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1.
Biochim Open ; 7: 10-25, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30109196

RESUMO

An infectious retroviral particle contains 1000-1500 molecules of the nucleocapsid protein (NC) that cover the diploid RNA genome. NC is a small zinc finger protein that possesses nucleic acid chaperone activity that enables NC to rearrange DNA and RNA molecules into the most thermodynamically stable structures usually those containing the maximum number of base pairs. Thanks to the chaperone activity, NC plays an essential role in reverse transcription of the retroviral genome by facilitating the strand transfer reactions of this process. In addition, these reactions are involved in recombination events that can generate multiple drug resistance mutations in the presence of anti-HIV-1 drugs. The strand transfer reactions rely on base pairing of folded DNA/RNA structures. The molecular mechanisms responsible for NC-mediated strand transfer reactions are presented and discussed in this review. Antiretroviral strategies targeting the NC-mediated strand transfer events are also discussed.

2.
J Phys Chem B ; 121(50): 11249-11261, 2017 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29172512

RESUMO

Recently, a 3-hydroxychromone based nucleoside 3HCnt has been developed as a highly environment-sensitive nucleoside surrogate to investigate protein-DNA interactions. When it is incorporated in DNA, the probe is up to 50-fold brighter than 2-aminopurine, the reference fluorescent nucleoside. Although the insertion of 3HCnt in DNA was previously shown to not alter the overall DNA structure, the possibility of the probe inducing local effects cannot be ruled out. Hence, a systematic structural and dynamic study is required to unveil the 3HCnt's limitations and to properly interpret the data obtained with this universal probe. Here, we investigated by NMR a 12-mer duplex, in which a central adenine was replaced by 3HCnt. The chemical shifts variations and nOe contacts revealed that the 3HCnt is well inserted in the DNA double helix with extensive stacking interactions with the neighbor base pairs. These observations are in excellent agreement with the steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence properties indicating that the 3HCnt fluorophore is protected from the solvent and does not exhibit rotational motion. The 3HCnt insertion in DNA is accompanied by the extrusion of the opposite nucleobase from the double helix. Molecular dynamics simulations using NMR-restraints demonstrated that 3HCnt fluorophore exhibits only translational dynamics. Taken together, our data showed an excellent intercalation of 3HCnt in the DNA double helix, which is accompanied by localized perturbations. This confirms 3HCnt as a highly promising tool for nucleic acid labeling and sensing.


Assuntos
Cromonas/química , DNA/química , Fluorescência , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico
3.
Sci Rep ; 7: 43954, 2017 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28266653

RESUMO

Werner syndrome is caused by mutations in the WRN gene encoding WRN helicase. A knowledge of WRN helicase's DNA unwinding mechanism in vitro is helpful for predicting its behaviors in vivo, and then understanding their biological functions. In the present study, for deeply understanding the DNA unwinding mechanism of WRN, we comprehensively characterized the DNA unwinding properties of chicken WRN helicase core in details, by taking advantages of single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) method. We showed that WRN exhibits repetitive DNA unwinding and translocation behaviors on different DNA structures, including forked, overhanging and G-quadruplex-containing DNAs with an apparently limited unwinding processivity. It was further revealed that the repetitive behaviors were caused by reciprocating of WRN along the same ssDNA, rather than by complete dissociation from and rebinding to substrates or by strand switching. The present study sheds new light on the mechanism for WRN functioning.


Assuntos
Galinhas , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , DNA/metabolismo , Helicase da Síndrome de Werner/metabolismo , Animais , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Imagem Individual de Molécula
4.
Sci Rep ; 7: 42865, 2017 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28216645

