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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445355

RESUMO

Recently, lithium nitride (Li3N) has been proposed as a chemical warfare agent (CWA) neutralization reagent for its ability to produce nucleophilic ammonia molecules and hydroxide ions in aqueous solution. Quantum chemical calculations can provide insight into the Li3N neutralization process that has been studied experimentally. Here, we calculate reaction-free energies associated with the Li3N-based neutralization of the CWA VX using quantum chemical density functional theory and ab initio methods. We find that alkaline hydrolysis is more favorable to either ammonolysis or neutral hydrolysis for initial P-S and P-O bond cleavages. Reaction-free energies of subsequent reactions are calculated to determine the full reaction pathway. Notably, products predicted from favorable reactions have been identified in previous experiments.


Assuntos
Descontaminação , Compostos de Lítio/química , Compostos Organotiofosforados/química , Água/química , Amônia/química , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/química , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/farmacologia , Descontaminação/métodos , Hidrólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinética , Lítio/química , Modelos Moleculares , Compostos Organotiofosforados/farmacologia , Teoria Quântica
2.
Chem Sci ; 12(25): 8920-8930, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257893

RESUMO

Potassium channels modulate various cellular functions through efficient and selective conduction of K+ ions. The mechanism of ion conduction in potassium channels has recently emerged as a topic of debate. Crystal structures of potassium channels show four K+ ions bound to adjacent binding sites in the selectivity filter, while chemical intuition and molecular modeling suggest that the direct ion contacts are unstable. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been instrumental in the study of conduction and gating mechanisms of ion channels. Based on MD simulations, two hypotheses have been proposed, in which the four-ion configuration is an artifact due to either averaged structures or low temperature in crystallographic experiments. The two hypotheses have been supported or challenged by different experiments. Here, MD simulations with polarizable force fields validated by ab initio calculations were used to investigate the ion binding thermodynamics. Contrary to previous beliefs, the four-ion configuration was predicted to be thermodynamically stable after accounting for the complex electrostatic interactions and dielectric screening. Polarization plays a critical role in the thermodynamic stabilities. As a result, the ion conduction likely operates through a simple single-vacancy and water-free mechanism. The simulations explained crystal structures, ion binding experiments and recent controversial mutagenesis experiments. This work provides a clear view of the mechanism underlying the efficient ion conduction and demonstrates the importance of polarization in ion channel simulations.

3.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064203

RESUMO

With a longer-term goal of addressing the comparative behavior of the aqueous halides F-, Cl-, Br-, and I- on the basis of quasi-chemical theory (QCT), here we study structures and free energies of hydration clusters for those anions. We confirm that energetically optimal (H2O)nX clusters, with X = Cl-, Br-, and I-, exhibit surface hydration structures. Computed free energies, based on optimized surface hydration structures utilizing a harmonic approximation, typically (but not always) disagree with experimental free energies. To remedy the harmonic approximation, we utilize single-point electronic structure calculations on cluster geometries sampled from an AIMD (ab initio molecular dynamics) simulation stream. This rough-landscape procedure is broadly satisfactory and suggests unfavorable ligand crowding as the physical effect addressed. Nevertheless, this procedure can break down when n≳4, with the characteristic discrepancy resulting from a relaxed definition of clustering in the identification of (H2O)nX clusters, including ramified structures natural in physical cluster theories. With ramified structures, the central equation for the present rough-landscape approach can acquire some inconsistency. Extension of these physical cluster theories in the direction of QCT should remedy that issue, and should be the next step in this research direction.

