMHE was offered. Subsequently, the patient underwent wide excision and has been asymptomatic for 8 months, post-surgery. PMHE is rarely reported in the head and neck region, where it can constitute a diagnostic pitfall. Awareness of this tumor and appropriate immunohistochemical stains are necessary for its timely diagnosis, in order to avoid radical treatments. A review of similar, previously documented cases is presented.

13.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 64(3): 448-459, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341252

RESUMO

During the last two decades, there have been significant strides in the diagnosis of soft tissue tumors, including identification of various tumor entities, newer immunohistochemical markers, and an increasing number of molecular signatures, defining certain tumors. Lately, there are certain emerging tumor entities, defined by their molecular features with an impact on treatment. At the same time, there is a certain degree of overlap in the expression of certain immunohistochemical antibody markers, as well as genetic markers, with certain gene rearrangements and chimeric fusions observed among completely different tumors. Moreover, a certain amount of clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular proximity has been unraveled among certain tumor types. Over the years, the World Health Organization (WHO) fascicles on tumors of soft tissue have succinctly brought out these aspects. The present review describes recent updates in the diagnosis of soft tissue tumors, including certain newly described tumor entities; emphasizing upon newer, specific immunohistochemical and molecular markers, along with concepts, regarding "intertumor relationships".


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/genética , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Rearranjo Gênico , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Sarcoma/diagnóstico , Sarcoma/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/classificação , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia
16.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 264: 168-172, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endometrial serous carcinoma (ESC) is an aggressive neoplasm wherein the recent studies have shown that it arises from its putative precursor namely the serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (SEIC). SEIC usually arises in inactive/ atrophic endometrium but surprisingly is frequently associated endometrial polyps (EPs). The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of SEIC with or without invasion, its clinical behaviour and association with endometrial polyp. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After Institutional review board approval, a total of 205 samples (belonging to 120 patients); diagnosed as ESC from January 2009 to December 2015 were retrieved and reviewed for presence of in situ carcinoma and also for associated endometrial polyp. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 62.40 years with postmenopausal bleeding being the most common presenting symptom. The incidence of SEIC with or without invasive tumor was 40% (48/120). Of these 48 cases; 25 cases were associated with in-situ carcinoma arising in the EPs which amounted to 52% of the total cases. The overall three year survival and disease free survival in SEIC with or without invasion were 1.9% and 0.25%, indicating the aggressive nature of the disease. CONCLUSION: SEIC is a difficult histopathological diagnosis and one should carefully look for these lesion, especially in the EPs which are frequently associated with them. Extensive sampling of the EP will be helpful to pick up in-situ carcinoma arising in EP. SEIC is an aggressive disease on its own with a propensity to develop distant metastasis even in the absence of myometrial invasion and hence should be treated with optimum surgical staging and if indicated aggressive adjuvant treatment protocols.


Assuntos
Carcinoma in Situ , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso , Neoplasias do Endométrio , Pólipos , Neoplasias Uterinas , Carcinoma in Situ/epidemiologia , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pólipos/epidemiologia , Atenção Terciária à Saúde
17.
Indian J Orthop ; 55(Suppl 1): 261-266, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34122777

RESUMO

Adamantinoma is a low-grade malignant bone tumor with metastatic potential in the range of 15-20%, commonly affecting mid-diaphyseal tibial region and jaw. Numerous cases of adamantinoma affecting the appendicular skeleton have been reported but only three in the pelvis till date. We present the case of a 24-year-old male, who was initially reported as fibrous dysplasia for a lesion in pelvis. On review, a cellular tumor was noted, including areas resembling fibrous dysplasia, along with cords and nests of polygonal cells, which displayed positive immunoexpression with cytokeratin and p40. Subsequently, he underwent wide local resection (internal hemipelvectomy), along with mesh pseudoarthrosis was done. Diagnosis of adamantinoma was further confirmed, with clear resection margins. Currently, the patient is on a regular clinical and radiological follow-up. Careful assessment of key histomorphologic features, coupled with immunohistochemical stains and clinico-radiological correlation, is helpful in identifying this uncommon tumor at a rather rare site.

