Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 63
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 6(1): 41, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046743

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has considerably heightened health and financial concerns for many individuals. Similar concerns, such as those associated with poverty, impair performance on cognitive control tasks. If ongoing concerns about COVID-19 substantially increase the tendency to mind wander in tasks requiring sustained attention, these worries could degrade performance on a wide range of tasks, leading, for example, to increased traffic accidents, diminished educational achievement, and lower workplace productivity. In two pre-registered experiments, we investigated the degree to which young adults' concerns about COVID-19 correlated with their ability to sustain attention. Experiment 1 tested mainly European participants during an early phase of the pandemic. After completing a survey probing COVID-related concerns, participants engaged in a continuous performance task (CPT) over two, 4-min blocks, during which they responded to city scenes that occurred 90% of the time and withheld responses to mountain scenes that occurred 10% of the time. Despite large and stable individual differences, performance on the scene CPT did not significantly correlate with the severity of COVID-related concerns obtained from the survey. Experiment 2 tested US participants during a later phase of the pandemic. Once again, CPT performance did not significantly correlate with COVID concerns expressed in a pre-task survey. However, participants who had more task-unrelated thoughts performed more poorly on the CPT. These findings suggest that although COVID-19 increased anxiety in a broad swath of society, young adults are able to hold these concerns in a latent format, minimizing their impact on performance in a demanding sustained attention task.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Atenção/fisiologia , COVID-19 , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Cogn Neurosci ; 33(1): 63-76, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985948

RESUMO

Areas in frontoparietal cortex have been shown to be active in a range of cognitive tasks and have been proposed to play a key role in goal-driven activities (Dosenbach, N. U. F., Fair, D. A., Miezin, F. M., Cohen, A. L., Wenger, K. K., Dosenbach, R. A. T., et al. Distinct brain networks for adaptive and stable task control in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A., 104, 11073-11078, 2007; Duncan, J. The multiple-demand (MD) system of the primate brain: Mental programs for intelligent behavior. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14, 172-179, 2010). Here, we examine the role this frontoparietal system plays in visual search. Visual search, like many complex tasks, consists of a sequence of operations: target selection, stimulus-response (SR) mapping, and response execution. We independently manipulated the difficulty of target selection and SR mapping in a novel visual search task that involved identical stimulus displays. Enhanced activity was observed in areas of frontal and parietal cortex during both difficult target selection and SR mapping. In addition, anterior insula and ACC showed preferential representation of SR-stage information, whereas the medial frontal gyrus, precuneus, and inferior parietal sulcus showed preferential representation of target selection-stage information. A connectivity analysis revealed dissociable neural circuits underlying visual search. We hypothesize that these circuits regulate distinct mental operations associated with the allocation of spatial attention, stimulus decisions, shifts of task set from selection to SR mapping, and SR mapping. Taken together, the results show frontoparietal involvement in all stages of visual search and a specialization with respect to cognitive operations.

3.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 27(6): 1300-1308, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779117

RESUMO

Visual search is facilitated by statistical learning of repeated search contexts, termed 'contextual cueing'. Repeated displays are thought to enhance attentional guidance, but this has been challenged by the absence of search-slope differences between repeated and novel displays. Here we use eye-tracking to resolve this paradox by calculating a measure of when during search the contextual cueing benefit emerges. In 24 human participants we observe typical reaction time and fixation count benefits for repeated contexts, but no slope differences between repeated and novel search contexts. Eye-tracking showed that the attentional guidance benefit emerged over time, occurring later for larger set sizes, and producing similar response time benefits for small and large set sizes. We argue that repeated and novel contexts have similar slopes because learning benefits are confined to target-adjacent regions of roughly equivalent area across set sizes. This finding rules out one of the strongest pieces of evidence against an attentional account of contextual cueing.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Feminino , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Orientação/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Enquadramento Psicológico , Adulto Jovem
4.
Cortex ; 129: 158-174, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473402

RESUMO

When attending to visual objects with particular features, neural processing is typically biased toward those features. Previous work has suggested that maintaining such feature-based attentional sets may involve the same neural resources as visual working memory. If so, the extent to which feature-based attention influences stimulus processing should be related to individuals' working memory capacity. Here we used electroencephalography (EEG) to record brain activity in 60 human observers while they monitored stimulus streams for targets of a specific color. Distractors presented at irrelevant locations evoked strong electrophysiological markers of attentional signal enhancement (the N2pc and PD components) despite producing little or no behavioral interference. Critically, there was no relationship between individual differences in the magnitude of these feature-based biases on distractor processing and individual differences in working memory capacity as measured using three separate working memory tasks. Bayes factor analyses indicated substantial evidence in support of the null hypothesis of no relationship between working memory capacity and the effects of feature-based attention on distractor processing. We consider three potential explanations for these findings. One is that working memory and feature-based attention draw upon distinct neural resources, contrary to previous claims. A second is that working memory is only related to feature-based attention when the attentional template has recently changed. A third is that feature-based attention tasks of the kind employed in the current study recruit just one of several subcomponents of working memory, and so are not invariably correlated with an individual's overall working memory capacity.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Percepção Visual , Atenção , Teorema de Bayes , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Tempo de Reação
5.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 5(1): 4, 2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016647