4.
J Phys Chem B ; 125(19): 4925-4927, 2021 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011143
5.
Soft Matter ; 17(26): 6315-6325, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982047

RESUMO

The addition of a common amino acid, phenylalanine, to a Layer-by-Layer (LbL) deposited polyelectrolyte (PE) film on a nanoporous membrane can increase its ionic selectivity over a PE film without the added amino acid. The addition of phenylalanine is inspired by detailed knowledge of the structure of the channelrhodopsins family of protein ion channels, where phenylalanine plays an instrumental role in facilitating sodium ion transport. The normally deposited and crosslinked PE films increase the cationic selectivity of a support membrane in a controllable manner where higher selectivity is achieved with thicker PE coatings, which in turn also increases the ionic resistance of the membrane. The increased ionic selectivity is desired while the increased resistance is not. We show that through incorporation of phenylalanine during the LbL deposition process, in solutions of NaCl with concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 100 mM, the ionic selectivity can be increased independently of the membrane resistance. Specifically, the addition is shown to increase the cationic transference of the PE films from 81.4% to 86.4%, an increase on par with PE films that are nearly triple the thickness while exhibiting much lower resistance compared to the thicker coatings, where the phenylalanine incorporated PE films display an area specific resistance of 1.81 Ω cm2 in 100 mM NaCl while much thicker PE membranes show a higher resistance of 2.75 Ω cm2 in the same 100 mM NaCl solution.


Assuntos
Fenilalanina , Cátions , Polieletrólitos
6.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808723

RESUMO

Electrodialysis (ED) desalination performance of different conventional and laboratory-scale ion exchange membranes (IEMs) has been evaluated by many researchers, but most of these studies used their own sets of experimental parameters such as feed solution compositions and concentrations, superficial velocities of the process streams (diluate, concentrate, and electrode rinse), applied electrical voltages, and types of IEMs. Thus, direct comparison of ED desalination performance of different IEMs is virtually impossible. While the use of different conventional IEMs in ED has been reported, the use of bioinspired ion exchange membrane has not been reported yet. The goal of this study was to evaluate the ED desalination performance differences between novel laboratory­scale bioinspired IEM and conventional IEMs by determining (i) limiting current density, (ii) current density, (iii) current efficiency, (iv) salinity reduction in diluate stream, (v) normalized specific energy consumption, and (vi) water flux by osmosis as a function of (a) initial concentration of NaCl feed solution (diluate and concentrate streams), (b) superficial velocity of feed solution, and (c) applied stack voltage per cell-pair of membranes. A laboratory­scale single stage batch-recycle electrodialysis experimental apparatus was assembled with five cell­pairs of IEMs with an active cross-sectional area of 7.84 cm2. In this study, seven combinations of IEMs (commercial and laboratory-made) were compared: (i) Neosepta AMX/CMX, (ii) PCA PCSA/PCSK, (iii) Fujifilm Type 1 AEM/CEM, (iv) SUEZ AR204SZRA/CR67HMR, (v) Ralex AMH-PES/CMH-PES, (vi) Neosepta AMX/Bare Polycarbonate membrane (Polycarb), and (vii) Neosepta AMX/Sandia novel bioinspired cation exchange membrane (SandiaCEM). ED desalination performance with the Sandia novel bioinspired cation exchange membrane (SandiaCEM) was found to be competitive with commercial Neosepta CMX cation exchange membrane.

7.
Biophys J ; 120(9): 1835-1845, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705762

RESUMO

Channelrhodopsins (ChR) are light-sensitive cation channels used in optogenetics, a technique that applies light to control cells (e.g., neurons) that have been modified genetically to express those channels. Although mutations are known to affect pore kinetics, little is known about how mutations induce changes at the molecular scale. To address this issue, we first measured channel opening and closing rates of a ChR chimera (C1C2) and selected variants (N297D, N297V, and V125L). Then, we used atomistic simulations to correlate those rates with changes in pore structure, hydration, and chemical interactions among key gating residues of C1C2 in both closed and open states. Overall, the experimental results show that C1C2 and its mutants do not behave like ChR2 or its analogous variants, except V125L, making C1C2 a unique channel. Our atomistic simulations confirmed that opening of the channel and initial hydration of the gating regions between helices I, II, III, and VII of the channel occurs with 1) the presence of 13-cis retinal; 2) deprotonation of a glutamic acid gating residue, E129; and 3) subsequent weakening of the central gate hydrogen bond between the same glutamic acid E129 and asparagine N297 in the central region of the pore. Also, an aspartate (D292) is the unambiguous primary proton acceptor for the retinal Schiff base in the hydrated channel.


