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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e050656, 2021 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815280

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate occupation risk from COVID-19 among teachers and others working in schools using publicly available data on mortality in England and Wales. DESIGN: Analysis of national death registration data from the Office for National Statistics. SETTING: England and Wales, 8 March-28 December 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic. PARTICIPANTS: The total working age population in England and Wales plus those still working aged over 65 years. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: Death with COVID-19 as a primary outcome and death from all causes as a secondary outcome. RESULTS: Across occupational groups, there was a strong correlation between COVID-19 mortality and both non-COVID-19 and all-cause mortality. The absolute mortality rates for deaths with COVID-19 were low among those working in schools (from 10 per 100 000 in female primary school teachers to 39 per 100 000 male secondary school teachers) relative to many other occupations (range: 9-50 per 100 000 in women; 10-143 per 100 000 in men). There was weak evidence that secondary school teachers had slightly higher risks of dying with COVID-19 compared with the average for all working-aged people, but stronger evidence of a higher risk compared with the average for all professionals; primary school teachers had a lower risk. All-cause mortality was also higher among all teachers compared with all professionals. Teaching and lunchtime assistants were not at higher risk of death from COVID-19 compared with all working-aged people. CONCLUSION: There was weak evidence that COVID-19 mortality risk for secondary school teachers was above expectation, but in general school staff had COVID-19 mortality risks which were proportionate to their non-COVID-19 mortality risk.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748291

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Observational studies report mixed findings regarding the association between vitamin D and JIA incidence or activity, however such studies are susceptible to considerable bias. Since low vitamin D levels are common within the general population and easily corrected, there is potential public health benefit in identifying a causal association between vitamin D insufficiency and JIA incidence. To limit bias due to confounding and reverse causation we examined the causal effect of the major circulating form of vitamin D, 25-(OH)D, on JIA incidence using Mendelian randomization (MR). METHODS: In this two sample MR analysis we used summary level data from the largest and most recent genome wide association study (GWAS) of 25-(OH)D levels (sample size 443,734), alongside summary data from two JIA GWASs (sample sizes 15,872 and 12,501), all from European populations. To test and account for potential bias due to pleiotropy we employed multiple MR methods and sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: We found no evidence of a causal relationship between genetically predicted 25-(OH)D levels and JIA incidence (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.76-1.33 per standard deviation increase in standardised natural-log transformed 25-(OH)D levels). This estimate was consistent across all methods tested. Additonally there was no evidence that genetically predicted JIA causally influences 25-(OH)D levels (-0.002 standard deviation change in standardised natural-log transformed 25-(OH)D levels per doubling odds in genetically predicted JIA, 95% CI -0.006-0.002). CONCLUSION: Given the lack of a causal relationship between 25-(OH)D levels and JIA, population level vitamin D supplementation is unlikely to reduce JIA incidence.

3.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 206, 2021 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation (DNAm) performs excellently in the discrimination of current and former smokers from never smokers, where AUCs > 0.9 are regularly reported using a single CpG site (cg05575921; AHRR). However, there is a paucity of DNAm models which attempt to distinguish current, former and never smokers as individual classes. Derivation of a robust DNAm model that accurately distinguishes between current, former and never smokers would be particularly valuable to epidemiological research (as a more accurate smoking definition vs. self-report) and could potentially translate to clinical settings. Therefore, we appraise 4 DNAm models of ternary smoking status (that is, current, former and never smokers): methylation at cg05575921 (AHRR model), weighted scores from 13 CpGs created by Maas et al. (Maas model), weighted scores from a LASSO model of candidate smoking CpGs from the literature (candidate CpG LASSO model), and weighted scores from a LASSO model supplied with genome-wide 450K data (agnostic LASSO model). Discrimination is assessed by AUC, whilst classification accuracy is assessed by accuracy and kappa, derived from confusion matrices. RESULTS: We find that DNAm can classify ternary smoking status with reasonable accuracy, including when applied to external data. Ternary classification using only DNAm far exceeds the classification accuracy of simply assigning all classes as the most prevalent class (63.7% vs. 36.4%). Further, we develop a DNAm classifier which performs well in discriminating current from former smokers (agnostic LASSO model AUC in external validation data: 0.744). Finally, across our DNAm models, we show evidence of enrichment for biological pathways and human phenotype ontologies relevant to smoking, such as haemostasis, molybdenum cofactor synthesis, body fatness and social behaviours, providing evidence of the generalisability of our classifiers. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that DNAm can classify ternary smoking status with close to 65% accuracy. Both the ternary smoking status classifiers and current versus former smoking status classifiers address the present lack of former smoker classification in epigenetic literature; essential if DNAm classifiers are to adequately relate to real-world populations. To improve performance further, additional focus on improving discrimination of current from former smokers is necessary.

