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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 3): 151224, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728201

RESUMO

Precipitation is a primary climatic determinant of grassland productivity, with many global change experiments manipulating precipitation. Here we examine the impacts of precipitation addition and reduction treatment intensity and duration on grassland above- (ANPP) and below- (BNPP) ground net primary productivity in a large-scale meta-analysis. We tested, 1) the double asymmetry model of sensitivity, specifically whether the sensitivity of productivity decreases with treatment intensity under increased precipitation and increases with treatment intensity under decreased precipitation, 2) whether the sensitivity of productivity to precipitation change decreases with treatment length, and 3) how the sensitivity of productivity changes with climate conditions. ANPP showed higher sensitivity than BNPP under increased precipitation but similar sensitivity to BNPP under decreased precipitation. The sensitivity of ANPP and BNPP decreased with increasing treatment intensity (e.g., percentage change in precipitation, ΔPPT) and leveled off in the long-term. With increased precipitation, the sensitivity of productivity decreased with increasing treatment length (e.g., experimental duration) and leveled off in the long-term, whereas the sensitivity increased with increasing treatment length under reduced precipitation. Furthermore, the sensitivity of productivity to precipitation change decreased with increasing mean annual precipitation and temperature. Finally, our meta-analysis shows that above- and belowground net primary productivity have asymmetric responses to precipitation change. Together these results highlight the complex mechanisms underlying the impacts of precipitation change, particularly the intensity and duration of such changes, on grassland productivity.

2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757729

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effect of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) modification of starch on the formation of starch-lipid complexes. The complexing index (CI) showed that native maize starch (NMS) formed more complexes with monopalmityl glycerol (MPG) than with palmitic acid (PA), whereas dipalmityl glycerol (DPG) was not effective in forming complexes with NMS. After OSA modification, the complexation between OSA-starch and lipids was greatly enhanced, especially for PA and DPG, and the CI values increased from 79.6 to 93.3% for OSA-starch-PA and from 80.3 to 93.2% for OSA-starch-DPG complexes with increasing DS of OSA-starch. Structural analyses showed that OSA-starch-lipid complexes had higher degrees of long- and short-range molecular orders than the corresponding NMS-lipid complexes. This study showed for the first time that DPG can form complexes with OSA-starch, which was attributed to the increased dispersion of DPG in water by the emulsifying ability of OSA-starch. The finding is of great significance for a better understanding of the formation of starch-lipid complexes.

3.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; : AEM0208921, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818107

RESUMO

Nutritional symbionts are restricted to specialized host cells called bacteriocytes in various insect orders. These symbionts can provide essential nutrients to the host. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying the regulation of these insect-symbiont metabolic associations remain largely unclear. The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci MEAM1, hosts Portiera and Hamiltonella bacteria in the same bacteriocyte. In this study, the induction of autophagy by chemical treatment and gene silencing decreased symbiont titers, and essential amino acid (EAA) and B vitamin contents. In contrast, the repression of autophagy in bacteriocytes via Atg8 silencing increased symbiont titers, and amino acid and B vitamin contents. Furthermore, dietary supplementation with non-EAAs or B vitamins alleviated autophagy in whitefly bacteriocytes, elevated TOR (target of rapamycin) expression and increased symbiont titers. TOR silencing restored symbiont titers in whiteflies after dietary supplementation with B vitamins. These data suggest that Portiera and Hamiltonella evade autophagy of the whitefly bacteriocytes by activating the TOR pathway via providing essential nutrients. Taken together, we demonstrated that autophagy plays a critical role in regulating the metabolic interactions between the whitefly and two intracellular symbionts. Therefore, this study reveals that autophagy is an important cellular basis for bacteriocyte evolution and symbiosis persistence in whiteflies. The whitefly symbiosis unravels the interactions between cellular and metabolic functions of bacteriocytes. Importance Nutritional symbionts, which are restricted to specialized host cells called bacteriocytes, can provide essential nutrients for many hosts. However, the cellular mechanisms of regulation of animal-symbiont metabolic associations have been largely unexplored. Here, using the whitefly-Portiera/Hamiltonella endosymbiosis, we demonstrate autophagy regulates the symbiont titers, and thereby alters the essential amino acid and B vitamin contents. For persistence in the whitefly bacteriocytes, Portiera and Hamiltonella alleviate autophagy by activating the TOR (target of rapamycin) pathway through providing essential nutrients. Therefore, we demonstrate that autophagy plays a critical role in regulating the metabolic interactions between the whitefly and two intracellular symbionts. This study also provides insight into the cellular basis of bacteriocyte evolution and symbiosis persistence in the whitefly. The mechanisms underlying the role of autophagy in whitefly symbiosis could be widespread in many insect nutritional symbioses. These findings provide new avenue for whitefly control via regulating autophagy in the future.