Assuntos
Prótons , Channelrhodopsins/genética , Channelrhodopsins/metabolismo , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Conformação Proteica
8.
J Chem Phys ; 154(8): 084503, 2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639727

RESUMO

We performed ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations to benchmark bulk liquid structures and to evaluate results from all-atom force field molecular dynamics (FFMD) simulations with the generalized Amber force field (GAFF) for organophosphorus (OP) and organochlorine (OC) compounds. Our work also addresses the current and important topic of force field validation, applied here to a set of nonaqueous organic liquids. Our approach differs from standard treatments, which validate force fields based on thermodynamic data. Utilizing radial distribution functions (RDFs), our results show that GAFF reproduces the AIMD-predicted asymmetric liquid structures moderately well for OP compounds that contain bulky alkyl groups. Among the OCs, RDFs obtained from FFMD overlap well with AIMD results, with some offsets in position and peak structuring. However, re-parameterization of GAFF for some OCs is needed to reproduce fully the liquid structures predicted by AIMD. The offsets between AIMD and FFMD peak positions suggest inconsistencies in the developed force fields, but, in general, GAFF is able to capture short-ranged and long-ranged interactions of OPs and OCs observed in AIMD. Along with the local coordination structure, we also compared enthalpies of vaporization. Overall, calculated bulk properties from FFMD compared reasonably well with experimental values, suggesting that small improvements within the FF should focus on parameters that adjust the bulk liquid structures of these compounds.

9.
Langmuir ; 37(4): 1372-1385, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449700

RESUMO

The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative (G-) bacteria presents a barrier for many classes of antibacterial agents. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), present in the outer leaflet of the OM, is stabilized by divalent cations and is considered to be the major impediment for antibacterial agent permeation. However, the actual affinities of major antibiotic classes toward LPS have not yet been determined. In the present work, we use Langmuir monolayers formed from E. coli Re and Rd types of LPS to record pressure-area isotherms in the presence of antimicrobial agents. Our observations suggest three general types of interactions. First, some antimicrobials demonstrated no measurable interactions with LPS. This lack of interaction in the case of cefsulodin, a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, correlates with its low efficacy against G- bacteria. Ampicillin and ciprofloxacin also show no interactions with LPS, but in contrast to cefsulodin, both exhibit good efficacy against G- bacteria, indicating permeation through common porins. Second, we observe substantial intercalation of the more hydrophobic antibiotics, novobiocin, rifampicin, azithromycin, and telithromycin, into relaxed LPS monolayers. These largely repartition back to the subphase with monolayer compression. We find that the hydrophobic area, charge, and dipole all show correlations with both the mole fraction of antibiotic retained in the monolayer at the monolayer-bilayer equivalence pressure and the efficacies of these antibiotics against G- bacteria. Third, amine-rich gentamicin and the cationic antimicrobial peptides polymyxin B and colistin show no hydrophobic insertion but are instead strongly driven into the polar LPS layer by electrostatic interactions in a pressure-independent manner. Their intercalation stably increases the area per molecule (by up to 20%), which indicates massive formation of defects in the LPS layer. These defects support a self-promoted permeation mechanism of these antibiotics through the OM, which explains the high efficacy and specificity of these antimicrobials against G- bacteria.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Porinas , Eletricidade Estática
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2191: 17-28, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865736

RESUMO

Umbrella sampling, coupled with a weighted histogram analysis method (US-WHAM), can be used to construct potentials of mean force (PMFs) for studying the complex ion permeation pathways of membrane transport proteins. Despite the widespread use of US-WHAM, obtaining a physically meaningful PMF can be challenging. Here, we provide a protocol to resolve that issue. Then, we apply that protocol to compute a meaningful PMF for sodium ion permeation through channelrhodopsin chimera, C1C2, for illustration.