4.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 183, 2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little evidence exists on the health effects of e-cigarette use. DNA methylation may serve as a biomarker for exposure and could be predictive of future health risk. We aimed to investigate the DNA methylation profile of e-cigarette use. RESULTS: Among 117 smokers, 117 non-smokers and 116 non-smoking vapers, we evaluated associations between e-cigarette use and epigenome-wide methylation from saliva. DNA methylation at 7 cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites (CpGs) was associated with e-cigarette use at p < 1 × 10-5 and none at p < 5.91 × 10-8. 13 CpGs were associated with smoking at p < 1 × 10-5 and one at p < 5.91 × 10-8. CpGs associated with e-cigarette use were largely distinct from those associated with smoking. There was strong enrichment of known smoking-related CpGs in the smokers but not the vapers. We also tested associations between e-cigarette use and methylation scores known to predict smoking and biological ageing. Methylation scores for smoking and biological ageing were similar between vapers and non-smokers. Higher levels of all smoking scores and a biological ageing score (GrimAge) were observed in smokers. A methylation score for e-cigarette use showed poor prediction internally (AUC 0.55, 0.41-0.69) and externally (AUC 0.57, 0.36-0.74) compared with a smoking score (AUCs 0.80) and was less able to discriminate lung squamous cell carcinoma from adjacent normal tissue (AUC 0.64, 0.52-0.76 versus AUC 0.73, 0.61-0.85). CONCLUSIONS: The DNA methylation profile for e-cigarette use is largely distinct from that of cigarette smoking, did not replicate in independent samples, and was unable to discriminate lung cancer from normal tissue. The extent to which methylation related to long-term e-cigarette use translates into chronic effects requires further investigation.

5.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503987

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Severe fetal malnutrition has been related to an increased risk of respiratory diseases later in life, but evidence for the association of a suboptimal diet during pregnancy with respiratory outcomes in childhood is conflicting. We aimed to examine whether a pro-inflammatory or low-quality maternal diet during pregnancy was associated with child's respiratory health. METHODS: We performed an individual participant meta-analysis among 18 326 mother-child pairs from seven European birth cohorts. Maternal pro-inflammatory and low-quality diet were estimated by energy-adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DIITM) and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) scores. Preschool wheezing and school-age asthma were measured by questionnaires and lung function by spirometry. RESULTS: After adjustment for lifestyle and sociodemographic factors, we observed that a higher maternal E-DII score (a more pro-inflammatory diet) during pregnancy was associated only with a lower FVC in children (Z-score difference (95% confidence interval (CI)): -0.05 (-0.08, -0.02), per IQR increase). No linear associations of the maternal E-DII or DASH score with child's wheezing or asthma were observed. When exploratively examining the extremes, a very low DASH score (<10th percentile) (a very low dietary quality) was associated with an increased risk of preschool wheezing and a low FEV1/FVC (z-score <-1.64) (OR (95% CI) 1.20 (1.06, 1.36), 1.40 (1.06, 1.85), compared to ≥10th percentile), with corresponding population attributable risk fractions of 1.7% and 3.3%. CONCLUSION: Main results from this individual participant data meta-analysis do not support the hypothesis that maternal pro-inflammatory or low-quality diet in pregnancy are related to respiratory diseases in childhood.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382060

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: JIA is the most common paediatric rheumatic disease, thought to be influenced by both genetics and the environment. Identifying environmental factors associated with disease risk will improve knowledge of disease mechanism and ultimately benefit patients. This review aimed to collate and synthesise the current evidence of environmental factors associated with JIA. METHODS: Four databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) were searched from inception to January 2020. Study quality was rated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Pooled estimates for each environmental factor were generated using a random-effects, inverse-variance method, where possible. The remaining environmental factors were synthesised in narrative form. RESULTS: This review includes 66 environmental factors from 39 studies (11 cohort and 28 case-control studies) over 45 years. Study sample sizes ranged from 41 to 1.9 million participants. Eight environmental factors from ten studies were meta-analysed. Caesarean section delivery was associated with increased JIA risk (pooled OR 1.11, 95% CI: 1.01-1.22). Conversely, presence (vs absence) of siblings (pooled OR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.44-0.81) and maternal prenatal smoking (pooled OR 0.70, 95% CI: 0.58-0.84) were associated with decreased JIA risk. CONCLUSION: This review identifies several environmental factors associated with JIA and demonstrates the huge breadth of environmental research undertaken over five decades. We also highlight the challenges of combining data collected over this period due to limited between study comparability, evolution in healthcare and social practices, and changing environment, which warrant consideration when planning future studies.

