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1.
Food Chem ; 339: 128078, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152871

RESUMO

The purpose of this work was to characterize the dynamic texture perception and study the mechanisms occurring in bolus from chewing to swallowing during white bread oral processing. Results indicated that the microstructural and chemical composition properties determined the oral processing behaviors. At the initial stage of oral processing, the roughness, hardness, and dryness perception were the dominant attributes. At the end of oral processing the adhesiveness and softness perception were dominant, which correlated to the higher bolus water content and adhesive properties. The softness and adhesiveness perception were the key factors that trigger swallowing. In vitro artificial mastication experiments confirmed that mucin rapidly increased the adhesive force of bolus at the initial stage of oral processing, whereas α-amylase gradually increased the adhesive force. These results can help to better understand the dynamic texture perception and its change mechanisms during oral processing.


Assuntos
Pão , Deglutição , Mastigação , Sensação , Adesividade , Dureza , Humanos , Triticum
2.
Food Chem ; 338: 127838, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822905

RESUMO

The potent aroma compounds in butter from four kinds of Chinese butter hotpot seasoning were first investigated by analyzing the isolates from solid-phase microextraction. A total of 49 aroma compounds were identified, and 23 of them were highly correlated with the aroma profiles of the butter by partial least squares regression analysis. Aroma extract dilution analysis and odor activity value calculations were applied to further reveal the dominant odorants. Fifty-three odorants with flavor dilution factors between 1 and 1024 were identified and OAVs of 17 odorants were greater than 1. Finally, an aroma recombination experiment was prepared by mixing the aroma-active compounds (OAVs > 1), and the aroma profile of the recombination showed good agreement with that of the original sample. Omission tests showed that 2-furfurylthiol, 2-acetylthiazole, anethole, (E)-2-decenal, and 1,8-cineole were the key odorants for the overall aroma of butter.


Assuntos
Manteiga , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Manteiga/análise , Eucaliptol/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Furanos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Olfatometria , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Especiarias , Compostos de Sulfidrila/análise
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(1): 327-333, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Yak milk formed stronger rennet-induced gels if the milk contained smalled casein micelles and a higher concentration of calcium. Also casein gels could formed after a shorter incubation time if the milk contained smalled casein micelles. The objective of this study was to estimate the importance of yak casein micelle size on rennet-induced coagulation properties. RESULTS: Three fractions of different-sized, undamaged casein micelles (Ф112.17 ± 0.83 nm, Ф207.13 ± 0.59 nm and Ф269.37 ± 2.89 nm) were obtained by ultracentrifugation. The smallest casein micelles had the highest concentrations of calcium (803.21 ± 8.49 mM), phosphate (445.52 ± 10.66 mM), and κ-casein/total casein (19.45%). Rheological analyses determined the optimal gelation times of small, medium, and large casein micelles to be 9.5 ± 0.5, 10.8 ± 0.5, and 13.3 ± 0.2 min, respectively. Higher κ-casein concentration in the small casein micelles appeared to facilitate their shorter incubation time. Both the faster caseinomacropeptide (CMP) release rate and rennet-induced aggregation rate of small casein micelles contributed to a faster change in turbidity. Furthermore, small casein micelles had the highest elastic modulus (G', 73.21 ± 4.5 Pa) 60 min after the addition of rennet. This was consistent with micro-photographs, which showed that small casein micelles could form a more homogeneous gel, which had smaller pore sizes. Trial cheese manufacture verified that yak cheese containing small casein micelles, formed curd faster and the cheese had higher texture profile analysis (TPA) values for hardness, cohesiveness, and springiness. CONCLUSION: This is important information for the optimization of yak cheese industrial production. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

4.
J Dairy Sci ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189294

RESUMO

Reduced-fat foods have become more popular due to their health benefits; however, reducing the fat content of food affects the sensory experience. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the sensory acceptance of reduced-fat foods to that of full-fat equivalents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding whey protein microgels (WPM) with an average diameter of 4 µm, or WPM with adsorbed anthocyanins [WPM (Ant)] on the textural and sensory properties of reduced-fat Cheddar cheese (RFC). Reduced-fat Cheddar cheese was prepared in 2 ways: (1) by adding WPM, designated as RFC+M, or (2) by adding WPM (Ant), designated as RFC+M (Ant). For comparison, RFC without fat substitutes and full-fat Cheddar cheese were also prepared. We discovered that the addition of WPM and WPM (Ant) increased the moisture content, fluidity, and meltability of RFC, and reduced its hardness, springiness, and chewiness. The textural and sensory characteristics of RFC were markedly inferior to those of full-fat Cheddar cheese, whereas addition of WPM and WPM (Ant) significantly improved the sensory characteristics of RFC. The WPM and WPM (Ant) showed a high potential as fat substitutes and anthocyanin carriers to effectively improve the acceptance of reduced-fat foods.