Assuntos
Channelrhodopsins/química , Quimera/genética , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Íons/química , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Sódio/química , Termodinâmica , Água/química
11.
J Chem Phys ; 152(13): 130902, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268733

RESUMO

Mixed solvents (i.e., binary or higher order mixtures of ionic or nonionic liquids) play crucial roles in chemical syntheses, separations, and electrochemical devices because they can be tuned for specific reactions and applications. Apart from fully explicit solvation treatments that can be difficult to parameterize or computationally expensive, there is currently no well-established first-principles regimen for reliably modeling atomic-scale chemistry in mixed solvent environments. We offer our perspective on how this process could be achieved in the near future as mixed solvent systems become more explored using theoretical and computational chemistry. We first outline what makes mixed solvent systems far more complex compared to single-component solvents. An overview of current and promising techniques for modeling mixed solvent environments is provided. We focus on so-called hybrid solvation treatments such as the conductor-like screening model for real solvents and the reference interaction site model, which are far less computationally demanding than explicit simulations. We also propose that cluster-continuum approaches rooted in physically rigorous quasi-chemical theory provide a robust, yet practical, route for studying chemical processes in mixed solvents.

12.
Annu Rev Phys Chem ; 71: 461-484, 2020 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155383

RESUMO

Ions transiting biomembranes might pass readily from water through ion-specific membrane proteins if these protein channels provide environments similar to the aqueous solution hydration environment. Indeed, bulk aqueous solution is an important reference condition for the ion permeation process. Assessment of this hydration mimicry concept depends on understanding the hydration structure and free energies of metal ions in water in order to provide a comparison for the membrane channel environment. To refine these considerations, we review local hydration structures of ions in bulk water and the molecular quasi-chemical theory that provides hydration free energies. In doing so, we note some current views of ion binding to membrane channels and suggest new physical chemical calculations and experiments that might further clarify the hydration mimicry concept.

13.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 16(1): 633-642, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809056

RESUMO

Molecular-level understanding and characterization of solvation environments are often needed across chemistry, biology, and engineering. Toward practical modeling of local solvation effects of any solute in any solvent, we report a static and all-quantum mechanics-based cluster-continuum approach for calculating single-ion solvation free energies. This approach uses a global optimization procedure to identify low-energy molecular clusters with different numbers of explicit solvent molecules and then employs the smooth overlap for atomic positions learning kernel to quantify the similarity between different low-energy solute environments. From these data, we use sketch maps, a nonlinear dimensionality reduction algorithm, to obtain a two-dimensional visual representation of the similarity between solute environments in differently sized microsolvated clusters. After testing this approach on different ions having charges 2+, 1+, 1-, and 2-, we find that the solvation environment around each ion can be seen to usually become more similar in hand with its calculated single-ion solvation free energy. Without needing either dynamics simulations or an a priori knowledge of local solvation structure of the ions, this approach can be used to calculate solvation free energies within 5% of experimental measurements for most cases, and it should be transferable for the study of other systems where dynamics simulations are not easily carried out.

14.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 18(9): 1587-1592, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209181

RESUMO

We and others have reported that the anticancer activity of L-asparaginase (ASNase) against asparagine synthetase (ASNS)-positive cell types requires ASNase glutaminase activity, whereas anticancer activity against ASNS-negative cell types does not. Here, we attempted to disentangle the relationship between asparagine metabolism, glutamine metabolism, and downstream pathways that modulate cell viability by testing the hypothesis that ASNase anticancer activity is based on asparagine depletion rather than glutamine depletion per se. We tested ASNase wild-type (ASNaseWT) and its glutaminase-deficient Q59L mutant (ASNaseQ59L) and found that ASNase glutaminase activity contributed to durable anticancer activity against xenografts of the ASNS-negative Sup-B15 leukemia cell line in NOD/SCID gamma mice, whereas asparaginase activity alone yielded a mere growth delay. Our findings suggest that ASNase glutaminase activity is necessary for durable, single-agent anticancer activity in vivo, even against ASNS-negative cancer types.