7.
ERJ Open Res ; 7(3)2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235211

RESUMO

Investigating whether DNA methylation (DNA-M) at an earlier age is associated with lung function at a later age and whether this relationship differs by sex could enable prediction of future lung function deficit. A training/testing-based technique was used to screen 402 714 cytosine-phosphate-guanine dinucleotide sites (CpGs) to assess the longitudinal association of blood-based DNA-M at ages 10 and 18 years with lung function at 18 and 26 years, respectively, in the Isle of Wight birth cohort (IOWBC). Multivariable linear mixed models were applied to the CpGs that passed screening. To detect differentially methylated regions (DMRs), DMR enrichment analysis was conducted. Findings were further examined in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Biological relevance of the identified CpGs was assessed using gene expression data. DNA-M at eight CpGs (five CpGs with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and three CpGs with FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC)) at an earlier age was associated with lung function at a later age regardless of sex, while at 13 CpGs (five CpGs with FVC, three with FEV1 and five with FEV1/FVC), the associations were sex-specific (p FDR <0.05) in IOWBC, with consistent directions of association in ALSPAC (IOWBC-ALSPAC consistent CpGs). cg16582803 (WNT10A) and cg14083603 (ZGPAT) were replicated in ALSPAC for main and sex-specific effects, respectively. Among IOWBC-ALSPAC consistent CpGs, DNA-M at cg01376079 (SSH3) and cg07557690 (TGFBR3) was associated with gene expression both longitudinally and cross-sectionally. In total, 57 and 170 DMRs were linked to lung function longitudinally in males and females, respectively. CpGs showing longitudinal associations with lung function have the potential to serve as candidate markers in future studies on lung function deficit prediction.