18.
Skeletal Radiol ; 50(11): 2299-2307, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052867

RESUMO

A solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is documented in several body sites. However, there are few reports on the radiological and corresponding histopathological, including immunohistochemical, features of SFT in the lower extremities. A 58-year-old male presented with a lump in his right thigh of 6 months duration. Plain radiograph revealed a soft tissue lesion in his right thigh, involving the adjacent mid-diaphysis and showing focal cortical thickening and calcification. Magnetic resonance imaging scans displayed two well-defined, T1-isointense and T2 heterogeneously hyperintense lesions, measuring together 15 cm in the intermuscular plane and the juxtacortical location along the mid-diaphyseal region of the right femur. Radiologically, the differential diagnoses considered were undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma and synovial sarcoma. Microscopic examination of the core biopsy and the resected tumor revealed a tumor composed of cells with oval to spindle-shaped nuclei in a variably collagenized stroma, including hyalinized blood vessels and focal dystrophic calcification. Mitotic figures were 4/10 high power fields. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for CD34, BCL2, and STAT6. Diagnosis of malignant SFT was offered. The tumor displayed NAB2ex4-STAT6ex2 gene fusion on molecular testing. This constitutes a relatively uncommon case report of a large SFT in the thigh, including its radiological and pathological features, confirmed by STAT6 immunostaining. An SFT should be considered in cases of slow-growing, well-defined soft tissue tumors, which are isointense on T1 and heterogeneously hyperintense on T2-weighted sequences, and display calcification and cortical thickening of the adjacent bones. Various differential diagnoses and their treatment-related implications in such cases are discussed herewith.


Assuntos
Tumores Fibrosos Solitários , Coxa da Perna , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Fusão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Tumores Fibrosos Solitários/diagnóstico por imagem , Tumores Fibrosos Solitários/genética , Tumores Fibrosos Solitários/cirurgia , Coxa da Perna/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 68(9): e29081, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outcome and toxicity data in adolescent-adult Ewing sarcoma (AA-ES) patients are sparse and merits exploration. METHODS: Histopathologically confirmed, nonmetastatic AA-ES patients, who received standard institutional combination chemotherapy regimen (Ewing's family of tumors-2001 [EFT-2001]) comprising of ifosfamide plus etoposide and vincristine, doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide, lasting a total of 12 months between 2013 and 2018, were analyzed for treatment-related toxicities, event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: There were 235 patients (primary safety cohort [PSC]) with median age of 23 (15-61) years; 159 (67.7%) were males, 155 (65.9%) had skeletal primary and 114 (48.5%) had extremity tumors. One hundred ninety-six (83.4%) were treatment naïve (primary efficacy cohort [PEC]) and of these 119 (60.7%) had surgery. In PEC, at a median follow-up of 36.4 (interquartile range [IQR] 20-55) months, estimated 3-year EFS and OS were 67.3% (95% CI 60.3-75.1%) and 91.1% (95% CI 86.7-95.7%), respectively. Of these, 158 (80.6%) complying with intended treatment, at a median follow-up of 39 (IQR 26-57) months had an estimated 3-year EFS of 68.2% (95% CI 60.3-76.1%). In multivariable analysis, good prognostic factors included longer symptom(s) duration (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.86-0.994), ≥99% necrosis (HR 0.30, 95% CI 0.11-0.77), and treatment completion (HR 0.32, 95% CI 0.14-0.74). Among PSC, grade 3-4 toxicities were febrile neutropenia (119, 50.6%), anemia (130, 55.3%), peripheral neuropathy (37, 15.7%), with three (1.3%) chemo-toxic deaths. CONCLUSIONS: The outcomes of AA nonmetastatic ES patients treated with EFT-2001 regimen were comparable to those reported by others, with acceptable toxicity. This regimen can be considered a standard of care in AA-ES.

20.
J Pathol Inform ; 12: 3, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34012707

RESUMO

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic accelerated the widespread adoption of digital pathology (DP) for primary diagnosis in surgical pathology. This paradigm shift is likely to influence how we function routinely in the postpandemic era. We present learnings from early adoption of DP for a live digital sign-out from home in a risk-mitigated environment. Materials and Methods: We aimed to validate DP for remote reporting from home in a real-time environment and evaluate the parameters influencing the efficiency of a digital workflow. Eighteen pathologists prospectively validated DP for remote use on 567 biopsy cases including 616 individual parts from 7 subspecialties over a duration from March 21, 2020, to June 30, 2020. The slides were digitized using Roche Ventana DP200 whole-slide scanner and reported from respective homes in a risk-mitigated environment. Results: Following re-review of glass slides, there was no major discordance and 1.2% (n = 7/567) minor discordance. The deferral rate was 4.5%. All pathologists reported from their respective homes from laptops with an average network speed of 20 megabits per second. Conclusion: We successfully validated and adopted a digital workflow for remote reporting with available resources and were able to provide our patients, an undisrupted access to subspecialty expertise during these unprecedented times.

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