RESUMO

3'-5' exonucleases are frequently found to be associated to polymerases or helicases domains in the same enzyme or could function as autonomous entities. Here we uncovered that Candida albicans Pif1 (CaPif1) displays a 3'-5' exonuclease activity besides its main helicase activity. These two latter activities appear to reside on the same polypeptide and the new exonuclease activity could be mapped to the helicase core domain. We clearly show that CaPif1 displays exclusively exonuclease activity and unambiguously establish the directionality of the exonuclease activity as the 3'-to-5' polarity. The enzyme appears to follow the two-metal-ion driven hydrolyzing activity exhibited by most of the nucleases, as shown by its dependence of magnesium and also by the identification of aspartic residues. Interestingly, an excellent correlation could be found between the presence of the conserved residues and the exonuclease activity when testing activities on Pif1 enzymes from eight fungal organisms. In contrast to others proteins endowed with the double helicase/exonuclease functionality, CaPif1 differs in the fact that the two activities are embedded in the same helicase domain and not located on separated domains. Our findings may suggest a biochemical basis for mechanistic studies of Pif1 family helicases.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/enzimologia , DNA Helicases/química , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Exonucleases/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Candida albicans/química , Sequência Conservada , Exonucleases/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Magnésio/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos
5.
RNA ; 22(4): 506-17, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26826129

RESUMO

The mature HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein NCp7 (NC) plays a key role in reverse transcription facilitating the two obligatory strand transfers. Several properties contribute to its efficient chaperon activity: preferential binding to single-stranded regions, nucleic acid aggregation, helix destabilization, and rapid dissociation from nucleic acids. However, little is known about the relationships between these different properties, which are complicated by the ability of the protein to recognize particular HIV-1 stem-loops, such as SL1, SL2, and SL3, with high affinity and without destabilizing them. These latter properties are important in the context of genome packaging, during which NC is part of the Gag precursor. We used NMR to investigate destabilization of the full-length TAR (trans activating response element) RNA by NC, which is involved in the first strand transfer step of reverse transcription. NC was used at a low protein:nucleotide (nt) ratio of 1:59 in these experiments. NMR data for the imino protons of TAR identified most of the base pairs destabilized by NC. These base pairs were adjacent to the loops in the upper part of the TAR hairpin rather than randomly distributed. Gel retardation assays showed that conversion from the initial TAR-cTAR complex to the fully annealed form occurred much more slowly at the 1:59 ratio than at the higher ratios classically used. Nevertheless, NC significantly accelerated the formation of the initial complex at a ratio of 1:59.


Assuntos
HIV-1/genética , RNA Viral/química , Produtos do Gene gag do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/química , Sequência de Bases , Sequências Repetidas Invertidas , Cinética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Ligação Proteica , Estabilidade de RNA , Elementos de Resposta
6.
J Biol Chem ; 291(7): 3468-82, 2016 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26668324

RESUMO

An essential step of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcription is the first strand transfer that requires base pairing of the R region at the 3'-end of the genomic RNA with the complementary r region at the 3'-end of minus-strand strong-stop DNA (ssDNA). HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) facilitates this annealing process. Determination of the ssDNA structure is needed to understand the molecular basis of NC-mediated genomic RNA-ssDNA annealing. For this purpose, we investigated ssDNA using structural probes (nucleases and potassium permanganate). This study is the first to determine the secondary structure of the full-length HIV-1 ssDNA in the absence or presence of NC. The probing data and phylogenetic analysis support the folding of ssDNA into three stem-loop structures and the presence of four high-affinity binding sites for NC. Our results support a model for the NC-mediated annealing process in which the preferential binding of NC to four sites triggers unfolding of the three-dimensional structure of ssDNA, thus facilitating interaction of the r sequence of ssDNA with the R sequence of the genomic RNA. In addition, using gel retardation assays and ssDNA mutants, we show that the NC-mediated annealing process does not rely on a single pathway (zipper intermediate or kissing complex).