8.
Hum Reprod ; 36(8): 2403-2413, 2021 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34136910

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Is cord blood DNA methylation associated with having been conceived by medically assisted reproduction? SUMMARY ANSWER: This study does not provide strong evidence of an association of conception by medically assisted reproduction with variation in infant blood cell DNA methylation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Medically assisted reproduction consists of procedures used to help infertile/subfertile couples conceive, including ART. Due to its importance in gene regulation during early development programming, DNA methylation and its perturbations associated with medically assisted reproduction could reveal new insights into the biological effects of assisted reproductive technologies and potential adverse offspring outcomes. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: We investigated the association of DNA methylation and medically assisted reproduction using a case-control study design (N = 205 medically assisted reproduction cases and N = 2439 naturally conceived controls in discovery cohorts; N = 149 ART cases and N = 58 non-ART controls in replication cohort). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTINGS, METHODS: We assessed the association between medically assisted reproduction and DNA methylation at birth in cord blood (205 medically assisted conceptions and 2439 naturally conceived controls) at >450 000 CpG sites across the genome in two sub-samples of the UK Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and two sub-samples of the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) by meta-analysis. We explored replication of findings in the Australian Clinical review of the Health of adults conceived following Assisted Reproductive Technologies (CHART) study (N = 149 ART conceptions and N = 58 controls). MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The ALSPAC and MoBa meta-analysis revealed evidence of association between conception by medically assisted reproduction and DNA methylation (false-discovery-rate-corrected P-value < 0.05) at five CpG sites which are annotated to two genes (percentage difference in methylation per CpG, cg24051276: Beta = 0.23 (95% CI 0.15,0.31); cg00012522: Beta = 0.47 (95% CI 0.31, 0.63); cg17855264: Beta = 0.31 (95% CI 0.20, 0.43); cg17132421: Beta = 0.30 (95% CI 0.18, 0.42); cg18529845: Beta = 0.41 (95% CI 0.25, 0.57)). Methylation at three of these sites has been previously linked to cancer, aging, HIV infection and neurological diseases. None of these associations replicated in the CHART cohort. There was evidence of a functional role of medically assisted reproduction-induced hypermethylation at CpG sites located within regulatory regions as shown by putative transcription factor binding and chromatin remodelling. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTIONS: While insufficient power is likely, heterogeneity in types of medically assisted reproduction procedures and between populations may also contribute. Larger studies might identify replicable variation in DNA methylation at birth due to medically assisted reproduction. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Newborns conceived with medically assisted procedures present with divergent DNA methylation in cord blood white cells. If these associations are true and causal, they might have long-term consequences for offspring health. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS(S): This study has been supported by the US National Institute of Health (R01 DK10324), the European Research Council under the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC Grant agreement no. 669545, European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant agreement no. 733206 (LifeCycle) and the NIHR Biomedical Centre at the University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust and the University of Bristol. The UK Medical Research Council and Wellcome (Grant ref: 102215/2/13/2) and the University of Bristol provide core support for ALSPAC. Methylation data in the ALSPAC cohort were generated as part of the UK BBSRC funded (BB/I025751/1 and BB/I025263/1) Accessible Resource for Integrated Epigenomic Studies (ARIES, http://www.ariesepigenomics.org.uk). D.C., J.J., C.L.R. D.A.L and H.R.E. work in a Unit that is supported by the University of Bristol and the UK Medical Research Council (Grant nos. MC_UU_00011/1, MC_UU_00011/5 and MC_UU_00011/6). B.N. is supported by an NHMRC (Australia) Investigator Grant (1173314). ALSPAC GWAS data were generated by Sample Logistics and Genotyping Facilities at Wellcome Sanger Institute and LabCorp (Laboratory Corporation of America) using support from 23andMe. The Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study is supported by the Norwegian Ministry of Health and Care Services and the Ministry of Education and Research, NIH/NIEHS (Contract no. N01-ES-75558), NIH/NINDS (Grant nos. (i) UO1 NS 047537-01 and (ii) UO1 NS 047537-06A1). For this work, MoBa 1 and 2 were supported by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (Z01-ES-49019) and the Norwegian Research Council/BIOBANK (Grant no. 221097). This work was partly supported by the Research Council of Norway through its Centres of Excellence funding scheme, Project no. 262700.D.A.L. has received support from national and international government and charity funders, as well as from Roche Diagnostics and Medtronic for research unrelated to this study. The other authors declare no conflicts of interest. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Infecções por HIV , Adulto , Austrália , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Reprodução
9.
J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect ; 11(1): 15, 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34027581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis associated uveitis (JIA-U) is the most common extra-articular manifestation of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and carries considerable risk to vision. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesise evidence of environmental risk factors for JIA-U and identify risk factors which may be modifiable or used to stratify JIA patients. METHODS: This systematic review was carried out in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Four online databases - Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, MEDLINE and Embase - were searched from database inception to 12th August 2020. Identified studies were screened by two independent reviewers against pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data was extracted from all primary studies meeting inclusion criteria and independently checked. RESULTS: We identified three studies from 895 unique records which met the inclusion criteria, each examining a different environmental risk factor. This systematic review includes 973, predominantly female, participants with JIA across these three studies. The use of allergy medication or documentation of "allergy"/"allergic" in the medical records was associated with an increased risk of JIA-U in all models presented. Vitamin D sufficiency was associated with reduced risk of JIA-U. There was insufficient evidence to support an association between seasonality and JIA-U. CONCLUSIONS: This review identifies a potential role for allergy and vitamin D in JIA-U. It also illustrates the paucity of data regarding environmental risk factors for JIA-U and highlights the need for further research to both identify additional risk factors and replicate existing findings.

10.
Int J Epidemiol ; 50(5): 1482-1497, 2021 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear if smoking-related DNA methylation represents a causal pathway between smoking and risk of lung cancer. We sought to identify novel smoking-related DNA methylation sites in blood, with repeated measurements, and to appraise the putative role of DNA methylation in the pathway between smoking and lung cancer development. METHODS: We derived a nested case-control study from the Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT), including 140 incident patients who developed lung cancer during 2009-13 and 140 controls. We profiled 850 K DNA methylation sites (Illumina Infinium EPIC array) in DNA extracted from blood that was collected in HUNT2 (1995-97) and HUNT3 (2006-08) for the same individuals. Epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) were performed for a detailed smoking phenotype and for lung cancer. Two-step Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses were performed to assess the potential causal effect of smoking on DNA methylation as well as of DNA methylation (13 sites as putative mediators) on risk of lung cancer. RESULTS: The EWAS for smoking in HUNT2 identified associations at 76 DNA methylation sites (P < 5 × 10-8), including 16 novel sites. Smoking was associated with DNA hypomethylation in a dose-response relationship among 83% of the 76 sites, which was confirmed by analyses using repeated measurements from blood that was collected at 11 years apart for the same individuals. Two-step MR analyses showed evidence for a causal effect of smoking on DNA methylation but no evidence for a causal link between DNA methylation and the risk of lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: DNA methylation modifications in blood did not seem to represent a causal pathway linking smoking and the lung cancer risk.

