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2.
Cancer ; 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anthracycline-related cardiomyopathy is a leading cause of late morbidity in childhood cancer survivors. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a class of phase II detoxification enzymes that facilitate the elimination of anthracyclines. As free-radical scavengers, GSTs could play a role in oxidative damage-induced cardiomyopathy. Associations between the GSTµ1 (GSTM1) null genotype and iron-overload-related cardiomyopathy have been reported in patients with thalassemia. METHODS: The authors sought to identify an association between the GSTM1 null genotype and anthracycline-related cardiomyopathy in childhood cancer survivors and to corroborate the association by examining GSTM1 gene expression in peripheral blood and human-induced pluripotent stem cell cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) from survivors with and without cardiomyopathy. GSTM1 gene deletion was examined by polymerase chain reaction in 75 survivors who had clinically validated cardiomyopathy (cases) and in 92 matched survivors without cardiomyopathy (controls). Conditional logistic regression analysis adjusting for sex, age at cancer diagnosis, chest radiation, and anthracycline dose was used to assess the association between genotype and cardiomyopathy. Proprietary bead array technology and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to measure GSTM1 expression levels in samples from 20 cases and 20 matched controls. hiPSC-CMs from childhood cancer survivors (3 with cardiomyopathy, 3 without cardiomyopathy) also were examined for GSTM1 gene expression levels. RESULTS: A significant association was observed between the risk of cardiomyopathy and the GSTM1 null genotype (odds ratio, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.9; P = .007). There was significant downregulation of GSTM1 expression in cases compared with controls (average relative expression, 0.67 ± 0.57 vs 1.33 ± 1.33, respectively; P = .049). hiPSC-CMs from patients who had cardiomyopathy revealed reduced GSTM1 expression (P = .007). CONCLUSIONS: The current findings could facilitate the identification of childhood cancer survivors who are at risk for anthracycline-related cardiomyopathy.

3.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e28244, 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323890

RESUMO

It is unclear if dosing intervals for Erwinase can be extended with intramuscular (i.m.) versus intravenous (i.v.) dosing. Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia received Erwinase at 30 000-42 000 IU/m2 i.v. or i.m. I.m. Erwinase (n = 22) achieved activity above 0.1 IU/mL for longer than i.v. Erwinase (n = 33) (3.4 vs 2.9 days, P = 0.0007). With 30 000 IU/m2 Monday, Wednesday, Friday, more patients achieved adequate concentrations over the weekend with i.m. vs i.v. dosing (P = 5 × 10-36 ). A schedule with i.v. doses on Monday and Wednesday and i.m. doses on Friday of 30 000 IU/m2 maintained activity > 0.1 IU/mL over the weekend in 80% of patients.

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(10): 5394-5401, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094176

RESUMO

As a prototype of genomics-guided precision medicine, individualized thiopurine dosing based on pharmacogenetics is a highly effective way to mitigate hematopoietic toxicity of this class of drugs. Recently, NUDT15 deficiency was identified as a genetic cause of thiopurine toxicity, and NUDT15-informed preemptive dose reduction was quickly adopted in clinical settings. To exhaustively identify pharmacogenetic variants in this gene, we developed massively parallel NUDT15 function assays to determine the variants' effect on protein abundance and thiopurine cytotoxicity. Of the 3,097 possible missense variants, we characterized the abundance of 2,922 variants and found 54 hotspot residues at which variants resulted in complete loss of protein stability. Analyzing 2,935 variants in the thiopurine cytotoxicity-based assay, we identified 17 additional residues where variants altered NUDT15 activity without affecting protein stability. We identified structural elements key to NUDT15 stability and/or catalytical activity with single amino acid resolution. Functional effects for NUDT15 variants accurately predicted toxicity risk alleles in patients treated with thiopurines with far superior sensitivity and specificity compared to bioinformatic prediction algorithms. In conclusion, our massively parallel variant function assays identified 1,152 deleterious NUDT15 variants, providing a comprehensive reference of variant function and vastly improving the ability to implement pharmacogenetics-guided thiopurine treatment individualization.

6.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 107(1): 171-175, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562822

RESUMO

In 2009, the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC, www.cpicpgx.org), a shared project between Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base (PharmGKB, http://www.pharmgkb.org) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH), was created to provide freely available, evidence-based, peer-reviewed, and updated pharmacogenetic clinical practice guidelines. To date, CPIC has published 23 guidelines (of which 11 have been updated), covering 19 genes and 46 drugs across several therapeutic areas. CPIC also now provides additional resources to facilitate the implementation of pharmacogenetics into routine clinical practice and the electronic health record. Furthermore, since its inception, CPIC's interactions with other resources, databases, websites, and genomic communities have grown. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the progress of CPIC over the past 10 years.