4.
ACS Omega ; 6(41): 27225-27232, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34693142

RESUMO

The dissolution behavior of cellulose in the mixtures of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and different ionic liquids (ILs) at 25 °C was studied. High solubility of cellulose was reached in the mixtures of ILs and DMSO at mole fractions of 1:2, 1:2, and 1:1 for 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, 1-propyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, respectively. At high DMSO/IL molar ratios (10:1-2:1), a longer alkyl chain of the IL cation led to higher cellulose solubility. However, shorter cation alkyl chains favored cellulose dissolution at 1:1. Rheological, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements were used to understand cellulose dissolution. It was found out that the increase of the DMSO ratio in binary mixtures caused higher cellulose solubility by decreasing the viscosity of systems. For cations with longer alkyl chains, stronger interaction between the IL and cellulose and higher viscosity of DMSO/IL mixtures were observed. The new knowledge obtained here could be useful to the development of cost-effective solvent systems for biopolymers.

5.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 719436, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646286

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) is an important macronutrient for all lives, but it is also a finite resource. Therefore, it is important to understand how to increase the P availability and plant uptake. The endophytes can help host plants to improve P uptake and will be apparently affected by plant genotypes. To investigate the mechanism of root endophytes in promoting P uptake of peach rootstocks, we analyzed the variations of the root endophytic fungal and bacterial communities of peach rootstocks with different P efficiencies under high or low level of P addition. Results showed that Proteobacteria was the dominant bacterial phylum in the roots of all rootstocks under the two levels of P addition. At low P level, the abundance of Actinoplanes in phosphorus-inefficiency root system was apparently higher than that at high P level. Actinoplanes produced important secondary metabolites, improving the stress resistance of plants. Under high P condition, the abundance of Ferrovibrio was higher in Qing Zhou Mi Tao than in Du Shi. Fe oxides considerably reduced the availability of applied P, which partially explained why the P utilization in Qing Zhou Mi Tao is inefficient. Further, Ascomycota was the dominant fungal phylum in the roots of all rootstocks under different levels of P addition. The fungi community of roots varied in different rootstocks at each P level, but was similar for the same rootstock at different P levels, which indicated that genotype had a greater effect than P addition on the fungal community of peach rootstocks.

6.
Food Sci Nutr ; 9(10): 5457-5466, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646516

RESUMO

Soybean paste (Doujiang) is one of the traditional fermented foods from China, fermented by various microorganisms. However, the microflora of Doujiang keeps little known. In this study, the microbial communities of seven kinds of representative Doujiang samples were investigated by both culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. We found that core OTUs among seven Doujiang samples were mainly from Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Candida, and Aspergillus according to Illumina sequencing. Every type of Doujiang sample harbored a different composition of microbial community. Doujiang LSJ and LBJ had the highest bacterial and fungal richness and diversity, respectively. The structure of microbial community was remarkably correlated with Doujiang properties-pH, and the content of total protein, soluble protein, amino acid, and total sugar (p < .05). Bacillus spp. were most frequently isolated bacterial species. Fungi of Monascus, Candida, and Aspergillus were also isolated. Eleven microbial strains showed high protease activities to degrade corn proteins, which can form obvious transparent hydrolytic circles in corn gluten meal medium plates. Therefore, microbial communities were supposed to tightly connect to Doujiang type and properties. It is possible to apply potential protein-degrading microbial strains to corn byproducts for protein production in the future study.