5.
Food Res Int ; 137: 109331, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33233046

RESUMO

Tolerance to bile stress is a crucial property for probiotics to survive in the gastrointestinal tract and exert their beneficial effects. In this work, transcriptomic analysis combined with two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed that the transcript levels of 129 genes and the abundance of 34 proteins were significantly changed in Lactobacillus salivarius Ren when exposed to 0.75 g/L ox-bile. Notably, carbohydrate metabolism shifted to the utilization of maltose and glycerol for energy production, suggesting that L. salivarius Ren expanded carbon sources profile for gut adaptation in response to bile. Moreover, the enzymes involved in cell surface charge modification and the cell envelope-located hemolysin-like protein were overproduced, which was supposed to hinder the penetration of bile. Then, the up-regulated ABC transporters could contribute to the extrusion of bile accumulated in the cytoplasm. Additionally, proteolytic system was activated to provide more amino acids for the synthesis and repair of proteins damaged by bile. Finally, γ-glutamylcysteine with antioxidant activity and oxidoreductases for redox homeostasis were increased to cope with the bile-induced oxidative stress. These findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in bile stress response and adaptation in L. salivarius.

6.
Microorganisms ; 8(10)2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066420

RESUMO

The diversity of the human gut microbiota constitutes a fundamental health indicator of different populations. The relative importance of geographical location and ethnicity on the gut microbiota, however, has not been previously addressed. Due to unique ethnic distributions across China, we recruited distinct minority ethnic groups, including Han populations, in each of the seven cities that were explored in this study. We investigated the gut microbiota of 394 healthy subjects (14 groups) from these seven different cities using 16S rRNA sequencing. Our results indicated that both geographical location and ethnicity were major factors. However, geographical location exhibited greater influence than ethnicity on both the composition and diversity of the gut microbiota. In addition, a total of 15 shared biomarkers at the genus level were identified in three distinct locations, including seven in Inner Mongolia, seven in Xinjiang and one in Gansu. Furthermore, 65 unique biomarkers were found in 14 population groups, which indicated specific communities in different populations. Based on the gut microbiota species, two main enterotypes-namely Prevotella (ETP) and Bacteroides (ETB), which consist of Prevotella and Bacteroides as the core bacterial genus, were observed in Chinese populations. Our unique experimental design using the same ethnic group-Han, as a control in different locations, enables delineating the importance of geographical location and ethnicity on the gut microbiota, and provides the fundamental characteristics of gut microbiota diversity in Chinese populations.

8.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 39(10): 1884-1893, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936472

RESUMO

Neonicotinoids are a widely used class of pesticides. Co-exposure to neonicotinoids and other classes of pesticides can exert potentiating or synergistic effects, and these mixtures have been detected in human bodily fluids. The present review summarizes studies into the effects of neonicotinoid-containing pesticide mixtures on humans and other nontarget organisms. Exposure to these mixtures has been reported to result in reproductive and hormonal toxicity, genotoxicity, neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and immunotoxicity in vertebrates. Mortality of pollinators and toxicity in other organisms has also been reported. The underlying mechanism of pesticide mixture toxicity may be associated with impairment of cytochrome 450 enzymes, which are involved in metabolizing pesticides. However, a comprehensive explanation of the adverse effects of neonicotinoid-containing pesticide mixtures is still required so that effective prevention and control measures can be formulated. Environ Toxicol Chem 2020;39:1884-1893. © 2020 SETAC.

9.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(9)2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854194

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by the accumulation of protein-bound uremic toxins (PBUTs), which play a pathophysiological role in renal fibrosis (a common pathological process resulting in CKD progression). Accumulation of the PBUT hippuric acid (HA) is positively correlated with disease progression in CKD patients, suggesting that HA may promote renal fibrosis. Oxidative stress is the most important factor affecting PBUTs nephrotoxicity. Herein, we assessed the ability of HA to promote kidney fibrosis by disrupting redox homeostasis. In HK-2 cells, HA increased fibrosis-related gene expression, extracellular matrix imbalance, and oxidative stress. Additionally, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated TGFß/SMAD signaling contributed to HA-induced fibrotic responses. HA disrupted antioxidant networks by decreasing the levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), leading to ROS accumulation and fibrotic responses, as evidenced by NRF2 activation and knockdown. Moreover, NRF2 levels were reduced by NRF2 ubiquitination, which was regulated via increased interactions of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 with Cullin 3 and NRF2. Finally, renal fibrosis and redox imbalance promoted by HA were confirmed in rats. Importantly, sulforaphane (NRF2 activator) reversed HA-promoted renal fibrosis. Thus, HA promotes renal fibrosis in CKD by disrupting NRF2-driven antioxidant system, indicating that NRF2 is a potential therapeutic target for CKD.