11.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 40, 2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a heterogeneous disease with well-known genetic and environmental risk factors contributing to its prevalence. Epigenetic mechanisms related to changes in DNA methylation (DNAm), may also contribute to T2D risk, but larger studies are required to discover novel markers, and to confirm existing ones. RESULTS: We performed a large meta-analysis of individual epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of prevalent T2D conducted in four European studies using peripheral blood DNAm. Analysis of differentially methylated regions (DMR) was also undertaken, based on the meta-analysis results. We found three novel CpGs associated with prevalent T2D in Europeans at cg00144180 (HDAC4), cg16765088 (near SYNM) and cg24704287 (near MIR23A) and confirmed three CpGs previously identified (mapping to TXNIP, ABCG1 and CPT1A). We also identified 77 T2D associated DMRs, most of them hypomethylated in T2D cases versus controls. In adjusted regressions among diabetic-free participants in ALSPAC, we found that all six CpGs identified in the meta-EWAS were associated with white cell-types. We estimated that these six CpGs captured 11% of the variation in T2D, which was similar to the variation explained by the model including only the common risk factors of BMI, sex, age and smoking (R2 = 10.6%). CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies novel loci associated with T2D in Europeans. We also demonstrate associations of the same loci with other traits. Future studies should investigate if our findings are generalizable in non-European populations, and potential roles of these epigenetic markers in T2D etiology or in determining long term consequences of T2D.

12.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 33, 2021 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence suggests that maternal diet influences pregnancy and birth outcomes, but its contribution to the global epidemic of childhood obesity has not as yet been definitively characterized. We investigated whether maternal whole diet quality and inflammatory potential influence childhood adiposity. METHODS: We harmonized and pooled individual participant data from 16,295 mother-child pairs in seven European birth cohorts. Maternal pre-, early-, late-, and whole-pregnancy (any time during pregnancy) dietary quality and inflammatory potential assessed with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score and the energy-adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DII™) score, respectively. Primary outcome was childhood overweight and obesity (OWOB) (age-and-sex-specific BMI z-score > 85th percentile). Secondary outcomes were sum of skinfold thickness (SST), fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI). We used multivariable regression analyses (adjusting for maternal lifestyle and sociodemographic factors) to assess the associations of maternal DASH and E-DII scores with offspring adiposity outcomes in cohort-specific analyses, with subsequent random-effect meta-analyses. RESULTS: The study mothers had a mean (SD) age of 30.2 (4.6) years and a mean BMI of 23.4 (4.2) kg/m2. Higher early-pregnancy E-DII scores (more pro-inflammatory diet) tended to be associated with a higher odds of late-childhood [10.6 (1.2) years] OWOB [OR (95% CI) 1.09 (1.00, 1.19) per 1-SD E-DII score increase], whereas an inverse association was observed for late-pregnancy E-DII score and early-childhood [2.8 (0.3) years] OWOB [0.91 (0.83, 1.00)]. Higher maternal whole pregnancy DASH score (higher dietary quality) was associated with a lower odds of late-childhood OWOB [OR (95% CI) 0.92 (0.87, 0.98) per 1-SD DASH score increase]; associations were of similar magnitude for early and late-pregnancy [0.86 (0.72, 1.04) and 0.91 (0.85, 0.98), respectively]. These associations were robust in several sensitivity analyses and further adjustment for birth weight and childhood diet did not meaningfully alter the associations and conclusions. In two cohorts with available data, a higher whole pregnancy E-DII and lower DASH scores were associated with a lower late-childhood FFMI in males and a higher mid-childhood FMI in females (P interactions < 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: A pro-inflammatory, low-quality maternal antenatal diet may adversely influence offspring body composition and OWOB risk, especially during late-childhood. Promoting an overall healthy and anti-inflammatory maternal dietary pattern may contribute to the prevention of childhood obesity, a complex health issue requiring multifaceted strategy.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adiposidade , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Circunferência da Cintura
13.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(6): 1832-1845, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414500

RESUMO

Maternal anxiety during pregnancy is associated with adverse foetal, neonatal, and child outcomes, but biological mechanisms remain unclear. Altered foetal DNA methylation (DNAm) has been proposed as a potential underlying mechanism. In the current study, we performed a meta-analysis to examine the associations between maternal anxiety, measured prospectively during pregnancy, and genome-wide DNAm from umbilical cord blood. Sixteen non-overlapping cohorts from 12 independent longitudinal studies of the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics Consortium participated, resulting in a combined dataset of 7243 mother-child dyads. We examined prenatal anxiety in relation to genome-wide DNAm and differentially methylated regions. We observed no association between the general symptoms of anxiety during pregnancy or pregnancy-related anxiety, and DNAm at any of the CpG sites, after multiple-testing correction. Furthermore, we identify no differentially methylated regions associated with maternal anxiety. At the cohort-level, of the 21 associations observed in individual cohorts, none replicated consistently in the other cohorts. In conclusion, contrary to some previous studies proposing cord blood DNAm as a promising potential mechanism explaining the link between maternal anxiety during pregnancy and adverse outcomes in offspring, we found no consistent evidence for any robust associations between maternal anxiety and DNAm in cord blood. Larger studies and analysis of DNAm in other tissues may be needed to establish subtle or subgroup-specific associations between maternal anxiety and the foetal epigenome.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigenoma , Ansiedade/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Epigenômica , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
14.
Dev Psychopathol ; : 1-10, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494854