Assuntos
Códon de Terminação , DNA de Cadeia Simples/química , DNA Viral/química , HIV-1/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/química , Produtos do Gene gag do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/química , Sítios de Ligação , DNA Recombinante/química , DNA Recombinante/isolamento & purificação , DNA Recombinante/metabolismo , DNA de Cadeia Simples/isolamento & purificação , DNA de Cadeia Simples/metabolismo , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , DNA Viral/metabolismo , Ensaio de Desvio de Mobilidade Eletroforética , Cinética , Peso Molecular , Mutação , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/metabolismo , Filogenia , Conformação Proteica , RNA Viral/química , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Produtos do Gene gag do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/metabolismo
7.
PLoS One ; 9(7): e102150, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25029439

RESUMO

The HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) is a small basic protein containing two zinc fingers (ZF) separated by a short linker. It is involved in several steps of the replication cycle and acts as a nucleic acid chaperone protein in facilitating nucleic acid strand transfers occurring during reverse transcription. Recent analysis of three-dimensional structures of NC-nucleic acids complexes established a new property: the unpaired guanines targeted by NC are more often inserted in the C-terminal zinc finger (ZF2) than in the N-terminal zinc finger (ZF1). Although previous NMR dynamic studies were performed with NC, the dynamic behavior of the linker residues connecting the two ZF domains remains unclear. This prompted us to investigate the dynamic behavior of the linker residues. Here, we collected 15N NMR relaxation data and used for the first time data at several fields to probe the protein dynamics. The analysis at two fields allows us to detect a slow motion occurring between the two domains around a hinge located in the linker at the G35 position. However, the amplitude of motion appears limited in our conditions. In addition, we showed that the neighboring linker residues R29, A30, P31, R32, K33 displayed restricted motion and numerous contacts with residues of ZF1. Our results are fully consistent with a model in which the ZF1-linker contacts prevent the ZF1 domain to interact with unpaired guanines, whereas the ZF2 domain is more accessible and competent to interact with unpaired guanines. In contrast, ZF1 with its large hydrophobic plateau is able to destabilize the double-stranded regions adjacent to the guanines bound by ZF2. The linker residues and the internal dynamics of NC regulate therefore the different functions of the two zinc fingers that are required for an optimal chaperone activity.


Assuntos
DNA/metabolismo , HIV-1 , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/química , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo , Dedos de Zinco , Modelos Moleculares , Rotação
8.
PLoS One ; 7(6): e38905, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22745685

RESUMO

HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) is involved in the rearrangement of nucleic acids occurring in key steps of reverse transcription. The protein, through its two zinc fingers, interacts preferentially with unpaired guanines in single-stranded sequences. In mini-cTAR stem-loop, which corresponds to the top half of the cDNA copy of the transactivation response element of the HIV-1 genome, NC was found to exhibit a clear preference for the TGG sequence at the bottom of mini-cTAR stem. To further understand how this site was selected among several potential binding sites containing unpaired guanines, we probed the intrinsic dynamics of mini-cTAR using (13)C relaxation measurements. Results of spin relaxation time measurements have been analyzed using the model-free formalism and completed by dispersion relaxation measurements. Our data indicate that the preferentially recognized guanine in the lower part of the stem is exempt of conformational exchange and highly mobile. In contrast, the unrecognized unpaired guanines of mini-cTAR are involved in conformational exchange, probably related to transient base-pairs. These findings support the notion that NC preferentially recognizes unpaired guanines exhibiting a high degree of mobility. The ability of NC to discriminate between close sequences through their dynamic properties contributes to understanding how NC recognizes specific sites within the HIV genome.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/metabolismo , HIV-1/metabolismo , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/metabolismo , DNA Viral/química , Ensaio de Desvio de Mobilidade Eletroforética , HIV-1/genética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/química , Ligação Proteica
9.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 39(18): 8148-62, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21724607