10.
Cell Rep ; 32(4): 107952, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726617

RESUMO

A certain number of epithelial cells in intestinal crypts are DNA damage resistant and contribute to regeneration. However, the cellular mechanism underlying intestinal regeneration remains unclear. Using lineage tracing, we show that cells marked by an Msi1 reporter (Msi1+) are right above Lgr5high cells in intestinal crypts and exhibit DNA damage resistance. Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals that the Msi1+ cells are heterogeneous with the majority being intestinal stem cells (ISCs). The DNA damage-resistant subpopulation of Msi1+ cells is characterized by low-to-negative Lgr5 expression and is more rapidly cycling than Lgr5high radiosensitive crypt base columnar stem cells (CBCs). This enables an efficient repopulation of the intestinal epithelium at early stage when Lgr5high cells are not emerging. Furthermore, relative to CBCs, Msi1+ cells preferentially produce Paneth cells during homeostasis and upon radiation repair. Together, we demonstrate that the DNA damage-resistant Msi1+ cells are cycling ISCs that maintain and regenerate the intestinal epithelium.

11.
Stem Cell Reports ; 15(2): 374-388, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649903

RESUMO

Intestinal regeneration is crucial for functional restoration after injury, and nutritional molecules can play an important role in this process. Here, we found that arachidonic acid (AA) serves as a direct proliferation promoter of intestinal epithelial cells that facilitates small intestinal regeneration in both three-dimensional cultured organoids and mouse models. As shown in the study, during post-irradiation regeneration, AA positively regulates intestinal epithelial cell proliferation by upregulating the expression of Ascl2 and activating WNT signaling, but negatively regulates intestinal epithelial cell differentiation. AA acts as a delicate regulator that efficiently facilitates epithelial tissue repair by activating radiation-resistant Msi1+ cells rather than Lgr5+ cells, which are extensively considered WNT-activated crypt base stem cells. Additionally, short-term AA treatment maintains optimal intestinal epithelial homeostasis under physiological conditions. As a result, AA treatment can be considered a potential therapy for irradiation injury repair and tissue regeneration.

12.
Sci Total Environ ; 726: 138496, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481206

RESUMO

Similar to diethylphosphate (DEP), 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) is also a characteristic chemical substance and ultimate transformation product of chlorpyrifos (CPF) because the structure of TCP is equivalent to the trichloro pyridine structure of CPF. TCP is often used as a biomarker of CPF exposure. TCP and DEP are often detected in human blood and urine due to the widespread use of CPF. No studies have sufficiently clarified which structure contributes to the negative effect of CPF on testosterone synthesis. This study aims to explain which structure promotes the inhibitory effect of CPF on testosterone synthesis and the related influence mechanisms. After 20 weeks of exposure, the testosterone level in testes was significantly reduced by different doses of CPF (0.3 mg/kg body weight CPF and 3.0 mg/kg body weight CPF). Meanwhile, the level of testosterone synthesized by isolated primary Leydig cells was also reduced by CPF. In addition, TCP but not DEP aggravated the decrease in testosterone synthesis in isolated primary Leydig cells. On the other hand, CPF and TCP significantly decreased the levels of the Star protein, CREB phosphorylation and PKA phosphorylation, which are important in regulating testosterone synthesis. Based on these results, TCP is a key structure that mediates the CPF-induced decrease in testosterone synthesis by terminating the signal transmission of the LH-LHR-PKA-CREB-Star pathway. Thus, chemicals with the TCP structure may be potential endocrine disruptors that decrease fertility. Chemicals that can be converted to TCP or achieve a trichloro pyridine structure must be considered during reproductive toxicity risk assessment.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Inseticidas , Humanos , Masculino , Piridinas , Piridonas , Testosterona
13.
Food Chem ; 330: 127145, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531640