RESUMO

Extensive research has shown that practice yields highly specific perceptual learning of simple visual properties such as orientation and contrast. Does this same learning characterize more complex perceptual skills? Here we investigated perceptual learning of complex medical images. Novices underwent training over four sessions to discriminate which of two chest radiographs contained a tumor and to indicate the location of the tumor. In training, one group received six repetitions of 30 normal/abnormal images, the other three repetitions of 60 normal/abnormal images. Groups were then tested on trained and novel images. To assess the nature of perceptual learning, test items were presented in three formats - the full image, the cutout of the tumor, or the background only. Performance improved across training sessions, and notably, the improvement transferred to the classification of novel images. Training with more repetitions on fewer images yielded comparable transfer to training with fewer repetitions on more images. Little transfer to novel images occurred when tested with just the cutout of the cancer region or just the background, but a larger cutout that included both the cancer region and some surrounding regions yielded good transfer. Perceptual learning contributes to the acquisition of expertise in cancer image perception.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Prática Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
6.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 82(4): 1669-1681, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907837

RESUMO

Cancer diagnosis frequently relies on the interpretation of medical images such as chest X-rays and mammography. This process is error prone; misdiagnoses can reach a rate of 15% or higher. Of particular interest are false negatives-tumors that are present but missed. Previous research has identified several perceptual and attentional problems underlying inaccurate perception of these images. But how might these problems be reduced? The psychological literature has shown that presenting multiple, duplicate images can improve performance. Here we explored whether redundant image presentation can improve target detection in simulated X-ray images, by presenting four identical or similar images concurrently. Displays with redundant images, including duplicates of the same image, showed reduced false-negative rates, compared with displays with a single image. This effect held both when the target's prevalence rate was high and when it was low. Eye tracking showed that fixating on two or more images in the redundant condition speeded target detection and prolonged search, and that the latter effect was the key to reducing false negatives. The redundancy gain may result from both perceptual enhancement and an increase in the search quitting threshold.


Assuntos
Raios X , Humanos , Mamografia , Visão Ocular
7.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 46(4): 669-683, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343251

RESUMO

Mounting evidence suggests that monetary reward induces an incidentally learned selection bias toward highly rewarded features. It remains controversial, however, whether learning of reward regularities has similar effects on spatial attention. Here we ask whether spatial biases toward highly rewarded locations are learned implicitly, or are instead associated with explicit knowledge of reward structure. Participants completed a hybrid search and choice task involving multiple targets among multiple distractors. Targets garnered varying magnitudes of reward, and participants were instructed to search for targets and guess and click on the 1 that they thought would yield the highest reward. Unbeknownst to participants, 1 side of the display offered higher reward than the other. We measured the spatial bias for targets on the high-reward side of the screen and probed explicit awareness via a multiquestion interview. Participants who were aware of the reward structure (N = 48) showed a selection bias for targets appearing on the high-reward side of the screen. Contrary to previous findings, unaware participants (N = 24) showed only a significant central bias, despite spending just as much time on the task. The strong association between explicit awareness and reward-driven spatial attention in this paradigm suggests that instead of directly affecting the attentional priority map, probabilistic spatial reward learning more frequently affects attention indirectly by modulating task goals. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Conscientização/fisiologia , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Recompensa , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 81(8): 2571-2589, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410759

RESUMO

Repeated contexts yield faster response time in visual search, compared with novel contexts. This effect is known as contextual cueing. Despite extensive study over the past two decades, there remains a spirited debate over whether repeated displays expedite search before the target is found (early locus) or facilitate response after the target is found (late locus). Here, we provide a tutorial review of contextual cueing, with a focus on assessing the locus of the effect. We evaluate the evidence from psychophysics, EEG, and eye tracking. Existing studies support an early locus of contextual cueing, consistent with attentional guidance accounts. Evidence for a late locus exists, though it is less conclusive. Existing literature also highlights a distinction between habit-guided attention learned through experience and changes in spatial priority driven by task goals and stimulus salience.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicofísica , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Adulto Jovem
9.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 26(2): 552-558, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887446