RESUMO

Annealing of the TAR RNA hairpin to the cTAR DNA hairpin is required for the minus-strand transfer step of HIV-1 reverse transcription. HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) plays a crucial role by facilitating annealing of the complementary hairpins. To gain insight into the mechanism of NC-mediated TAR RNA-DNA annealing, we used structural probes (nucleases and potassium permanganate), gel retardation assays, fluorescence anisotropy and cTAR mutants under conditions allowing strand transfer. In the absence of NC, cTAR DNA-TAR RNA annealing depends on nucleation through the apical loops. We show that the annealing intermediate of the kissing pathway is a loop-loop kissing complex involving six base-pairs and that the apical stems are not destabilized by this loop-loop interaction. Our data support a dynamic structure of the cTAR hairpin in the absence of NC, involving equilibrium between both the closed conformation and the partially open 'Y' conformation. This study is the first to show that the apical and internal loops of cTAR are weak and strong binding sites for NC, respectively. NC slightly destabilizes the lower stem that is adjacent to the internal loop and shifts the equilibrium toward the 'Y' conformation exhibiting at least 12 unpaired nucleotides in its lower part.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/química , Repetição Terminal Longa de HIV , HIV-1/genética , RNA Viral/química , Produtos do Gene gag do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Sítios de Ligação , Ensaio de Desvio de Mobilidade Eletroforética , Polarização de Fluorescência , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico
10.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 39(9): 3903-16, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21227929

RESUMO

An essential step of the reverse transcription of the HIV-1 genome is the first strand transfer that requires the annealing of the TAR RNA hairpin to the cTAR DNA hairpin. HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) plays a crucial role by facilitating annealing of the complementary hairpins. Using nuclear magnetic resonance and gel retardation assays, we investigated the interaction between NC and the top half of the cTAR DNA (mini-cTAR). We show that NC(11-55) binds the TGG sequence in the lower stem that is destabilized by the adjacent internal loop. The 5' thymine interacts with residues of the N-terminal zinc knuckle and the 3' guanine is inserted in the hydrophobic plateau of the C-terminal zinc knuckle. The TGG sequence is preferred relative to the apical and internal loops containing unpaired guanines. Investigation of the DNA-protein contacts shows the major role of hydrophobic interactions involving nucleobases and deoxyribose sugars. A similar network of hydrophobic contacts is observed in the published NC:DNA complexes, whereas NC contacts ribose differently in NC:RNA complexes. We propose that the binding polarity of NC is related to these contacts that could be responsible for the preferential binding to single-stranded nucleic acids.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/química , Desoxirribose/química , Repetição Terminal Longa de HIV , Produtos do Gene gag do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , DNA Viral/metabolismo , Ensaio de Desvio de Mobilidade Eletroforética , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Ligação Proteica , Produtos do Gene gag do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/metabolismo
11.
PLoS One ; 4(1): e4081, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19119323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Integrase (IN) of the type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) catalyzes the integration of viral DNA into host cellular DNA. We identified a bi-helix motif (residues 149-186) in the crystal structure of the catalytic core (CC) of the IN-Phe185Lys variant that consists of the alpha(4) and alpha(5) helices connected by a 3 to 5-residue turn. The motif is embedded in a large array of interactions that stabilize the monomer and the dimer. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe the conformational and binding properties of the corresponding synthetic peptide. This displays features of the protein motif structure thanks to the mutual intramolecular interactions of the alpha(4) and alpha(5) helices that maintain the fold. The main properties are the binding to: 1- the processing-attachment site at the LTR (long terminal repeat) ends of virus DNA with a K(d) (dissociation constant) in the sub-micromolar range; 2- the whole IN enzyme; and 3- the IN binding domain (IBD) but not the IBD-Asp366Asn variant of LEDGF (lens epidermal derived growth factor) lacking the essential Asp366 residue. In our motif, in contrast to the conventional HTH (helix-turn-helix), it is the N terminal helix (alpha(4)) which has the role of DNA recognition helix, while the C terminal helix (alpha(5)) would rather contribute to the motif stabilization by interactions with the alpha(4) helix. CONCLUSION: The motif, termed HTHi (i, for inverted) emerges as a central piece of the IN structure and function. It could therefore represent an attractive target in the search for inhibitors working at the DNA-IN, IN-IN and IN-LEDGF interfaces.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/metabolismo , Integrase de HIV/química , Integrase de HIV/metabolismo , HIV-1/enzimologia , Sequências Hélice-Volta-Hélice , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Integrase de HIV/genética , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Oligonucleotídeos/química , Oligonucleotídeos/genética , Oligonucleotídeos/metabolismo , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/genética , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína
12.
J Mol Biol ; 381(3): 692-706, 2008 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18585388