9.
Clin Transl Sci ; 13(1): 116-124, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647186

RESUMO

Translating CYP2D6 genotype to metabolizer phenotype is not standardized across clinical laboratories offering pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing and PGx clinical practice guidelines, such as the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) and the Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group (DPWG). The genotype to phenotype translation discordance between laboratories and guidelines can cause discordant cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) phenotype assignments and, thus lead to inconsistent therapeutic recommendations and confusion among patients and clinicians. A modified-Delphi method was used to obtain consensus for a uniform system for translating CYP2D6 genotype to phenotype among a panel of international CYP2D6 experts. Experts with diverse involvement in CYP2D6 interpretation (clinicians, researchers, genetic testing laboratorians, and PGx implementers; n = 37) participated in conference calls and surveys. After completion of 7 surveys, a consensus (> 70%) was reached with 82% of the CYP2D6 experts agreeing to the final CYP2D6 genotype to phenotype translation method. Broad adoption of the proposed CYP2D6 genotype to phenotype translation method by guideline developers, such as CPIC and DPWG, and clinical laboratories as well as researchers will result in more consistent interpretation of CYP2D6 genotype.

11.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(1): e28040, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids and asparaginase, used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), can cause hypertriglyceridemia. We compared triglyceride levels, risk factors, and associated toxicities in two ALL trials at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital with identical glucocorticoid regimens, but different asparaginase formulations. In Total XV (TXV), native Escherichia coli l-asparaginase was front-line therapy versus the pegylated formulation (PEG-asparaginase) in Total XVI (TXVI). PROCEDURE: Patients enrolled on TXV (n = 498) and TXVI (n = 598) were assigned to low-risk (LR) or standard/high-risk (SHR) treatment arms (ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00137111 and NCT00549848). Triglycerides were measured four times and were evaluable in 925 patients (TXV: n = 362; TXVI: n = 563). The genetic contribution was assessed using a triglyceride polygenic risk score (triglyceride-PRS). Osteonecrosis, thrombosis, and pancreatitis were prospectively graded. RESULTS: The largest increase in triglycerides occurred in TXVI SHR patients treated with dexamethasone and PEG-asparaginase (4.5-fold increase; P <1 × 10-15 ). SHR patients treated with PEG-asparaginase (TXVI) had more severe hypertriglyceridemia (>1000 mg/dL) compared to native l-asparaginase (TXV): 10.5% versus 5.5%, respectively (P = .007). At week 7, triglycerides did not increase with dexamethasone treatment alone (LR patients) but did increase with dexamethasone plus asparaginase (SHR patients). The variability in triglycerides explained by the triglyceride-PRS was highest at baseline and declined with therapy. Hypertriglyceridemia was associated with osteonecrosis (P = .0006) and thrombosis (P = .005), but not pancreatitis (P = .4). CONCLUSION: Triglycerides were affected more by PEG-asparaginase than native l-asparaginase, by asparaginase more than dexamethasone, and by drug effects more than genetics. It is not clear whether triglycerides contribute to thrombosis and osteonecrosis or are biomarkers of the toxicities.


Assuntos
Asparaginase/efeitos adversos , Asparaginase/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Hipertrigliceridemia/patologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertrigliceridemia/induzido quimicamente , Lactente , Masculino , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Prognóstico
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5348, 2019 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767839

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence for a strong inherited genetic basis of susceptibility to acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in children. To identify new risk variants for B-cell ALL (B-ALL) we conducted a meta-analysis with four GWAS (genome-wide association studies), totalling 5321 cases and 16,666 controls of European descent. We herein describe novel risk loci for B-ALL at 9q21.31 (rs76925697, P = 2.11 × 10-8), for high-hyperdiploid ALL at 5q31.1 (rs886285, P = 1.56 × 10-8) and 6p21.31 (rs210143 in BAK1, P = 2.21 × 10-8), and ETV6-RUNX1 ALL at 17q21.32 (rs10853104 in IGF2BP1, P = 1.82 × 10-8). Particularly notable are the pleiotropic effects of the BAK1 variant on multiple haematological malignancies and specific effects of IGF2BP1 on ETV6-RUNX1 ALL evidenced by both germline and somatic genomic analyses. Integration of GWAS signals with transcriptomic/epigenomic profiling and 3D chromatin interaction data for these leukaemia risk loci suggests deregulation of B-cell development and the cell cycle as central mechanisms governing genetic susceptibility to ALL.