RESUMO

We tested whether implicit learning causes shifts of spatial attention in advance of or in response to stimulus onset. Participants completed randomly interspersed trials of letter search, which involved reporting the orientation of a T among Ls, and scene search, which involved identifying which of four scenes was from a target category (e.g., forest). In Experiment 1, an initial phase more often contained target letters in one screen quadrant, while the target scenes appeared equally often in all quadrants. Participants persistently prioritized letter targets in the more probable region, but the implicitly learned preference did not affect the unbiased scene task. In Experiment 2, the spatial probabilities of the scene and letter tasks reversed. Participants unaware of the probability manipulation acquired only a spatial bias to scene targets in the more probable region, with no effect on letter search. Instead of recruiting baseline shifts of spatial attention prior to stimulus onset, implicit learning of target probability yields task-dependent shifts of spatial attention following stimulus onset. Such shifts may involve attentional behaviors unique to certain task contexts.


Assuntos
Atenção , Orientação Espacial , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade , Adolescente , Viés , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Percepção Espacial , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Percepção Visual , Adulto Jovem
10.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 195: 39-49, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878000

RESUMO

From geometric figures to human faces, many visual stimuli vary along a continuum in featural space, anchored at one end by a highly distinctive constellation of features, at the other by a neutral set. Here we used a continuum of morphed faces to test whether errors in visual short-term memory are symmetric in feature space around the target or systematically biased toward one or the other end of the continuum. Participants were shown a face for 1 s. After a brief delay, participants were asked to choose the face they had been shown among three face options, which consisted of the target face, one face that was slightly more distinctive, and one face that was slightly more neutral. Continuums of morphed faces ranged from an average, neutral face to different distinctive celebrity faces two experiments, or from neutral facial expressions to highly emotional expressions a third experiment. Results showed that when participants made an incorrect response, they were more likely to incorrectly identify the more distinctive face than the more neutral or average face as the target face. This bias toward more extreme faces, however, was not observed for unfamiliar (non-celebrity) faces that were emotionally neutral. These findings suggest that visual memory encodes distinctive features of stimuli that lead to biases in later recognition.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Viés , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 45(3): 386-401, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730177

RESUMO

Continuous performance tasks are frequently associated with a vigilance decrement, particularly when target events are rare and after prolonged time on task. Here we characterized the time course of a performance decrement that happens more rapidly. Using the gradual-onset continuous performance task (the gradCPT), we presented participants with a long sequence of scenes that gradually faded in and out. Participants pressed a button as soon as they detected scenes in one category and ignored scenes in another category. We manipulated the novelty of stimuli, required response rate, and the prevalence rate of the target stimuli. Performance sensitivity declined moderately within and across three 8-min-long blocks. Contrary to mindlessness accounts of vigilance decrement, the decline was not restricted to situations when target events were rare and the stimuli were repetitive. High motor response rates substantially impaired overall sensitivity and moderately increased performance decrement. Performance in the gradCPT did not correlate with individual differences in mindfulness, attentional lapses, media multitasking, or complex working memory span. The rapid and pervasively observed decline in performance is consistent with attentional resource theories of vigilance decrement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 81(3): 654-665, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30603988

RESUMO

Singleton detection mode is a state in which spatial attention is set to prioritize any objects that differ from all other objects present on any feature dimension. Relatively little research has been devoted to confirming the consequences such a search mode has for stimulus processing. It is often implied that when observers employ singleton detection mode, all singletons capture attention equally, and when observers search for a single feature, only that feature captures attention. The experiment presented here contradicts these implications. We had observers search for colored singleton targets preceded by spatially uninformative colored singleton cues, and we recorded stimulus-evoked neural responses using electroencephalography (EEG). When observers had to respond to targets defined by two possible colors (a task intended to encourage singleton detection mode), cue validity effects were apparent for both target-color cues and irrelevant-color cues, and these effects were accompanied by an N2pc in the EEG data. Importantly, however, the target-color cues evoked significantly larger cue validity effects and N2pc components than did the irrelevant-color cues. In contrast, when observers had to respond to targets defined by one color (a task intended to encourage feature search mode), only cues of that color evoked a cue validity effect. Interestingly, the N2pcs produced by irrelevant cues did not differ between feature and singleton search, suggesting that the behavioral difference was not due to different attentional orienting. Rather, we suggest that behavioral singleton capture is due to a diminished same-location cost being produced by irrelevant-color cues.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Visuais/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Adulto Jovem
13.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 3(1): 48, 2018 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30547282