RESUMO

While previous studies suggest that both genetic and environmental factors play an important role in the development of autism-related traits, little is known about potential biological mechanisms underlying these associations. Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we examined prospective associations between DNA methylation (DNAm: nbirth = 804, nage 7 = 877) and trajectories of social communication deficits at age 8-17 years. Methylomic variation at three loci across the genome (false discovery rate = 0.048) differentiated children following high (n = 80) versus low (n = 724) trajectories of social communication deficits. This differential DNAm was specific to the neonatal period and not observed at 7 years of age. Associations between DNAm and trajectory membership remained robust after controlling for co-occurring mental health problems (i.e., hyperactivity/inattention, conduct problems). The three loci identified at birth were not replicated in the Generation R Study. However, to the best of our knowledge, ALSPAC is the only study to date that is prospective enough to examine DNAm in relation to longitudinal trajectories of social communication deficits from childhood to adolescence. Although the present findings might point to potentially novel sites that differentiate between a high versus low trajectory of social communication deficits, the results should be considered tentative until further replicated.

15.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481009

RESUMO

Integrating findings from genome-wide association studies with molecular datasets can develop insight into the underlying functional mechanisms responsible for trait-associated genetic variants. We have applied the principles of Mendelian randomization (MR) to investigate whether brain-derived gene expression (n = 1194) may be responsible for mediating the effect of genetic variants on eight cognitive and psychological outcomes (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Alzheimer's disease, bipolar disorder, depression, intelligence, insomnia, neuroticism and schizophrenia). Transcriptome-wide analyses identified 83 genes associated with at least one outcome (PBonferroni < 6.72 × 10-6), with multiple-trait colocalization also implicating changes to brain-derived DNA methylation at nine of these loci. Comparing effects between outcomes identified evidence of enrichment which may reflect putative causal relationships, such as an inverse relationship between genetic liability towards schizophrenia risk and cognitive ability in later life. Repeating these analyses in whole blood (n = 31 684), we replicated 58.2% of brain-derived effects (based on P < 0.05). Finally, we undertook phenome-wide evaluations at associated loci to investigate pleiotropic effects with 700 complex traits. This highlighted pleiotropic loci such as FURIN (initially implicated in schizophrenia risk (P = 1.05 × 10-7)) which had evidence of an effect on 28 other outcomes, as well as genes which may have a more specific role in disease pathogenesis (e.g. SLC12A5 which only provided evidence of an effect on depression (P = 7.13 × 10-10)). Our results support the utility of whole blood as a valuable proxy for informing initial target identification but also suggest that gene discovery in a tissue-specific manner may be more informative. Finally, non-pleiotropic loci highlighted by our study may be of use for therapeutic translational endeavours.

