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1.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 83(2): 109-112, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015265

RESUMO

Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is an effective treatment for patients with allergic diseases; it has been shown to modify the underlying cause of the disease. The house dust mite (HDM) is a major perennial allergen source and a significant cause of allergic-related diseases such as allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis. HDM allergen is an important factor in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. Sensitization to HDM allergen often occurs early in life and appears to play an important role in the progression from allergic rhinitis to asthma in children. The role of HDM AIT results in immunologic tolerance, provides an alternative option for treating HDM allergy through targeting the mechanisms of allergic reaction, and creates a long-term benefit. There are two forms of testing for aeroallergen, either detect by skin testing or by in vitro IgE assays. Both subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy are effective in the treatment of allergic diseases. In the future, new forms of allergen extracts can help improve safety and efficacy of AIT. Novel approaches to immunotherapy currently being explored include the use of adjuvants, allergen-derived peptides, modified recombinant allergen vaccines, and gene-specific immunotherapy.

2.
Mol Plant ; 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001363

RESUMO

Recently developed CRISPR-mediated base editors, which enable numerous nucleotide changes in target genomic regions, have been widely adopted in gene correction and generating gain-of-function crop germplasms in relation to important genetic variations. However, engineering target genes with unknown functional SNPs remains a challenge. To address this question, here we present a base-editor-mediated gene evolution method (BEMGE), mediated by both Cas9n-based cytosine and adenine base editors as well as a sgRNA library tiling the full-length coding region, for developing novel germplasms of any endogenous gene in rice. To this end, OsALS1 was artificially evolved in rice cells using BEMGE through both Agrobacterium- and particle bombardment-mediated transformation. Four different types of amino acid substitutions in the evolved OsALS1, derived from two loci which have never been targeted by natural or human selection during rice domestication, were identified conferring varying levels of tolerance to herbicide bispyribac-sodium. Furthermore, the P171F substitution identified in a strong OsALS1 allele was quickly introduced into the commercial rice cultivar Nangeng 46 through precise base editing with the corresponding base editor and sgRNA. All these data indicate a great potential of BEMGE in identification of important genetic variations of target genes and in future crop improvement.

3.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(3): 1022-1029, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931563

RESUMO

It is widely accepted that the sensitivity of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is mainly manipulated by the electromagnetic enhancement mechanism (EM). Herein, we determined that the direct adsorption of the target on the SERS active surface is vital as well, through the systematic investigation of the SERS behavior of three positively charged molecules on negatively charged gold (Au) or silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). Facilitated by the synergistic effect among the molecule, the surface, and the specific adsorbed halide ions (Cl-, Br-, and I-), high SERS sensitivity for trace target was realized, which was mainly from the directly adsorbed molecules. Noteworthy, little contribution from the nondirectly adsorbed molecules was discernible, although the EM enhancement was at the same level for these two surface species dwelling within a distance significantly less than 1 nm from the surface. Further, the related strategy for trace detection sheds light on how to realize sensitive SERS detection of new targets.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(3): 1341-1347, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893500

RESUMO

Active oxygen species (AOS) play key roles in many important catalytic reactions relevant to clean energy and environment. However, it remains challenging to characterize the active sites for producing AOS and to image the surface properties of AOS, especially on multicomponent metallic catalyst surfaces. Herein, we utilize tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) to probe the local generation and diffusion of OH radicals on a Pd/Au(111) bimetallic catalyst surface. The reactive OH radicals can be catalytically generated from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at the metal surface, which then oxidizes the surface adsorbed thiolate, a reactant that is used as the TERS probe. By TERS imaging of the spatial distribution of unreacted thiolate molecules, we demonstrate that the Pd surface is active for generation of OH radicals and the Pd step edge shows much higher activity than the Pd terrace, whereas the Au surface is inactive. Furthermore, we find that the locally generated OH radicals at the Pd step edge could diffuse to both the Au and the Pd surface sites to induce oxidative reactions, with a diffusion length estimated to be about 5.4 nm. Our TERS imaging with few-nanometer spatial resolution not only unravels the active sites but also characterizes in real space the diffusion behavior of OH radicals. The results are highly valuable to understand AOS-triggered catalytic reactions. The strategy of using reactants with large Raman cross sections as TERS probes may broaden the application of TERS for studying catalysis with reactive small molecules.