RESUMO

The visual environment contains predictable information - "statistical regularities" - that can be used to aid perception and attentional allocation. Here we investigate the role of statistical learning in facilitating search tasks that resemble medical-image perception. Using faux X-ray images, we employed two tasks that mimicked two problems in medical-image perception: detecting a target signal that is poorly segmented from the background; and discriminating a candidate anomaly from benign signals. In the first, participants searched a heavily camouflaged target embedded in cloud-like noise. In the second, the noise opacity was reduced, but the target appeared among visually similar distractors. We tested the hypothesis that learning may be task-specific. To this end, we introduced statistical regularities by presenting the target disproportionately more frequently in one region of the space. This manipulation successfully induced incidental learning of the target's location probability, producing faster search when the target appeared in the high-probability region. The learned attentional preference persisted through a testing phase in which the target's location was random. Supporting the task-specificity hypothesis, when the task changed between training and testing, the learned priority did not transfer. Eye tracking showed fewer, but longer, fixations in the detection than in the discrimination task. The observation of task-specificity of statistical learning has implications for theories of spatial attention and sheds light on the design of effective training tasks.

14.
Psychol Rev ; 125(6): 851-887, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30080068

RESUMO

Event-based prospective memory (PM) requires remembering to perform intended deferred actions when particular stimuli or events are encountered in the future. We propose a detailed process theory within Braver's (2012) proactive and reactive framework of the way control is maintained over the competing demands of prospective memory decisions and decisions associated with ongoing task activities. The theory is instantiated in a quantitative "Prospective Memory Decision Control" (PMDC) architecture, which uses linear ballistic evidence accumulation (Brown & Heathcote, 2008) to model both PM and ongoing decision processes. Prospective control is exerted via decision thresholds, as in Heathcote, Loft, and Remington's (2015) "Delay Theory" of the impact of PM demands on ongoing-task decisions. However, PMDC goes beyond Delay Theory by simultaneously accounting for both PM task decisions and ongoing task decisions. We use Bayesian estimation to apply PMDC to experiments manipulating PM target focality (i.e., the extent to which the ongoing task directs attention to the features of PM targets processed at encoding) and the relative importance of the PM task. As well as confirming Delay Theory's proactive control of ongoing task thresholds, the comprehensive account provided by PMDC allowed us to detect both proactive control of the PM accumulator threshold and reactive control of the relative rates of the PM and ongoing-task evidence accumulation processes. We discuss potential extensions of PMDC to account for other factors that may be prevalent in real-world PM, such as failures of memory retrieval. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Função Executiva/fisiologia , Memória Episódica , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 80(7): 1683-1690, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29968083

RESUMO

In completing daily activities, the eyes make a series of saccades by gazing at stimuli in succession. The duration of gaze on each stimulus has been used to infer how the initiation of a saccade is timed relative to the underlying mental processing. In reading, gaze dwells longer on a word that occurs infrequently in English text (low frequency) than on a more frequent word (high frequency), but also on the following word, which is referred to as spillover. Accounts of spillover attribute it to mechanisms of lexical access. A low-frequency word n is assumed to delay the onset of cognitive processing of word n+1 more than it delays the saccade to n+1, leaving more processing to be done on n+1 once it is fixated. We tested this assumption by having participants perform a series of speeded lexical decisions on a linear array of letter strings spaced 5° apart, using low- and high-frequency words to vary the lexical difficulty. Lexical decision adds a response selection stage that is absent in reading, which should eliminate differential effects on saccades and cognitive processing. Nonetheless, we found the typical pattern of lengthened gaze duration and spillover for low-frequency words, with effects that were consistent in magnitude with those seen in studies of reading. These data challenge existing accounts of spillover and argue against the idea that reading has a unique interaction with oculomotor control. Instead, the similarity of our gaze patterns to those of reading suggests a common pattern of saccade initiation across tasks.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Leitura , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Humanos
16.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 25(3): 1052-1058, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28698989

RESUMO

Extensive research has shown that statistical learning affects perception, attention, and action control; however, few studies have directly linked statistical learning with the formation of habits. Evidence that learning can induce a search habit has come from location probability learning, in which people prioritize locations frequently attended to in the past. Here, using an alternating training-testing procedure, we demonstrated that the initial attentional bias arises from short-term intertrial priming, whereas probability learning takes longer to emerge, first reaching significance in covert orienting (measured by reaction times) after about 48 training trials, and in overt orienting (measured by eye movements) after about 96 training trials. We further showed that location probability learning is persistent after training is discontinued, by transferring from a letter search task to a scene search task-emulating another characteristic feature of habits. By identifying the onset of probability learning and investigating its task specificity, this study provides evidence that probability cuing can induce habitual spatial attention.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Hábitos , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 44(3): 356-366, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28795835