13.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(35): 3377-3391, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657981

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite contemporary treatment, up to 10% of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia still experience relapse. We evaluated whether a higher dosage of PEG-asparaginase and early intensification of triple intrathecal therapy would improve systemic and CNS control. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2007 and 2017, 598 consecutive patients age 0 to 18 years received risk-directed chemotherapy without prophylactic cranial irradiation in the St Jude Total Therapy Study 16. Patients were randomly assigned to receive PEG-asparaginase 3,500 U/m2 versus the conventional 2,500 U/m2. Patients presenting features that were associated with increased risk of CNS relapse received two extra doses of intrathecal therapy during the first 2 weeks of remission induction. RESULTS: The 5-year event-free survival and overall survival rates for the 598 patients were 88.2% (95% CI, 84.9% to 91.5%) and 94.1% (95% CI, 91.7% to 96.5%), respectively. Cumulative risk of any-isolated or combined-CNS relapse was 1.5% (95% CI, 0.5% to 2.5%). Higher doses of PEG-asparaginase did not affect treatment outcome. T-cell phenotype was the only independent risk factor for any CNS relapse (hazard ratio, 5.15; 95% CI, 1.3 to 20.6; P = . 021). Among 359 patients with features that were associated with increased risk for CNS relapse, the 5-year rate of any CNS relapse was significantly lower than that among 248 patients with the same features treated in the previous Total Therapy Study 15 (1.8% [95% CI, 0.4% to 3.3%] v 5.7% [95% CI, 2.8% to 8.6%]; P = .008). There were no significant differences in the cumulative risk of seizure or infection during induction between patients who did or did not receive the two extra doses of intrathecal treatment. CONCLUSION: Higher doses of PEG-asparaginase failed to improve outcome, but additional intrathecal therapy during early induction seemed to contribute to improved CNS control without excessive toxicity for high-risk patients.

15.
Lancet ; 394(10197): 511-520, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395439

RESUMO

Advances in technologies for assessing genomic variation and an increasing understanding of the effects of genomic variants on health and disease are driving the transition of genomics from the research laboratory into clinical care. Genomic medicine, or the use of an individual's genomic information as part of their clinical care, is increasingly gaining acceptance in routine practice, including in assessing disease risk in individuals and their families, diagnosing rare and undiagnosed diseases, and improving drug safety and efficacy. We describe the major types and measurement tools of genomic variation that are currently of clinical importance, review approaches to interpreting genomic sequence variants, identify publicly available tools and resources for genomic test interpretation, and discuss several key barriers in using genomic information in routine clinical practice.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Variantes Farmacogenômicos
16.
Lancet ; 394(10197): 521-532, 2019 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395440

RESUMO

Genomic medicine, which uses DNA variation to individualise and improve human health, is the subject of this Series of papers. The idea that genetic variation can be used to individualise drug therapy-the topic addressed here-is often viewed as within reach for genomic medicine. We have reviewed general mechanisms underlying variability in drug action, the role of genetic variation in mediating beneficial and adverse effects through variable drug concentrations (pharmacokinetics) and drug actions (pharmacodynamics), available data from clinical trials, and ongoing efforts to implement pharmacogenetics in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Farmacogenética/métodos , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Humanos
18.
Blood ; 134(15): 1227-1237, 2019 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350265

RESUMO

Children with Down syndrome (DS) have a 20-fold increased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and distinct somatic features, including CRLF2 rearrangement in ∼50% of cases; however, the role of inherited genetic variation in DS-ALL susceptibility is unknown. We report the first genome-wide association study of DS-ALL, comprising a meta-analysis of 4 independent studies, with 542 DS-ALL cases and 1192 DS controls. We identified 4 susceptibility loci at genome-wide significance: rs58923657 near IKZF1 (odds ratio [OR], 2.02; Pmeta = 5.32 × 10-15), rs3731249 in CDKN2A (OR, 3.63; Pmeta = 3.91 × 10-10), rs7090445 in ARID5B (OR, 1.60; Pmeta = 8.44 × 10-9), and rs3781093 in GATA3 (OR, 1.73; Pmeta = 2.89 × 10-8). We performed DS-ALL vs non-DS ALL case-case analyses, comparing risk allele frequencies at these and other established susceptibility loci (BMI1, PIP4K2A, and CEBPE) and found significant association with DS status for CDKN2A (OR, 1.58; Pmeta = 4.1 × 10-4). This association was maintained in separate regression models, both adjusting for and stratifying on CRLF2 overexpression and other molecular subgroups, indicating an increased penetrance of CDKN2A risk alleles in children with DS. Finally, we investigated functional significance of the IKZF1 risk locus, and demonstrated mapping to a B-cell super-enhancer, and risk allele association with decreased enhancer activity and differential protein binding. IKZF1 knockdown resulted in significantly higher proliferation in DS than non-DS lymphoblastoid cell lines. Our findings demonstrate a higher penetrance of the CDKN2A risk locus in DS and serve as a basis for further biological insights into DS-ALL etiology.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Criança , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Síndrome de Down/complicações , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/genética , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fator de Transcrição Ikaros/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/complicações , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
19.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(23): 2051-2061, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188727