RESUMO

Topoisomerase II enzymes are essential enzymes that modulate DNA topology and play a role in chromatin compaction. While these enzymes appear to recognize and cleave the DNA in a nonrandom fashion, factors that underlie enzyme specificity remain an enigma. To gain new insights on these topics, we undertake, using NMR and molecular dynamics methods, studies of the structural and dynamic features of a 21 bp DNA segment preferentially cleaved by topoisomerases II. The large size of the oligonucleotide did not hamper the determination of structures of sufficient quality, and numerous interesting correlations between helicoidal parameters already depicted in crystals and molecular dynamics simulations are recovered here. The main feature of the sequence is the occurrence of a large opening of the base pairs in a four-residue AT-rich region located immediately at the 5' end of one of the cleaved sites. This opening seems to be largely dependent on sequence context, since a similar opening is not found in the other AT base pairs of the sequence. Furthermore, two adenine nucleotides of the same portion of the oligonucleotide present slow internal motions at the NMR timescale, revealing particular base dynamics. In conclusion, this AT-rich region presents the most salient character in the sequence and could be involved in the preferential cleavage by topoisomerase II. The examination of preferred sites in the literature pointed out the frequent occurrence of AT-rich sequences, namely matrix attachment region and scaffold attachment region sequences, at the sites cleaved by topoisomerase II. We could infer that the particular flexibility of these sequences plays an important role in enabling the formation of a competent cleavage complex. The sequences could then be selected based on their facility to undertake conformational change during the complex formation, rather than purely based on binding affinity.


Assuntos
DNA Topoisomerases Tipo II/química , DNA/química , Pareamento de Bases , Sequência de Bases , Simulação por Computador , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Oligonucleotídeos/química , Especificidade por Substrato
13.
Biochimie ; 89(4): 508-15, 2007 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17397986

RESUMO

DNA topoisomerase II is an enzyme that specializes in DNA disentanglement. It catalyzes the interconversion of DNA between different topological states. This event requires the passage of one duplex through another one via a transient double-strand break. Topoisomerase II is able to process any type of DNA, including structures such as DNA juxtapositions (crossovers), DNA hairpins or cruciforms, which are recognized with high specificity. In this review, we focused our attention on topoisomerase II recognizing DNA substrates that possess particular geometries. A strong cleavage site, as we identified in pBR322 DNA in the presence of ellipticine (site 22), appears to be characterized by a cruciform structure formed from two stable hairpins. The same sequence could also constitute a four-way junction structure stabilized by interactions involving ATC sequences. The latter have been shown to be able to promote Holliday junctions. We reviewed the recent literature that deals with the preferential recognition of crossovers by various topoisomerases. The single molecule relaxation experiments have demonstrated the differential abilities of the topoisomerases to recognize crossovers. It appears that enzymes, which distinguish the chirality of the crossovers, possess specialized domains dedicated to this function. We also stress that the formation of crossovers is dependent on the presence of adequate stabilizing sequences. Investigation of the impact of such structures on enzyme activity is important in order to both improve our knowledge of the mechanism of action of the topoisomerase II and to develop new inhibitors of this enzyme.


Assuntos
DNA Topoisomerases Tipo II/metabolismo , DNA/química , DNA/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Conformação Proteica , Especificidade por Substrato
14.
J Phys Chem B ; 111(16): 4235-43, 2007 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17391020