RESUMO

To what degree does spatial attention for one task spread to all stimuli in the attended region, regardless of task relevance? Most models imply that spatial attention acts through a unitary priority map in a task-general manner. We show that implicit learning, unlike endogenous spatial cuing, can bias spatial attention within one task without biasing attention to a spatially overlapping secondary task. Participants completed a visual search task superimposed on a background containing scenes, which they were told to encode for a later memory task. Experiments 1 and 2 used explicit instructions to bias spatial attention to one region for visual search; Experiment 3 used location probability cuing to implicitly bias spatial attention. In location probability cuing, a target appeared in one region more than others despite participants not being told of this. In all experiments, search performance was better in the cued region than in uncued regions. However, scene memory was better in the cued region only following endogenous guidance, not after implicit biasing of attention. These data support a dual-system view of top-down attention that dissociates goal-driven and implicitly learned attention. Goal-driven attention is task general, amplifying processing of a cued region across tasks, whereas implicit statistical learning is task-specific. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Objetivos , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Cogn ; 1(1): 23, 2018 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517197

RESUMO

Is top-down control necessarily scarce, slow, and hence unimportant in visual selection? Here we outline the risks of downplaying top-down control. Contrary to Theeuwes' review, we suggest that not all sources of attention map onto a unitary attentional priority map. Goals and search habits may influence where and how people deploy attention, respectively. Because goals have modulatory effects on sensory processing, their impact on attention is broad and not always deliberate. In addition, when multiple sources influence attention, top-down control often dominates over less deliberate forms of attention. We agree with Theeuwes that selection history can drive attention independent of explicit goals. Nonetheless, top-down control remains a cornerstone of visual selection.

19.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 43(10): 1616-1629, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28383957

RESUMO

Event-based prospective memory (PM) tasks require participants to substitute an atypical PM response for an ongoing task response when presented with PM targets. Responses to ongoing tasks are often slower with the addition of PM demands ("PM costs"). Prominent PM theories attribute costs to capacity-sharing between the ongoing and PM tasks, which reduces the rate of processing of the ongoing task. We modeled PM costs using the Linear Ballistic Accumulator and the Diffusion Decision Model in a lexical-decision task with nonfocal PM targets defined by semantic categories. Previous decision modeling, which attributed costs to changes in caution rather than rate of processing (Heathcote et al., 2015; Horn & Bayen, 2015), could be criticized on the grounds that the PM tasks included did not sufficiently promote capacity-sharing. Our semantic PM task was potentially more dependent on lexical decision resources than previous tasks (Marsh, Hicks, & Cook, 2005), yet costs were again driven by changes in threshold and not by changes in processing speed (drift rate). Costs resulting from a single target focal PM task were also driven by threshold changes. The increased thresholds underlying nonfocal and focal costs were larger for word trials than nonword trials. As PM targets were always words, this suggests that threshold increases are used to extend the time available for retrieval on PM trials. Under nonfocal conditions, but not focal conditions, the nonword threshold also increased. Thus, it seems that only nonfocal instructions cause a global threshold increase because of greater perceived task complexity. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Modelos Psicológicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Testes Psicológicos , Leitura , Semântica , Adulto Jovem
20.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 79(5): 1311-1322, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28439792

RESUMO

It has long been known that frequently occurring targets are attended better than infrequent ones in visual search. But does this frequency-based attentional prioritization reflect momentary or durable changes in attention? Here we observed both short-term and long-term attentional biases for visual features as a function of different types of statistical associations between the targets, distractors, and features. Participants searched for a target, a line oriented horizontally or vertically among diagonal distractors, and reported its length. In one set of experiments we manipulated the target's color probability: Targets were more often in Color 1 than in Color 2. The distractors were in other colors. Participants found Color 1 targets more quickly than Color 2 targets, but this preference disappeared immediately when the target's color became random in the subsequent testing phase. In the other set of experiments, we manipulated the diagnostic values of the two colors: Color 1 was more often a target than a distractor; Color 2 was more often a distractor than a target. Participants found Color 1 targets more quickly than Color 2 targets. Importantly, and in contrast to the first set of experiments, the featural preference was sustained in the testing phase. These results suggest that short-term and long-term attentional biases are products of different statistical information. Finding a target momentarily activates its features, inducing short-term repetition priming. Long-term changes in attention, on the other hand, may rely on learning diagnostic features of the targets.


Assuntos
Viés de Atenção , Percepção de Cores , Tempo de Reação , Priming de Repetição , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...