16.
PLoS Med ; 18(1): e1003491, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse birth outcomes are major causes of morbidity and mortality during childhood and associate with a higher risk of noncommunicable diseases in adult life. Maternal periconception and antenatal nutrition, mostly focusing on single nutrients or foods, has been shown to influence infant birth outcomes. However, evidence on whole diet that considers complex nutrient and food interaction is rare and conflicting. We aim to elucidate the influence of whole-diet maternal dietary inflammatory potential and quality during periconceptional and antenatal periods on birth outcomes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We harmonized and pooled individual participant data (IPD) from up to 24,861 mother-child pairs in 7 European mother-offspring cohorts [cohort name, country (recruitment dates): ALSPAC, UK (1 April 1991 to 31 December 1992); EDEN, France (27 January 2003 to 6 March 2006); Generation R, the Netherlands (1 April 2002 to 31 January 2006); Lifeways, Ireland (2 October 2001 to 4 April 2003); REPRO_PL, Poland (18 September 2007 to 16 December 2011); ROLO, Ireland (1 January 2007 to 1 January 2011); SWS, United Kingdom (6 April 1998 to 17 December 2002)]. Maternal diets were assessed preconceptionally (n = 2 cohorts) and antenatally (n = 7 cohorts). Maternal dietary inflammatory potential and quality were ranked using the energy-adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DII) and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) index, respectively. Primary outcomes were birth weight and gestational age at birth. Adverse birth outcomes, i.e., low birth weight (LBW), macrosomia, small-for-gestational-age (SGA), large-for-gestational-age (LGA), preterm and postterm births were defined according to standard clinical cutoffs. Associations of maternal E-DII and DASH scores with infant birth outcomes were assessed using cohort-specific multivariable regression analyses (adjusted for confounders including maternal education, ethnicity, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), maternal height, parity, cigarettes smoking, and alcohol consumption), with subsequent random-effects meta-analyses. Overall, the study mothers had a mean ± SD age of 29.5 ± 4.9 y at delivery and a mean BMI of 23.3 ± 4.2 kg/m2. Higher pregnancy DASH score (higher dietary quality) was associated with higher birth weight [ß(95% CI) = 18.5(5.7, 31.3) g per 1-SD higher DASH score; P value = 0.005] and head circumference [0.03(0.01, 0.06) cm; P value = 0.004], longer birth length [0.05(0.01, 0.10) cm; P value = 0.010], and lower risk of delivering LBW [odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) = 0.89(0.82, 0.95); P value = 0.001] and SGA [0.87(0.82, 0.94); P value < 0.001] infants. Higher maternal prepregnancy E-DII score (more pro-inflammatory diet) was associated with lower birth weight [ß(95% CI) = -18.7(-34.8, -2.6) g per 1-SD higher E-DII score; P value = 0.023] and shorter birth length [-0.07(-0.14, -0.01) cm; P value = 0.031], whereas higher pregnancy E-DII score was associated with a shorter birth length [-0.06(-0.10, -0.01) cm; P value = 0.026] and higher risk of SGA [OR(95% CI) = 1.18(1.11, 1.26); P value < 0.001]. In male, but not female, infants higher maternal prepregnancy E-DII was associated with lower birth weight and head circumference, shorter birth length, and higher risk of SGA (P-for-sex-interaction = 0.029, 0.059, 0.104, and 0.075, respectively). No consistent associations were observed for maternal E-DII and DASH scores with gestational age, preterm and postterm birth, or macrosomia and LGA. Limitations of this study were that self-reported dietary data might have increased nondifferential measurement error and that causality cannot be claimed definitely with observational design. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort study, we observed that maternal diet that is of low quality and high inflammatory potential is associated with lower offspring birth size and higher risk of offspring being born SGA in this multicenter meta-analysis using harmonized IPD. Improving overall maternal dietary pattern based on predefined criteria may optimize fetal growth and avert substantial healthcare burden associated with adverse birth outcomes.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Resultado da Gravidez , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores Sexuais
17.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 5, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pattern of lung function development from pre-adolescence to adulthood plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases. Inconsistent findings in genetic studies on lung function trajectories, the importance of DNA methylation (DNA-M), and the critical role of adolescence in lung function development motivated the present study of pre-adolescent DNA-M with lung function trajectories. This study investigated epigenome-wide associations of DNA-M at cytosine-phosphate-guanine dinucleotide sites (CpGs) at childhood with lung function trajectories from childhood to young adulthood. METHODS: DNA-M was measured in peripheral blood at age 10 years in the Isle of Wight (IOW) birth cohort. Spirometry was conducted at ages 10, 18, and 26 years. A training/testing-based method was used to screen CpGs. Multivariable logistic regressions were applied to assess the association of DNA-M with lung function trajectories from pre-adolescence to adulthood. To detect differentially methylated regions (DMRs) among CpGs, DMR enrichment analysis was conducted. Findings were further tested in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort. Pathway analyses were performed on the mapped genes of the identified CpGs and DMRs. Biological relevance of the identified CpGs was assessed with gene expression. All analyses were stratified by sex. RESULTS: High and low trajectories of FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC in each sex were identified. At PBonferroni < 0.05, DNA-M at 96 distinct CpGs (41 in males) showed associations with FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC trajectories in IOW cohort. These 95 CpGs (cg24000797 was disqualified) were further tested in ALSPAC; 44 CpGs (19 in males) of these 95 showed the same directions of association as in the IOW cohort; and three CpGs (two in males) were replicated. DNA-M at two and four CpGs showed significant associations with the corresponding gene expression in males and females, respectively. At PFDR < 0.05, 23 and 10 DMRs were identified in males and females, respectively. Pathways were identified; some of those were linked to lung function and chronic obstructive lung diseases. CONCLUSION: The identified CpGs at pre-adolescence have the potential to serve as candidate markers for lung function trajectory prediction and chronic lung diseases.