Assuntos
Asparaginase/farmacologia , Aspartato-Amônia Ligase/antagonistas & inibidores , Glutaminase/farmacologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Asparaginase/administração & dosagem , Asparaginase/farmacocinética , Asparagina/metabolismo , Aspartato-Amônia Ligase/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Glutaminase/administração & dosagem , Glutaminase/farmacocinética , Glutamina/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos SCID , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/metabolismo , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia
15.
J Phys Chem B ; 122(45): 10296-10305, 2018 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30338689

RESUMO

Anthrax toxin consists of a cation channel and two protein factors. Translocation of the anthrax protein factors from endosomal to the cytosolic compartment is a complex process which utilizes the cation channel. An atomically detailed understanding of the function of the anthrax translocation machinery is incomplete. We report atomically detailed simulations of the lethal factor and channel mutants. Kinetic and thermodynamic properties of early events in the translocation process are computed within the Milestoning theory and algorithm. Several mutants of the channel illustrate that long-range electrostatic interactions provide the dominant driving force for translocation. No external energy input is required because the lower pH in the endosome relative to the cytosol drives the initial translocation process forward. Channel mutants with variable sizes cause smaller effects on translocation events relative to charge manipulations. Comparison with available experimental data is provided.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antígenos de Bactérias/química , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/química , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mutação , Transporte Proteico , Eletricidade Estática
16.
Chem Sci ; 9(34): 6997-7008, 2018 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30210775

RESUMO

Teixobactin (Txb) is a recently discovered antibiotic against Gram-positive bacteria that induces no detectable resistance. The bactericidal mechanism is believed to be the inhibition of cell wall biosynthesis by Txb binding to lipid II and lipid III. Txb binding specificity likely arises from targeting of the shared lipid component, the pyrophosphate moiety. Despite synthesis and functional assessment of numerous chemical analogs of Txb, and consequent identification of the Txb pharmacophore, the detailed structural information of Txb-substrate binding is still lacking. Here, we use molecular modeling and microsecond-scale molecular dynamics simulations to capture the formation of Txb-lipid II complexes at a membrane surface. Two dominant binding conformations were observed, both showing characteristic lipid II phosphate binding by the Txb backbone amides near the C-terminal cyclodepsipeptide (d-Thr8-Ile11) ring. Additionally, binding by Txb also involved the side chain hydroxyl group of Ser7, as well as a secondary phosphate binding provided by the side chain of l-allo-enduracididine. Interestingly, those conformations differ by swapping two groups of hydrogen bond donors that coordinate the two phosphate moieties of lipid II, resulting in opposite orientations of lipid II binding. In addition, residues d-allo-Ile5 and Ile6 serve as the membrane anchors in both Txb conformations, regardless of the detailed phosphate binding interactions near the cyclodepsipeptide ring. The role of hydrophobic residues in Txb activity is primarily for its membrane insertion, and subsidiarily to provide non-polar interactions with the lipid II tail. Based on the Txb-lipid II interactions captured in their complexes, as well as their partitioning depths into the membrane, we propose that the bactericidal mechanism of Txb is to arrest cell wall synthesis by selectively inhibiting the transglycosylation of peptidoglycan, while possibly leaving the transpeptidation step unaffected. The observed "pyrophosphate caging" mechanism of lipid II inhibition appears to be similar to some lantibiotics, but different from that of vancomycin or bacitracin.