7.
Cancer Med ; 10(23): 8518-8529, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety of thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) after programmed death 1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-(L)1) inhibitor treatment in patients with lung cancer was scarcely reported. This retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the incidence, severity, and risk factors of symptomatic treatment-related pneumonitis in patients with lung cancer who received this sequential combination. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of a cohort of patients with lung cancer who received TRT after at least two cycles of PD-(L)1 inhibitor treatment between January 2018 and August 2020. Treatment-related pneumonitis was evaluated and analyzed to illustrate the safety profile of this sequential combination. Potential risk factors were explored by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Among the 828 patients with prior PD-(L)1 inhibitor treatment, 96 patients receiving subsequent TRT were included in the analysis. Of these, 49 patients (51%) received radical TRT while 47 patients (49%) received palliative TRT. The median total dose was 52 Gy (IQR 50-60 Gy). The median time from the initiation of PD-(L)1 inhibitor treatment to TRT was 4.8 months (1.6-14.1 months) with most of the patients (74%) administering no less than four cycles of PD-(L)1 inhibitor. During follow-up, 47 patients (48.96%) developed symptomatic treatment-related pneumonitis (grade 2 n = 28, grade ≥3 n = 19) while six patients (6.25%) suffered from fatal toxicity. The median time of pneumonitis onset after completion of TRT was 35 days (0-177 days) with six patients developing during TRT. Pulmonary emphysema and lung V20 were demonstrated to be independent risk factors of symptomatic pneumonitis (OR: 5.67, 95% CI: 1.66-19.37, p = 0.006; OR: 3.49, 95% CI: 1.41-8.66, p = 0.007, respectively). CONCLUSION: TRT after PD-(L)1 inhibitor treatment resulted in significantly increased incidence and severity of treatment-related pneumonitis in patients with lung cancer. Intensive attention should be emphasized to the safety of this sequential combination in clinical practice.

8.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(17)2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501170

RESUMO

Ion implantation is a superior post-synthesis doping technique to tailor the structural properties of materials. Via density functional theory (DFT) calculation and ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations (AIMD) based on stochastic boundary conditions, we systematically investigate the implantation of low energy elements Ga/Ge/As into graphene as well as the electronic, optoelectronic and transport properties. It is found that a single incident Ga, Ge or As atom can substitute a carbon atom of graphene lattice due to the head-on collision as their initial kinetic energies lie in the ranges of 25-26 eV/atom, 22-33 eV/atom and 19-42 eV/atom, respectively. Owing to the different chemical interactions between incident atom and graphene lattice, Ge and As atoms have a wide kinetic energy window for implantation, while Ga is not. Moreover, implantation of Ga/Ge/As into graphene opens up a concentration-dependent bandgap from ~0.1 to ~0.6 eV, enhancing the green and blue light adsorption through optical analysis. Furthermore, the carrier mobility of ion-implanted graphene is lower than pristine graphene; however, it is still almost one order of magnitude higher than silicon semiconductors. These results provide useful guidance for the fabrication of electronic and optoelectronic devices of single-atom-thick two-dimensional materials through the ion implantation technique.

9.
Med Eng Phys ; 95: 104-110, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479686

RESUMO

This research aims to study the effect of a composite coating comprised of polydopamine (PDA), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and activated Carbon on the insertion mechanics of surgical needles in tissues i.e., polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tissue phantom and bovine kidney. A needle insertion and extraction test system was designed and constructed to measure the insertion and extraction forces. It was found that the composite coating on the needle surface decreases the maximum average insertion and extraction forces by 62% and 64%, respectively, when tested in PVC tissue phantom and by 49% and 30%, respectively, in bovine kidney tissue. Additionally, an Atomic Force Microscope study was performed to characterize the surface properties of the coated needles. It was found that the composite coating reduced the friction force on the needle surface by 65.7%. The decrease in these forces is critical in minimizing tissue damage and decreasing needle path deviation or deflection during percutaneous procedures.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Mecânicos , Agulhas , Animais , Bovinos , Fricção , Imagens de Fantasmas , Propriedades de Superfície
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(38): e27151, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559104

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in septic patients treated with ulinastatin. METHODS: PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane library were searched up to January 2021 to identify randomized controlled trials. The weight mean difference (WMD) and relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals were used with the random-effects model. RESULTS: Twenty-three randomized controlled trials with 1903 septic patients were included. TCM significantly reduced the APACHE II score (WMD: -5.18; P < .001), interleukin-6 (WMD: -63.00; P < .001), tumor necrosis factor-α (WMD: -8.86; P < .001), c-reactive protein (WMD: -9.47; P < .001), mechanical ventilation duration (WMD: -3.98; P < .001), intensive care unit stay (WMD: -4.18; P < .001), procalcitonin (WMD: -0.53; P < .001), lipopolysaccharide (WMD: -9.69; P < .001), B-type natriuretic peptide (WMD: -159.87; P < .001), creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (WMD: -45.67; P < .001), cardiac troponin I (WMD: -0.66; P < .001), and all-cause mortality risk (RR: 0.55; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: TCM lowers inflammation levels and reduces the risk of all-cause mortality for septic patients.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Glicoproteínas/uso terapêutico , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Tripsina/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Glicoproteínas/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Inibidores da Tripsina/administração & dosagem
11.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451139