RESUMO

In this work, we investigated the interaction of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with ß-lactoglobulin (ß-Lg) using spectroscopic and crystallographic methods. The fluorescence results showed that DHA formed complexes with ß-Lg with a binding constant of 4.13 × 104 M-1. The secondary structure of ß-Lg was not significantly (p > 0.05) changed after binding with DHA. Dynamic light scattering showed the particle size of ß-Lg-DHA complexes was about 5 nm, the same as that of ß-Lg alone. The turbidity of DHA in aqueous solution decreased after binding with ß-Lg. The crystallographic results showed that DHA was bound at one site in the calyx of ß-Lg and that the aliphatic chain was hidden inside the hydrophobic ß-barrel while the carboxyl group was located at the calyx entrance. These findings indicate that ß-Lg can act as an effective nanocarrier for DHA.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/química , Lactoglobulinas/química , Animais , Cristalografia por Raios X , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
14.
Food Res Int ; 133: 109112, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466923

RESUMO

The present research investigated the relationships among sensory attributes and volatile components in dry porcini mushrooms by multivariate statistical analyses. The sensory characteristics were based on quantitative descriptive analysis and consumer hedonic assessment. The volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction, then were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry. The results showed that the high hedonic rating of porcini mushrooms was due in part to its aroma notes such as seasoning-like, roasted, cacao-like and smoky. High hedonic liking and positive aromas of porcini mushrooms could be responsible for the volatiles including 3-(methylthio)propanal, 3-(methylthio)propanol, pyrazines, phenolic and furanone components. On the other hand, raw mushroom-like, cardboard-like, as well as sweaty attributes were attributed to the relatively low hedonic liking of porcini mushrooms, which correlated with high contents of 1-octen-3-ol, octanal, 2-pentylfuran and 3-methylbutanoic acid. The information reported here could be important for the quality control of commercial porcini mushrooms by providing an approach to strengthen the interpretation of sensory data by showing how they were affected by the chemical properties.

15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 159: 258-263, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389653

RESUMO

Energy metabolism has been a predominant target for anti-cancer drug development. The self-assembled anti-tumor α-lactalbumin-oleic acid complex (α-LA-OA) affects the energy metabolism of tumor cells, however, the role of targeting energy metabolism in its anti-tumor mechanism still needs to be clarified. α-LA assembled with OA to form a complex with an average diameter of 144.1 ± 7.241 nm, which is 10-fold larger than α-LA alone. Furthermore, the self-assembled α-LA-OA inhibited the ATP supply from both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in HepG2 cells and HepG2-bearing nude mice. The gene expression of enzymes involved in glycolysis (HK2, aldose, PKM2, LDHB) and oxidative phosphorylation (CS, ACO2, IDH2, SDHA) was inhibited. This inhibitory effect was also evident by increased phosphorylation of AMPKα. α-LA-OA also suppressed the expression of HIF-1α and increased the expression of activated caspase-3. These findings demonstrate that the anti-tumor mechanism of α-LA-OA may be related to its inhibitory effect on the ATP supply, which then activates programmed cell death pathways. This study also indicated that α-LA-OA is a potent anti-tumor agent that targets the energy metabolism of tumor cells.

16.
Cell Res ; 30(10): 854-872, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32457396

RESUMO

Mammary and extramammary Paget's Diseases (PD) are a malignant skin cancer characterized by the appearance of Paget cells. Although easily diagnosed, its pathogenesis remains unknown. Here, single-cell RNA-sequencing identified distinct cellular states, novel biomarkers, and signaling pathways - including mTOR, associated with extramammary PD. Interestingly, we identified MSI1 ectopic overexpression in basal epithelial cells of human PD skin, and show that Msi1 overexpression in the epidermal basal layer of mice phenocopies human PD at histopathological, single-cell and molecular levels. Using this mouse model, we identified novel biomarkers of Paget-like cells that translated to human Paget cells. Furthermore, single-cell trajectory, RNA velocity and lineage-tracing analyses revealed a putative keratinocyte-to-Paget-like cell conversion, supporting the in situ transformation theory of disease pathogenesis. Mechanistically, the Msi1-mTOR pathway drives keratinocyte-Paget-like cell conversion, and suppression of mTOR signaling with Rapamycin significantly rescued the Paget-like phenotype in Msi1-overexpressing transgenic mice. Topical Rapamycin treatment improved extramammary PD-associated symptoms in humans, suggesting mTOR inhibition as a novel therapeutic treatment in PD.