6.
Nature ; 577(7789): 266-270, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827282

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by transcriptional dysregulation that results in a block in differentiation and increased malignant self-renewal. Various epigenetic therapies aimed at reversing these hallmarks of AML have progressed into clinical trials, but most show only modest efficacy owing to an inability to effectively eradicate leukaemia stem cells (LSCs)1. Here, to specifically identify novel dependencies in LSCs, we screened a bespoke library of small hairpin RNAs that target chromatin regulators in a unique ex vivo mouse model of LSCs. We identify the MYST acetyltransferase HBO1 (also known as KAT7 or MYST2) and several known members of the HBO1 protein complex as critical regulators of LSC maintenance. Using CRISPR domain screening and quantitative mass spectrometry, we identified the histone acetyltransferase domain of HBO1 as being essential in the acetylation of histone H3 at K14. H3 acetylated at K14 (H3K14ac) facilitates the processivity of RNA polymerase II to maintain the high expression of key genes (including Hoxa9 and Hoxa10) that help to sustain the functional properties of LSCs. To leverage this dependency therapeutically, we developed a highly potent small-molecule inhibitor of HBO1 and demonstrate its mode of activity as a competitive analogue of acetyl-CoA. Inhibition of HBO1 phenocopied our genetic data and showed efficacy in a broad range of human cell lines and primary AML cells from patients. These biological, structural and chemical insights into a therapeutic target in AML will enable the clinical translation of these findings.

7.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 83(1): 5-7, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569091

RESUMO

Measles is a highly infectious viral illness and is one of the world's most contagious diseases that can affect all people if they have not been vaccinated or have not had it before. Before measles vaccine became available in 1963, major epidemic occurred approximately every 2 to 3 years and thus 99% of the people were thought to have been infected naturally with measles virus and got immune for life. In 2000, measles was declared eliminated from the United States, and yet 1215 cases have been reported from 30 states as of August 22, 2019. Currently, there are several large measles outbreaks universally, and some people who were not immune and they need to get their measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine to prevent measles outbreaks. As vaccination coverage increases, the average age of measles infection can change to adolescents and young adults. In addition, the protective antibodies derived from vaccination might decrease gradually, and the risk of measles infection in young adults is increasing regardless of international travelling.

8.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(1): 98-105, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854909

RESUMO

Since the introduction of ultra-low emissions, the characteristics of particulate matter (PM) emissions from coal-fired power plants have changed. We quantitatively evaluate the emission characteristics of each component in PM and the impact of purification equipment by analyzing three ultra-low emission units of coal-fired power plants (FP1, FP2, and FP3). A DGI was used to sample particles from the wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) unit and wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) inlet and outlet, which were then analyzed by various methods. The results showed that the mass concentrations of PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 discharged from the outlets of the three units were 0.25-0.38, 0.31-0.42, and 0.42-0.57 mg·m-3, respectively, and that the mass concentration of PM10 discharged under the two kinds of units was equivalent. However, there were differences in the particle size distribution and composition of the particles. In comparison to the FP1 and FP2 units, the PM2.5/PM10 ratio of the FP3 unit was the highest. A possible reason for this is that the unit was equipped with a WESP, which can better remove particle sizes of 2.5 µm or more. The total concentrations of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 discharged from the FP2 and FP3 units were 0.20 and 0.06 mg·m-3, respectively. The water-soluble ions emitted from the FP2 unit were mainly Ca2+ and SO42-, whereas those mainly emitted from the FP3 unit were NH4+ and SO42-. Analysis of the PM from the WFGD import and export of the FP2 unit showed that the WFGD process increased the water-soluble ion discharge by entraining the desulfurization slurry containing limestone and gypsum. Addition of a WESP after WFGD can effectively remove PM2.5 and PM10 particles and reduce the influence of water-soluble ions on the atmospheric environment.

9.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2019: 8128501, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827380

RESUMO

Accumulated studies have implicated microRNAs (miRNAs) exert modifying effects on colorectal cancer (CRC). Protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type O (PTPRO) has been identified as a tumor suppressor in several kinds of cancer, including CRC. Previously, we have found that exosome-encapsulated miR-6803-5p is increased in CRC. However, the mechanism of miR-6803-5p in CRC is not clear yet. This study is aimed at elucidating the effect of miR-6803-5p in colorectal carcinogenesis. Expression of miR-6803-5p and PTPRO mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of CRC patients is estimated by real-time PCR. PTPRO protein in CRC cells is detected by western blot. To verify the association of miR-6803-5p with PTPRO, luciferase reporter assay is performed. CCK-8 and EdU assays are conducted to assess cell proliferation. Real-time PCR and ELISA are applied to detect cytokine expression in CRC cells. Cell invasion and migration assays are evaluated by transwell and scratch tests. Immunofluorescence is carried out to determine the activation of NF-κB in HCT116 cells. Negative correlation is demonstrated between miR-6803-5p and PTPRO in CRC. PTPRO is demonstrated to be a direct target of miR-6803-5p. miR-6803-5p can promote cancer cell proliferation and invasion and enhance inflammation through PTPRO/NF-κB axis in CRC, which serves as a useful target for CRC.