RESUMO

Poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA) is a high-performance polymer that has been utilized in a range of applications. Although PPTA fibers are widely used in various composite materials, laminar structures consisting of PPTA and ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), are less reported. The difficulty in making such composite structures is in part due to the weakness of the interface formed between these two polymers. In this study, a layered structure was produced from PPTA fabrics and UHMWPE films via hot pressing. To improve the interlayer adhesion, oxygen plasma was used to treat the PPTA and the UHMWPE surfaces prior to lamination. It has been found that while plasma treatment on the UHMWPE surface brought about a moderate increase in interlayer adhesion (up to 14%), significant enhancement was achieved on the samples fabricated with plasma treated PPTA (up to 91%). It has been assumed that both surface roughening and the introduction of functional groups contributed to this improvement.

12.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 12(16): 3002-3014, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369750

RESUMO

Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (CI/R) injury is a serious central nervous system disease. Propofol (PPF) exerts a neuroprotective effect in CI/R injury; the underlying cause is still unclear. Here, we cultured mouse hippocampal neuron (HT22 cells) in oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) conditions to mimic CI/R injury in vitro. PPF treatment promoted cell viability and reduced apoptotic cells in the OGD/R-treated HT22 cells, which was effectively abrogated by SNHG14 overexpression. Moreover, we constructed a CI/R injury mouse model on C57BL/6J mice by middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R), followed by administration of PPF. PPF reduced neuronal damage and loss, enhanced glial cell hyperplasia, and ameliorated cerebral cortex tissue damage and brain infarct in MCAO/R-induced mice. SNHG14 overexpression aggravated MCAO/R-induced CI/R injury in mice. Furthermore, SNHG14 promoted the expression of Atg5 and Beclin 1 via competitively binding miR-30b-5p, which contributed to activate autophagy and apoptosis in HT22 cells. In addition, the levels of p-p38 and p-SP1 were reduced in the OGD/R-treated HT22 cells in the presence of PPF. SP1 interacted with the promoter of SNHG14 and elevated the expression of SNHG14. PPF treatment inhibited the SP1-mediated up-regulation of SNHG14. In conclusion, this work demonstrates that PPF inhibits SNHG14 expression though the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. SNHG14 promotes Atg5 and Beclin 1 expression by sponging miR-30b-5p and thus activates autophagy and aggravates CI/R injury.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , MicroRNAs , Propofol , RNA Longo não Codificante , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Animais , Apoptose , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Glucose , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/genética , Propofol/farmacologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 108(2): e21839, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427962

RESUMO

Flavonoids are secondary metabolites that help plants resist insect attack. It can resist insect attack by inhibiting insect immune defense, and pathogens can also inhibit insect immune defense. It is speculated that the combination of flavonoids and pathogens may inhibit the immune defense and have stronger toxicity to silkworm. In this study, the combined treatment of quercetin with Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) had significant negative effects on the growth and survival of silkworm compared with BmNPV group. The detoxifying enzyme activity of BmNPV group was significantly increased at 96 h, while the activity of the combined treatment group was significantly decreased with the increase of quercetin exposure time (72 or 96 h). The activity of antioxidant enzymes also showed a similar trend, that was, the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the combined treatment group also decreased significantly with the increase of quercetin exposure time, which led to the increase of reactive oxygen species content. The silkworm cells would produce lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde content was significantly increased, so that the expression of immune-related genes (the antimicrobial peptide, Toll pathway, IMD pathway, JAK-STAT pathway, and melanin genes) were decreased, leading to the damage of the immune system of silkworm. These results indicated that quercetin combined with BmNPV could inhibit the activities of protective enzymes and lead to oxidative damage to silkworm. It can also affect the immune response of the silkworm, and thus resulting in abnormal growth. This study provides the novel conclusion that quercetin accumulation will increase the susceptibility of silkworm to pathogens.