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pegaspargase (PEG-ASP) has largely replaced native Escherichia coli asparaginase (L-ASP) in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia because of its longer half-life and lower immunogenicity. Risk factors for allergic reactions to PEG-ASP remain unclear. Here, we identify risk factors for reactions in a front-line acute lymphoblastic leukemia trial and assess the usefulness of serum antibodies for diagnosing allergy and predicting rechallenge outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: PEG-ASP was administered to 598 patients in St Jude's Total XVI study. Results were compared with Total XV study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00549848 and NCT00137111), which used native L-ASP. Serum samples (n = 5,369) were analyzed for anti-PEG-ASP immunoglobulin G by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Positive samples were tested for anti-polyethylene glycol (PEG) and anti-L-ASP. We analyzed potential risk factors for reactions and associations between antibodies and reactions, rechallenge outcomes, and PEG-ASP pharmacokinetics. RESULTS: Grade 2 to 4 reactions were less common in the Total XVI study with PEG-ASP (81 [13.5%] of 598) than in the Total XV study with L-ASP (169 [41.2%] of 410; P = 1.4 × 10-23). For Total XVI, anti-PEG, not anti-L-ASP, was the predominant component of anti-PEG-ASP antibodies (96%). In a multivariable analysis, more intrathecal therapy (IT) predicted fewer reactions (P = 2.4 × 10-5), which is consistent with an immunosuppressant contribution of IT. Anti-PEG-ASP was associated with accelerated drug clearance (P = 5.0 × 10-6). Failure of rechallenge after initial reactions was associated with anti-PEG-ASP (P = .0078) and was predicted by the occurrence of angioedema with first reaction (P = .01). CONCLUSION: Less IT therapy was the only independent clinical risk factor for reactions to PEG-ASP. PEG, and not L-ASP, is the major antigen that causes allergic reactions. Anti-PEG-ASP has utility in predicting and confirming clinical reactions to PEG-ASP as well as in identifying patients who are most likely to experience failure with rechallenge.

20.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216328, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059548

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Combination therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is highly effective but results in significant toxicity including osteonecrosis. Asparaginase is known to potentiate both the antileukemic and osteonecrosis-inducing effects of dexamethasone. The schedule of dexamethasone alters osteonecrosis risk. However, the effects of the interaction with asparaginase are unknown when dexamethasone is given on a discontinuous schedule. METHODS: Using the murine model of osteonecrosis, we compared the frequency of osteonecrosis in mice receiving discontinuous dexamethasone (3.5 days/ week) with mice receiving asparaginase and discontinuous dexamethasone. We then tested the effect on antileukemic efficacy using six pediatric ALL xenografts. RESULTS: The addition of asparaginase to discontinuous dexamethasone did not alter the rate of osteonecrosis compared to dexamethasone alone (7/35 in dexamethasone with asparaginase combination vs. 10/36 in dexamethasone alone, p = 0.62) despite increasing steady-state plasma dexamethasone levels (103.9 nM vs. 33.4 nM, p = 9.2x10-7). Combination therapy with asparaginase and dexamethasone demonstrated synergistic antileukemic effects across all six xenografts studied. CONCLUSIONS: When discontinuous dexamethasone was given, its anti-leukemic activity synergized with asparaginase but the osteonecrosis-worsening effects of asparaginase (above dexamethasone alone) were not observed. Thus, there is a favorable drug interaction (unchanged toxicity, synergistic efficacy) between discontinuous dexamethasone and asparaginase.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Asparaginase/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Osteonecrose/induzido quimicamente , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Asparaginase/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Interações Medicamentosas , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Camundongos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/complicações
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