10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5544, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804496

RESUMO

Defects can induce drastic changes of the electronic properties of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides and influence their applications. It is still a great challenge to characterize small defects and correlate their structures with properties. Here, we show that tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) can obtain distinctly different Raman features of edge defects in atomically thin MoS2, which allows us to probe their unique electronic properties and identify defect types (e.g., armchair and zigzag edges) in ambient. We observed an edge-induced Raman peak (396 cm-1) activated by the double resonance Raman scattering (DRRS) process and revealed electron-phonon interaction in edges. We further visualize the edge-induced band bending region by using this DRRS peak and electronic transition region using the electron density-sensitive Raman peak at 406 cm-1. The power of TERS demonstrated in MoS2 can also be extended to other 2D materials, which may guide the defect engineering for desired properties.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761352

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) is a serious worldwide disease that threatens women's health. Particularly, the morbidity of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is higher than that of other BC types due to its high molecular heterogeneity, metastatic potential and poor prognosis. TNBC lacks of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), so there are still no effective treatment methods for TNBC. Here, we reviewed the classification of TNBC, its molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis, treatment methods and prognosis. Finding effective targets is critical for the treatment of TNBC. Also, refining the classification of TNBC is benefited to choose the treatment of TNBC, because the sensitivity of chemotherapy is different in different TNBC. Some new treatment methods have been proposed in recent years, such as nutritional therapy and noncoding RNA treatment methods. There are some disadvantages, such as the side effect on normal cells after nutrient deprivation, low specificity and instability of noncoding RNA. More studies are necessary to improve the treatment of TNBC.

12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(48): 18984-18993, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707782

RESUMO

Multivariate metal-organic frameworks (MTV-MOFs) incorporating multiple chemical functionalities within single-phase crystalline materials show superior properties that arise from synergistic effects. Herein, we report an efficient and versatile method for the growth of highly oriented multivariate surface-attached MOFs (MTV-SURMOFs) by the combination of the liquid-epitaxial growth method (LPE) and the mixed-linker strategy. Twenty-six MTV-SURMOFs of the [M2L2P] type with a maximum of five different dicarboxylate linkers (L) were deposited onto suitably functionalized surfaces. Systematic studies by infrared reflection absorption (IRRA) spectroscopy and surface XRD provide evidence for the formation of highly oriented MTV-SURMOFs. Interestingly, the pKa's of the dicarboxylate linkers play a crucial role for the orientational quality of the MTV-SURMOFs. In addition, benzene uptake experiments showed that the MTV-SURMOFs exhibit up to 2.6 times higher adsorption capacity as compared to the single-linker SURMOFs, demonstrating the synergistic effects in these surface systems.

13.
J Clin Med ; 8(11)2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739580

RESUMO

Arteriogenesis supplies oxygen and nutrients in the tumor microenvironment (TME), which may play an important role in tumor growth and metastasis. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are the second most common pancreatic malignancy and are frequently metastatic on presentation. Nearly a third of pNETs secrete bioactive substances causing debilitating symptoms. Current treatment options for metastatic pNETs are limited. Importantly, these tumors are highly vascularized and heterogeneous neoplasms, in which the heterogeneity of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and de novo arteriogenesis may be critical for their progression. Current anti-angiogenetic targeted treatments have not shown substantial clinical benefits, and they are poorly tolerated. This review article describes EC heterogeneity and heterogeneous tumor-associated ECs (TAECs) in the TME and emphasizes the concept of de novo arteriogenesis in the TME. The authors also emphasize the challenges of current antiangiogenic therapy in pNETs and discuss the potential of tumor arteriogenesis as a novel therapeutic target. Finally, the authors prospect the clinical potential of targeting the FoxO1-CD36-Notch pathway that is associated with both pNET progression and arteriogenesis and provide insights into the clinical implications of targeting plasticity of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and vascular niche, particularly the arteriolar niche within the TME in pNETs, which will also provide insights into other types of cancer, including breast cancer, lung cancer, and malignant melanoma.