Assuntos
Bombyx , Quercetina/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bombyx/efeitos dos fármacos , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bombyx/imunologia , Bombyx/virologia , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Desentoxicação Metabólica Fase I/imunologia , Nucleopoliedrovírus/imunologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202770

RESUMO

Numerous studies have shown that dispositional mindfulness is positively associated with many mental abilities related to sports performance, including psychological skills and mental toughness. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between dispositional mindfulness, psychological skills, and mental toughness among different types of athletes. For this cross-sectional study, 101 college athletes were recruited. Their dispositional mindfulness, psychological skills, and mental toughness were measured by the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), Athletic Psychological Skills Inventory (APSI), and Traits of Mental Toughness Inventory for Sports Scale (TMTIS). Pearson's correlation was used to calculate how dispositional mindfulness is associated with psychological skills and mental toughness. The results revealed that dispositional mindfulness is positively associated with comprehensive APSI (r = 0.21-0.36, p < 0.05), TMTIS overall (r = 0.27, p < 0.01), positive effort (r = 0.26, p = 0.01), and pressure (r = 0.30, p < 0.01). These findings suggest a positive linkage between mindfulness and the two examined psychological characteristics related to sports performance. Other approaches to increase mindfulness may be considered in the future.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Atenção Plena , Atletas , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Personalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Cell Transplant ; 30: 9636897211035080, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318699

RESUMO

α-mangostin has been confirmed to promote the apoptosis of MG-63 cells, but its specific pro-apoptosis mechanism in osteosarcoma (OS) remains further investigation. Here, we demonstrated that α-mangostin restrained the viability of OS cells (143B and Saos-2), but had little effect on the growth of normal human osteoblast. α-mangostin increased OS cell apoptosis by activating the caspase-3/8 cascade. Besides, α-mangostin induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and restrained the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway activity. 4PBA (an ER stress inhibitor) or LiCl (an effective Wnt activator) treatment effectively hindered α-mangostin-induced apoptosis and the caspase-3/8 cascade. Furthermore, we also found that α-mangostin induced ER stress by promoting ROS production. And ER stress-mediated apoptosis caused by ROS accumulation depended on the inactivation of Wnt/ß-catenin pathway. In addition, α-mangostin significantly hindered the growth of xenograft tumors, induced the expression of ER stress marker proteins and activation of the caspase-3/8 cascade, and restrained the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling in vivo. In short, ROS-mediated ER stress was involved in α-mangostin triggered apoptosis, which might depended on Wnt/ß-catenin signaling inactivation.

16.
Percept Mot Skills ; 128(5): 2166-2185, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256626

RESUMO

The present study aimed to review the research literature on aquatic exercise for health promotion using bibliometric methods and CiteSpace software. The number of studies related to this topic are constantly expanding, with the USA, Brazil, and Australia the centers of this research. Most published papers fall within Sports Science, but the disciplines of Physiology, Psychology, and Rehabilitation were also found to be dominant domains for this literature. The seven most prolific authors were from Brazil or Spain. The most frequently cited references focused on sub-topics of physiology, biochemistry, physical fitness, psychological health, cardiovascular disease, and joint disease. New research trends have shifted to the promotion of cardiovascular health in clinical populations (stroke, overweight, hypertension, endothelium dysfunctional, obese, inflammation, antioxidant, heart failure). Overall, this review found that research hot spots and trends in this realm have focused on improving cardiovascular health with aquatic exercise.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Publicações , Exercício Físico , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Espanha
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3604, 2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127667

RESUMO

A narrow genetic basis in modern cultivars and strong linkage disequilibrium in peach (Prunus persica) has restricted resolution power for association studies in this model fruit species, thereby limiting our understanding of economically important quality traits including fruit flavor. Here, we present a high-quality genome assembly for a Chinese landrace, Longhua Shui Mi (LHSM), a representative of the Chinese Cling peaches that have been central in global peach genetic improvement. We also map the resequencing data for 564 peach accessions to this LHSM assembly at an average depth of 26.34× per accession. Population genomic analyses reveal a fascinating history of convergent selection for sweetness yet divergent selection for acidity in eastern vs. western modern cultivars. Molecular-genetics and biochemical analyses establish that PpALMT1 (aluminum-activated malate transporter 1) contributes to their difference of malate content and that increases fructose content accounts for the increased sweetness of modern peach fruits, as regulated by PpERDL16 (early response to dehydration 6-like 16). Our study illustrates the strong utility of the genomics resources for both basic and applied efforts to understand and exploit the genetic basis of fruit quality in peach.