18.
Hum Mol Genet ; 30(1): 119-134, 2021 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450751

RESUMO

DNA methylation (DNAm) is known to play a pivotal role in childhood health and development, but a comprehensive characterization of genome-wide DNAm trajectories across this age period is currently lacking. We have therefore performed a series of epigenome-wide association studies in 5019 blood samples collected at multiple time-points from birth to late adolescence from 2348 participants of two large independent cohorts. DNAm profiles of autosomal CpG sites (CpGs) were generated using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Change over time was widespread, observed at over one-half (53%) of CpGs. In most cases, DNAm was decreasing (36% of CpGs). Inter-individual variation in linear trajectories was similarly widespread (27% of CpGs). Evidence for non-linear change and inter-individual variation in non-linear trajectories was somewhat less common (11 and 8% of CpGs, respectively). Very little inter-individual variation in change was explained by sex differences (0.4% of CpGs) even though sex-specific DNAm was observed at 5% of CpGs. DNAm trajectories were distributed non-randomly across the genome. For example, CpGs with decreasing DNAm were enriched in gene bodies and enhancers and were annotated to genes enriched in immune-developmental functions. In contrast, CpGs with increasing DNAm were enriched in promoter regions and annotated to genes enriched in neurodevelopmental functions. These findings depict a methylome undergoing widespread and often non-linear change throughout childhood. They support a developmental role for DNA methylation that extends beyond birth into late adolescence and has implications for understanding life-long health and disease. DNAm trajectories can be visualized at http://epidelta.mrcieu.ac.uk.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética , Epigenoma/genética , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2329, 2021 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504897

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have discovered 27 loci associated with glioma risk. Whether these loci are causally implicated in glioma risk, and how risk differs across tissues, has yet to be systematically explored. We integrated multi-tissue expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) and glioma GWAS data using a combined Mendelian randomisation (MR) and colocalisation approach. We investigated how genetically predicted gene expression affects risk across tissue type (brain, estimated effective n = 1194 and whole blood, n = 31,684) and glioma subtype (all glioma (7400 cases, 8257 controls) glioblastoma (GBM, 3112 cases) and non-GBM gliomas (2411 cases)). We also leveraged tissue-specific eQTLs collected from 13 brain tissues (n = 114 to 209). The MR and colocalisation results suggested that genetically predicted increased gene expression of 12 genes were associated with glioma, GBM and/or non-GBM risk, three of which are novel glioma susceptibility genes (RETREG2/FAM134A, FAM178B and MVB12B/FAM125B). The effect of gene expression appears to be relatively consistent across glioma subtype diagnoses. Examining how risk differed across 13 brain tissues highlighted five candidate tissues (cerebellum, cortex, and the putamen, nucleus accumbens and caudate basal ganglia) and four previously implicated genes (JAK1, STMN3, PICK1 and EGFR). These analyses identified robust causal evidence for 12 genes and glioma risk, three of which are novel. The correlation of MR estimates in brain and blood are consistently low which suggested that tissue specificity needs to be carefully considered for glioma. Our results have implicated genes yet to be associated with glioma susceptibility and provided insight into putatively causal pathways for glioma risk.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Glioma/epidemiologia , Glioma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Transcriptoma
20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(2): 396-403, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Past history of gallstones is associated with increased risk of gallbladder cancer in observational studies. We conducted complementary observational and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to determine whether history of gallstones is causally related to development of gallbladder cancer in an Indian population. METHODS: To investigate associations between history of gallstones and gallbladder cancer, we used questionnaire and imaging data from a gallbladder cancer case-control study conducted at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India (cases = 1,170; controls = 2,525). We then used 26 genetic variants identified in a genome-wide association study of 27,174 gallstone cases and 736,838 controls of European ancestry in an MR approach to assess causality. The association of these genetic variants with both gallstones and gallbladder cancer was examined in the gallbladder cancer case-control study. Various complementary MR approaches were used to evaluate the robustness of our results in the presence of pleiotropy and heterogeneity, and to consider the suitability of the selected SNPs as genetic instruments for gallstones in an Indian population. RESULTS: We found a strong observational association between gallstones and gallbladder cancer using self-reported history of gallstones [OR = 4.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.5-5.8] and with objective measures of gallstone presence using imaging techniques (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.5-2.7). We found consistent causal estimates across all MR techniques, with ORs for gallbladder cancer in the range of 1.3-1.6. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate a causal relationship between history of gallstones and increased risk of gallbladder cancer, albeit of a smaller magnitude than those found in observational analysis. IMPACT: Our findings emphasize the importance of gallstone treatment for preventing gallbladder cancer in high-risk individuals.

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