RESUMO

The dynamics of the DNA phosphodiester backbone conformations have been studied for a strong topoisomerase II cleavage site (site 22) using molecular dynamics simulations in explicit water and in the presence of sodium ions. We investigated the backbone motions and more particularly the BI/BII transitions involving the epsilon and zeta angles. The consensus cleavage site is adjacent to the phosphate which shows the most important phosphodiester backbone flexibility in the sequence. We infer that these latter properties could be responsible for the preferential cleavage at this site possibly through the perturbation of the cleavage/ligation activities of the topoisomerase II. More generally, the steps pur-pur and pyr-pur are those presenting the highest BII contents. Relations are observed between the backbone phosphodiester BI/BII transitions and the flexibility of the deoxyribose sugar and the helical parameters such as roll. The roll is sequence dependent when the related phosphate is in the BI form, whereas this appears not to be true when it is in the BII form. The BI/BII transitions are associated with water migration, and new relations are observed with counterions. Indeed, it is observed that a strong coupling exists between the BII form and the presence of sodium ions near the adjacent sugar deoxyribose. The presence of sodium ions in the O4' surroundings or their binding could assist the BI to BII transition by furnishing energy. The implications of these new findings and, namely, their importance in the context of the sequence-dependent behavior of BI/BII transitions will be investigated in future studies.


Assuntos
DNA Topoisomerases Tipo II/metabolismo , DNA/química , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Sequência de Bases , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo II/química , Ésteres/química
15.
J Biomol NMR ; 36(3): 137-46, 2006 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17019642

RESUMO

(13)C, (15)N labeling of biomolecules allows easier assignments of NMR resonances and provides a larger number of NMR parameters, which greatly improves the quality of DNA structures. However, there is no general DNA-labeling procedure, like those employed for proteins and RNAs. Here, we describe a general and widely applicable approach designed for preparation of isotopically labeled DNA fragments that can be used for NMR studies. The procedure is based on the PCR amplification of oligonucleotides in the presence of labeled deoxynucleotides triphosphates. It allows great flexibility thanks to insertion of a short DNA sequence (linker) between two repeats of DNA sequence to study. Size and sequence of the linker are designed as to create restriction sites at the junctions with DNA of interest. DNA duplex with desired sequence and size is released upon enzymatic digestion of the PCR product. The suitability of the procedure is validated through the preparation of two biological relevant DNA fragments.


Assuntos
DNA/química , Marcação por Isótopo/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/química , Isótopos de Carbono , Primers do DNA , Métodos , Isótopos de Nitrogênio , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/síntese química , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
16.
Biochimie ; 88(3-4): 253-63, 2006 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16213649

RESUMO

The eukaryotic topoisomerase II is an ubiquitous nuclear enzyme involved in vital cellular functions. It is also the target for some of the most active anticancer drugs. In the various crystal structures of yeast topoisomerase II, the 701-748 segment homologous to the human topoisomerase II alpha 724-771 segment folds into a compact alpha(2)beta(1)alpha(3)talpha(4) conformation, hereafter termed alpha(2)HTH module (helix turn helix (HTH), alpha(3)talpha(4)). The crystal structure of gyrase A has suggested a model wherein HTH is involved in both the enzyme dimerization and the binding to DNA. These two properties were investigated in solution, using the recombinant alpha(2)HTH module of human topoisomerase II alpha and its synthetic components HTH, alpha(4), alpha(3) and turn. The homology-based structure model of human alpha(2)HTH superposed that of yeast in the crystal structure with a rmsd of 1.03 A. Circular dichroism spectra showed that the helical content of human alpha(2)HTH in solution is similar to that of its counterpart within yeast topoisomerase II in the solid state. The chemical cross-linking data indicated that alpha(2)HTH self-associated into dimers while gel mobility shift assays and anisotropy fluorescence titrations demonstrated that alpha(2)HTH, HTH and alpha(4), but not alpha(3), bind efficiently to DNA (dissociation constants of 3.10(-7) M for alpha(2)HTH and alpha(4), of 3.10(-6) M for HTH and of only 1.10(-5) M for alpha(3)). Correlatively, alpha(2)HTH, alpha(4) and HTH, but not alpha(3), were able to inhibit topoisomerase II in DNA relaxation assays, stipulating that alpha(4) is the DNA recognition helix. All suggests that the alpha(2)HTH module once separated from the whole protein conserves a compact conformation, integral to specific dimerization and DNA recognition. The module may thus be used for the search of drugs efficient in hindering topoisomerase II dimerization or binding to DNA.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/química , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo II/química , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo II/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Sequências Hélice-Volta-Hélice , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , DNA/química , DNA/metabolismo , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo II/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Dimerização , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Dobramento de Proteína , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Alinhamento de Sequência , Inibidores da Topoisomerase II
17.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 64(7): 1125-31, 2002 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12234615