Assuntos
Frutas/genética , Genoma de Planta , Metagenômica , Prunus persica/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Loci Gênicos , Variação Genética , Tamanho do Genoma , Genômica , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prunus persica/classificação , Prunus persica/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Açúcares
18.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 23(7): 1284-1290, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089300

RESUMO

Inconsistent findings on the association between urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) and risk of hypertension have been reported. This meta-analysis sought to evaluate the association between the elevated level of UACR within the normal range and incident hypertension in the general population. We comprehensively searched PubMed and Embase databases until July 31, 2020. All longitudinal observational studies that assessed the association of elevated baseline level of UACR within the normal range with incident hypertension in the general population were included. The predictive value was estimated by pooling risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the highest versus the lowest category of UACR level. Nine articles (10 studies) involving 27 771 individuals were identified and analyzed. When compared with the lowest category of UACR, individuals with the highest UACR had a 1.75-fold (RR 1.75; 95% CI 1.47-2.09; p < .001) higher risk of hypertension in a random effect model. Gender-specific analysis indicated that the impact of UACR on the development of hypertension seemed to be stronger in women (RR 2.47; 95% CI 1.10-5.55; p = .029) than in men (RR 1.88; 95% CI 1.35-2.61; p < .001). An increased UACR within the normal range is independently associated with a higher risk of hypertension in the general population. Baseline UACR can be served as a predictor of incident hypertension in the general population.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Albuminas , Albuminúria/epidemiologia , Creatinina , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Valores de Referência
19.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 663118, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149760

RESUMO

It is well known that WRKY transcription factors play essential roles in plants' response to diverse stress responses, especially to drought and salt stresses. However, a full comprehensive analysis of this family in wheat is still missing. Here we used in silico analysis and identified 124 WRKY genes, including 294 homeologous copies from a high-quality reference genome of wheat (Triticum aestivum). We also found that the TaWRKY gene family did not undergo gene duplication rather than gene loss during the evolutionary process. The TaWRKY family members displayed different expression profiles under several abiotic stresses, indicating their unique functions in the mediation of particular responses. Furthermore, TaWRKY75-A was highly induced after polyethylene glycol and salt treatments. The ectopic expression of TaWRKY75-A in Arabidopsis enhanced drought and salt tolerance. A comparative transcriptome analysis demonstrated that TaWRKY75-A integrated jasmonic acid biosynthetic pathway and other potential metabolic pathways to increase drought and salt resistances in transgenic Arabidopsis. Our study provides valuable insights into the WRKY family in wheat and will generate a useful genetic resource for improving wheat breeding.

20.
Front Psychol ; 12: 656141, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093345

RESUMO

Chinese mind-body exercises (CMBEs) are positively associated with executive function (EF), but their effects on EF, from synthesized evidence using systematic and meta-analytic reviews, have not been conducted. Therefore, the present systematic review with meta-analysis attempted to determine whether CMBEs affect EF and its sub-domains, as well as how exercise, sample, and study characteristics moderate the causal relationship between CMBEs and EF in middle-aged and older adults. Seven electronic databases were searched for relevant studies published from the inception of each database through June 2020 (PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Wanfang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Weipu). Randomized controlled trials with at least one outcome measure of CMBEs on EF in adults of mean age ≥ 50 years with intact cognition or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and with or without chronic diseases were included. A total of 29 studies (N = 2,934) ultimately were included in this study. The results indicated that CMBEs improved overall EF (Standardized Mean Differences = 0.28, 95% CI 0.12, 0.44), as well as its sub-domains of working memory and shifting. The beneficial effects of CMBEs on EF occurred regardless of type (Tai Chi, Qigong), frequency of group classes (≤2 time, 3-4 time, ≥5 times), session time (≤45 min, 46-60 min), total training time (≥150 to ≤300 min, >300 min), and length of the CMBEs (4-12 week, 13-26 week, and >26 week), in addition to that more frequent participation in both group classes and home practice sessions (≥5 times per week) resulted in more beneficial effects. The positive effects of CMBEs on EF were also demonstrated, regardless of participants mean age (50-65 years old, >65 years old), sex (only female, both), and cognitive statuses (normal, MCI, not mentioned), health status (with chronic disease, without chronic disease), as well as training mode (group class, group class plus home practice) and study language (English, Chinese). This review thus suggests that CMBEs can be used as an effective method with small to moderate and positive effects in enhancing EF, and that more frequent group classes and home practice sessions may increase these effects. However, certain limitations, including strictly design studies, limited ES (effect size) samples for specific variables, and possible biased publications, required paying particular attention to, for further exploring the effects of CMBEs on EF.

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