14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5318, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754221

RESUMO

Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy allows for high-speed label-free chemical imaging of biomedical systems. The imaging sensitivity of SRS microscopy is limited to ~10 mM for endogenous biomolecules. Electronic pre-resonant SRS allows detection of sub-micromolar chromophores. However, label-free SRS detection of single biomolecules having extremely small Raman cross-sections (~10-30 cm2 sr-1) remains unreachable. Here, we demonstrate plasmon-enhanced stimulated Raman scattering (PESRS) microscopy with single-molecule detection sensitivity. Incorporating pico-Joule laser excitation, background subtraction, and a denoising algorithm, we obtain robust single-pixel SRS spectra exhibiting single-molecule events, verified by using two isotopologues of adenine and further confirmed by digital blinking and bleaching in the temporal domain. To demonstrate the capability of PESRS for biological applications, we utilize PESRS to map adenine released from bacteria due to starvation stress. PESRS microscopy holds the promise for ultrasensitive detection and rapid mapping of molecular events in chemical and biomedical systems.

15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(19)2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554168

RESUMO

Salt stress is one of the key abiotic stresses that causes great loss of yield and serious decrease in quality in maize (Zea mays L.). Therefore, it is very important to reveal the molecular mechanism of salt tolerance in maize. To acknowledge the molecular mechanisms underlying maize salt tolerance, two maize inbred lines, including salt-tolerant 8723 and salt-sensitive P138, were used in this study. Comparative proteomics of seedling roots from two maize inbred lines under 180 mM salt stress for 10 days were performed by the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) approach. A total of 1056 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified. In total, 626 DEPs were identified in line 8723 under salt stress, among them, 378 up-regulated and 248 down-regulated. There were 473 DEPs identified in P138, of which 212 were up-regulated and 261 were down-regulated. Venn diagram analysis showed that 17 DEPs were up-regulated and 12 DEPs were down-regulated in the two inbred lines. In addition, 8 DEPs were up-regulated in line 8723 but down-regulated in P138, 6 DEPs were down-regulated in line 8723 but up-regulated in P138. In salt-stressed 8723, the DEPs were primarily associated with phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Intriguingly, the DEPs were only associated with the nitrogen metabolism pathway in P138. Compared to P138, the root response to salt stress in 8723 could maintain stronger water retention capacity, osmotic regulation ability, synergistic effects of antioxidant enzymes, energy supply capacity, signal transduction, ammonia detoxification ability, lipid metabolism, and nucleic acid synthesis. Based on the proteome sequencing information, changes of 8 DEPs abundance were related to the corresponding mRNA levels by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results from this study may elucidate some details of salt tolerance mechanisms and salt tolerance breeding of maize.

16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(37): e17156, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517861

RESUMO

This study aims to screen differentially expressed host miRNAs that could be used as diagnostic markers for liver alveolar echinococcosis (LAE).Differentially expressed miRNAs were first screened by miRNA microarray in liver tissues from2 LAE patients and normal liver tissues from 3 LAE patients, followed by qRT-PCR validation in 15 LAE tissues and 15 normal tissues. Target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted using Targetscan, PITA and microRNAorg database, and the overlapped predicted target genes were analyzed by GO and KEGG.The hsa-miR-1237-3p, hsa-miR-33b-3p, and hsa-miR-483-3p were up-regulated whereas the hsa-miR-4306 was down-regulated in LAE tissues compared with normal controls (P < .05). The expression change of miR-483-3p was further confirmed in both liver tissues and plasma. Several predicted targets of miR-1237-3p, miR-4306, and miR-483-3p were related to DNA-dependent transcriptional regulation, developmental regulation of multicellular organisms, and biological functions such as cellular immune responses (T cell proliferation). The overlapped predicted target genes of the 4 differentially expressed miRNAs were enriched in mRNA surveillance, cancer signaling pathway, intestinal immune network, and other signal pathways.Our results indicate that miR-483-3p is a potential marker for the diagnosis of LAE, and targets of this miRNA could be the focus of further studies.