17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(32): E7502-E7511, 2018 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30026196

RESUMO

EmrE is a small, homodimeric membrane transporter that exploits the established electrochemical proton gradient across the Escherichia coli inner membrane to export toxic polyaromatic cations, prototypical of the wider small-multidrug resistance transporter family. While prior studies have established many fundamental aspects of the specificity and rate of substrate transport in EmrE, low resolution of available structures has hampered identification of the transport coupling mechanism. Here we present a complete, refined atomic structure of EmrE optimized against available cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) data to delineate the critical interactions by which EmrE regulates its conformation during the transport process. With the model, we conduct molecular dynamics simulations of the transporter in explicit membranes to probe EmrE dynamics under different substrate loading and conformational states, representing different intermediates in the transport cycle. The refined model is stable under extended simulation. The water dynamics in simulation indicate that the hydrogen-bonding networks around a pair of solvent-exposed glutamate residues (E14) depend on the loading state of EmrE. One specific hydrogen bond from a tyrosine (Y60) on one monomer to a glutamate (E14) on the opposite monomer is especially critical, as it locks the protein conformation when the glutamate is deprotonated. The hydrogen bond provided by Y60 lowers the [Formula: see text] of one glutamate relative to the other, suggesting both glutamates should be protonated for the hydrogen bond to break and a substrate-free transition to take place. These findings establish the molecular mechanism for the coupling between proton transfer reactions and protein conformation in this proton-coupled secondary transporter.


Assuntos
Antiporters/metabolismo , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Antiporters/química , Transporte Biológico , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Ácido Glutâmico/química , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Prótons , Eletricidade Estática
18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 10736, 2018 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30013026

RESUMO

Li+ transport within a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) in lithium ion batteries has challenged molecular dynamics (MD) studies due to limited compositional control of that layer. In recent years, experiments and ab initio simulations have identified dilithium ethylene dicarbonate (Li2EDC) as the dominant component of SEI layers. Here, we adopt a parameterized, non-polarizable MD force field for Li2EDC to study transport characteristics of Li+ in this model SEI layer at moderate temperatures over long times. The observed correlations are consistent with recent MD results using a polarizable force field, suggesting that this non-polarizable model is effective for our purposes of investigating Li+ dynamics. Mean-squared displacements distinguish three distinct Li+ transport regimes in EDC - ballistic, trapping, and diffusive. Compared to liquid ethylene carbonate (EC), the nanosecond trapping times in EDC are significantly longer and naturally decrease at higher temperatures. New materials developed for fast-charging Li-ion batteries should have a smaller trapping region. The analyses implemented in this paper can be used for testing transport of Li+ ion in novel battery materials. Non-Gaussian features of van Hove self -correlation functions for Li+ in EDC, along with the mean-squared displacements, are consistent in describing EDC as a glassy material compared with liquid EC. Vibrational modes of Li+ ion, identified by MD, characterize the trapping and are further validated by electronic structure calculations. Some of this work appeared in an extended abstract and has been reproduced with permission from ECS Transactions, 77, 1155-1162 (2017).

19.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2200, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29855468

RESUMO

The original version of this Article contained an error in the spelling of the author Stanley S. Chou, which was incorrectly given as Stan Chou. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

20.
J Chem Phys ; 148(22): 222831, 2018 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907035

RESUMO

Ion hydration structure and free energy establish criteria for understanding selective ion binding in potassium (K+) ion channels and may be significant to understanding blocking mechanisms as well. Recently, we investigated the hydration properties of Ba2+, the most potent blocker of K+ channels among the simple metal ions. Here, we use a similar method of combining ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, statistical mechanical theory, and electronic structure calculations to probe the fundamental hydration properties of Sr2+, which does not block bacterial K+ channels. The radial distribution of water around Sr2+ suggests a stable 8-fold geometry in the local hydration environment, similar to Ba2+. While the predicted hydration free energy of -331.8 kcal/mol is comparable with the experimental result of -334 kcal/mol, the value is significantly more favorable than the -305 kcal/mol hydration free energy of Ba2+. When placed in the innermost K+ channel blocking site, the solvation free energies and lowest energy structures of both Sr2+ and Ba2+ are nearly unchanged compared with their respective hydration properties. This result suggests that the block is not attributable to ion trapping due to +2 charge, and differences in blocking behavior arise due to free energies associated with the exchange of water ligands for channel ligands instead of free energies of transfer from water to the binding site.

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