17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(23): 6403-6411, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423215

RESUMO

Fried pepper (Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.) oil has been widely used in traditional Chinese cuisine and has recently become increasingly popular in food manufacturing. Thus, the aroma profiles of Hancheng pepper oil (HCPO) and Hanyuan pepper oil (HYPO) from two regions were investigated by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). Results from AEDA showed that more aroma compounds with flavor dilution factors ≥9 were detected in HCPO than in HYPO. The odor activity values (OAVs) revealed 28 odorants with OAVs ≥1 in HCPO or HYPO. High OAVs were in particular obtained for 1,8-cineole, (E)-2-heptenal, ß-myrcene, ß-ocimene, limonene, and linalool. Then, the aroma profiles of HCPO and HYPO were successfully simulated through aroma recombination models. Omission tests suggested that ß-phellandrene, p-cymene, acetic acid octyl ester, octanal, citronellol, and sabinene played key roles in aroma differences between HCPO and HYPO. In addition, varying enantiomeric ratios of linalool (floral) and limonene (citrus-like and lemon-like) in HCPO and HYPO were observed by chiral GC-MS, and the odor impressions of limonene and linalool were in good agreement with the odor descriptions of S-(-)-limonene and S-(+)-linalool.

18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 158: 401-407, 2020 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344084

RESUMO

Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) acts as a novel factor in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass in animal models by regulating energy expenditure. People with obesity have a lower content of FGF19 and lose muscle mass easily. However, as the main energy metabolism organelles, the involvement of mitochondria in the protective effect of FGF19 is still unknown. In this study, the protective effects of FGF19 on palmitate-induced damages in differentiated mouse myoblast cells (C2C12) were studied, including myotube morphology, mitochondrial function and the regulation of pathways and genes. Excessive palmitate resulted in myotube atrophy and activation of the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway in C2C12 cells. Palmitate also inhibited glucose uptake and induced insulin resistance. FGF19 addition during the differentiation of C2C12 cells, returned the palmitate-induced mitochondrial respiration and apoptosis to the control levels and improved the insulin sensitivity. The palmitate-induced upregulation of genes involved in ß-oxidation (PPARß/δ, PPARγ, UCP-1, MCAD) and the downregulation of genes related to myotube atrophy (PPARα, PGC-1α and PGC-1ß) were also alleviated by FGF19. In summary, FGF19 prevented excessive palmitate-induced dysfunction of C2C12 cells by protecting mitochondrial overload and apoptosis and maintaining normal insulin signaling.

19.
Gut ; 69(12): 2131-2142, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241904

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with renal failure suffer from symptoms caused by uraemic toxins, possibly of gut microbial origin, as deduced from studies in animals. The aim of the study is to characterise relationships between the intestinal microbiome composition, uraemic toxins and renal failure symptoms in human end-stage renal disease (ESRD). DESIGN: Characterisation of gut microbiome, serum and faecal metabolome and human phenotypes in a cohort of 223 patients with ESRD and 69 healthy controls. Multidimensional data integration to reveal links between these datasets and the use of chronic kidney disease (CKD) rodent models to test the effects of intestinal microbiome on toxin accumulation and disease severity. RESULTS: A group of microbial species enriched in ESRD correlates tightly to patient clinical variables and encode functions involved in toxin and secondary bile acids synthesis; the relative abundance of the microbial functions correlates with the serum or faecal concentrations of these metabolites. Microbiota from patients transplanted to renal injured germ-free mice or antibiotic-treated rats induce higher production of serum uraemic toxins and aggravated renal fibrosis and oxidative stress more than microbiota from controls. Two of the species, Eggerthella lenta and Fusobacterium nucleatum, increase uraemic toxins production and promote renal disease development in a CKD rat model. A probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis decreases abundance of these species, reduces levels of toxins and the severity of the disease in rats. CONCLUSION: Aberrant gut microbiota in patients with ESRD sculpts a detrimental metabolome aggravating clinical outcomes, suggesting that the gut microbiota will be a promising target for diminishing uraemic toxicity in those patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03010696).

20.
J Endocrinol ; 245(3): 425-437, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302970

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the effects of three major SCFAs (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) on NASH phenotype in mice. C57BL/6 mice were fed a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet and treated with sodium acetate, sodium propionate, or sodium butyrate during the 6-week feeding period. SCFA treatment significantly reduced serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase, the numbers of lipid droplets, and the levels of triglycerides and cholesterols in livers of the mice compared with control treatment. SCFAs also reduced MCD-induced hepatic aggregation of macrophages and proinflammatory responses. Among the three SCFAs, sodium acetate (NaA) revealed the best efficacy at alleviating MCD-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation. Additionally, NaA increased AMP-activated protein kinase activation in the liver and induced the expression of fatty acid oxidation gene in both the liver and cultured hepatocytes. In vitro, NaA decreased MCD-mimicking media-induced proinflammatory responses in macrophages to a greater extent than in hepatocytes. These results indicated that NaA alleviates steatosis in a manner involving AMPK activation. Also, NaA alleviation of hepatic inflammation appears to be due to, in large part, suppression of macrophage proinflammatory activation. SCFAs may represent as a novel and viable approach for alleviating NASH.

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