Assuntos
Equinococose Hepática/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Anal Chem ; 91(20): 12909-12916, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502828

RESUMO

Improving time resolution of Raman imaging is essential for the observation of dynamic processes involved in interfacial catalysis and biological systems. The crucial step is how to recognize and extract weak Raman signals overwhelmed in the strong noise under the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) condition. Here, by exploring the relationship between the SNR of a single Raman spectrum and the structural similarity (SSIM; the key parameter evaluating the image quality) of the whole image, we determined a semiempirical threshold with SNR = 0 dB for clear imaging for the first time. Therefore, we proposed one signal processing algorithm for fast Raman imaging by reconstructing the Raman spectrum with the aid of weak signal processing: extracting the reliable Raman signal of the target under the low SNR and then determining the suitable scanning time to obtain the Raman image with a trustworthy image quality. In the first step, fast Fourier transform (FFT), least squares, and 2-D median filter are sequentially applied to improve the SNR of each raw Raman spectrum. In the second step, a local SNR evaluation strategy is developed to predict image quality as well as the determination of clear imaging. The proposed method was successfully applied to the fast imaging of the cell under the low SNR condition.

18.
ACS Nano ; 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478375

RESUMO

The discovery of the enhancement of Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on nanostructured metal surfaces is a landmark in the history of spectroscopic and analytical techniques. Significant experimental and theoretical effort has been directed toward understanding the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect and demonstrating its potential in various types of ultrasensitive sensing applications in a wide variety of fields. In the 45 years since its discovery, SERS has blossomed into a rich area of research and technology, but additional efforts are still needed before it can be routinely used analytically and in commercial products. In this Review, prominent authors from around the world joined together to summarize the state of the art in understanding and using SERS and to predict what can be expected in the near future in terms of research, applications, and technological development. This Review is dedicated to SERS pioneer and our coauthor, the late Prof. Richard Van Duyne, whom we lost during the preparation of this article.

19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(15)2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382526

RESUMO

Many Salicaceae s.l. plants are recognized for their important role in the production of products such as wood, oils, and medicines, and as a model organism in life studies. However, the difference in plastid sequence, phylogenetic relationships, and lineage diversification of the family Salicaceae s.l. remain poorly understood. In this study, we compare 24 species representing 18 genera of the family. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are considered effective molecular markers for plant species identification and population genetics. Among them, a total of 1798 SSRs were identified, among which mononucleotide repeat was the most common with 1455 accounts representing 80.92% of the total. Most of the SSRs are located in the non-coding region. We also identified five other types of repeats, including 1750 tandems, 434 forward, 407 palindromic, 86 reverse, and 30 complementary repeats. The species in Salicaceae s.l. have a conserved plastid genome. Each plastome presented a typical quadripartite structure and varied in size due to the expansion and contraction of the inverted repeat (IR) boundary, lacking major structural variations, but we identified six divergence hotspot regions. We obtained phylogenetic relationships of 18 genera in Salicaceae s.l. and the 24 species formed a highly supported lineage. Casearia was identified as the basal clade. The divergence time between Salicaceae s.l. and the outgroup was estimated as ~93 Mya; Salix, and Populus diverged around 34 Mya, consistent with the previously reported time. Our research will contribute to a better understanding of the phylogenetic relationships among the members of the Salicaceae s.l.


Assuntos
Genomas de Plastídeos , Filogenia , Plastídeos/genética , Salicaceae/genética , Evolução Molecular , Sequências Repetidas Invertidas , Repetições de Microssatélites
20.
J Liver ; 8(1)2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341723

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is a serious, life-threatening disease with high morbidity and mortality that result from diverse causes. Liver biopsy, considered the "gold standard" to diagnose, grade, and stage liver fibrosis, has limitations in terms of invasiveness, cost, sampling variability, inter-observer variability, and the dynamic process of fibrosis. Compelling evidence has demonstrated that all stages of fibrosis are reversible if the injury is removed. There is a clear need for safe, effective, and reliable non-invasive assessment modalities to determine liver fibrosis in order to manage it precisely in personalized medicine. However, conventional imaging methods used to assess morphological and structural changes related to liver fibrosis, including ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are only useful in assessing advanced liver disease, including cirrhosis. Functional imaging techniques, including MR elastography (MRE), US elastography, and CT perfusion are useful for assessing moderate to advanced liver fibrosis. MRE is considered the most accurate noninvasive imaging technique, and US elastography is currently the most widely used noninvasive means. However, these modalities are less accurate in early-stage liver fibrosis and some factors affect the accuracy of these techniques. Molecular imaging is a target-specific imaging mechanism that has the potential to accurately diagnose early-stage liver fibrosis. We provide an overview of recent advances in molecular imaging for the diagnosis and staging of liver fibrosis which will enable clinicians to monitor the progression of disease and potentially reverse liver fibrosis. We compare the promising technologies with conventional and functional imaging and assess the utility of molecular imaging in precision and personalized clinical medicine in the early stages of liver fibrosis.

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