RESUMO

We investigated the possibility of utilizing alga cells instead of mammalian cells for the screening of anticancer drugs. The alga cells grow in synthetic media whereas the mammalian cells require complex and more expensive media along with heavy investment and manpower. To assess the validity of this new approach, analysis of growth inhibition by antitumor agents was carried out jointly on a wall-less (cw15) mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, that obviates the problem of drug uptake, and the murine leukemic cell line L1210, commonly used for anticancer drug screening. The presence of the topoisomerases I and II (approximately 97 and approximately 2 x 170 kDa, respectively) in the nuclear extracts of C. reinhardtii and their possible role as targets of the drugs was also investigated. Concentrated extracts were separated into >100 and <100 kDa fractions and their topoisomerase I and II activities were measured on relaxation of supercoiled plasmid DNA, decatenation of the catenated kinetoplast DNA and cleavage of plasmid DNA. Our results do not show significant difference in growth inhibition by antitumorals between the wall-less mutant of the alga and the murine leukemic cell line L1210. We noted that alga cells were inhibited by antibiotics that target gyrase, a bacterial variant of topoisomerase II which is also found in chloroplasts. At the molecular level, the alga nuclear fractions, >100 and <100 kDa, displayed the same activities as the mammalian enzymes topoisomerases I and II, respectively, and were blocked by the same poisons. We concluded that the wall-less cw15 mutant of C. reinhardtii could advantageously replace mammalian cells in the screening of the anticancer drugs. The alga enzymes could also provide an opportunity to delineate the phylogeny of the topoisomerase superfamily.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/métodos , Animais , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/enzimologia , Cloroplastos/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Girase/metabolismo , DNA Topoisomerases/metabolismo , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Leucemia L1210/patologia , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação , Inibidores da Topoisomerase II , Inibidores da Topoisomerase
18.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 12(1): 91-110, 1994 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22671910

RESUMO

Abstract In order to target the major groove of DNA, we have designed novel peptide derivatives of 7-H pyridocarbazole, which is the chromophoric ring of ditercalinium, a potent antitumor bisin- tercalator. We will present here the results obtained with a compound that has a D-Asn tethered to the pyridinium nitrogen of the ring by a protonated ß-alanyl-ethyl chain. We have investigated two alternative means of intercalation of the chromophore: first, into the (pur-pur) sequences, d(CpG)(2) and d(CpA)·d(TpG); second, into the (pur-pyr) sequences, d(GpC)(2)and d(GpT)·d(ApC). For the first intercalative mode, the best bound triplet sequences are d(ACG)·d(CGT) and d(ACA) d(TGT), namely with an adenine immediately upstream from the intercalation site. In these complexes, the chromophore has its concave side in the major groove, its long axis nearly colinear with the mean long axis of the two base pairs of the intercalation site, and a bidentate H-bonded configuration occurs which involves the C=0 and NH groups of the D-Asn side chain and HN(6) and N(7) (resp.) of the adenine base upstream. One alkylammonium proton is H-bonded to N(7) of the guanine of the intercalation site, on the strand opposite to the one bearing the adenine. In the second intercalative mode, the chromophore's concave site now faces one DNA strand, and both alkylammonium protons are involved in H-bonds with N(7) and O(6) of the 3' guanine on the same strand. The peptide's complexes with sequences having A, G, or C upstream of this guanine were computed to be energetically competitive with those with the best (pyr-pur) triplets. This provides a rare example of energetically favourable drug intercalation in-between (pur-pyr) sequences as compared to the standard (pyr-pur) ones. The synthesis of this compound was performed, and a series of footprinting experiments undertaken on a total of approximately 300 nucleotides. These experiments were consistent with the inferences from the theoretical computations.

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