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1.
New Phytol ; 2022 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570834

RESUMO

Brassinosteroid (BR) signaling has been identified from the ligand BRs sensed by the receptor BRI1 to the final activation of BZR1/BES1 through a series of transduction events. Extensive studies have been conducted to characterize the role of BR signaling in various biological processes. Our previous study has shown that EMS1 and BRI1 control different aspects of plant growth and development via the conserved intracellular signaling. Here, we reveal that another receptor NILR1 can complement the bri1 mutant in absence of BRs, indicating a pathway that resembles BR signaling activated by NILR1. Genetic analysis shows the intracellular domains of NILR1, BRI1 and EMS1 have a common signal output. Furthermore, we demonstrate that NILR1 and BRI1 share the co-receptor BAK1 and substrate BSKs. Notably, the NILR1-mediated downstream pathway is conserved across land plants. In summary, we provide evidence for the signaling cascade of NILR1, suggesting pan-brassinosteroid signaling initiated by a group of distant receptor-ligand pairs in land plants.

2.
Chemosphere ; 301: 134768, 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500625

RESUMO

Coagulation treatment is often applied for removing the residual refractory dissolved organic matter (DOM) in biologically treated landfill leachate nanofiltration concentrate (LLNC) before discharge or further desalination treatment. However, the DOM removal efficiency by traditional coagulant needs to be improved, and two problems including the coagulant loss and difficulty in disposal of coagulation sludge need to be resolved. Based on this practical demand, a new coagulant ZrCl4 was adopted for LLNC treatment for the first time. The results showed that, ZrCl4 was better than the traditional coagulants (FeCl3 and AlCl3) for DOM removal. Under the optimal condition of pH 6.0 and ZrCl4 dosage of 5.0 mM, the DOC content, UV254 and chromaticity of the LLNC reduced by 73.32%, 83.17% and 93.59%, respectively. All of the coagulants tested in this study could efficiently remove the hydrophobic and high molecular organics. There was an obvious difference between them for removal of hydrophobic, and small or medium molecular organics, and ZrCl4 was more effective. This might be due to the stronger negative charge neutralization capacity and larger floc size of ZrCl4, which was beneficial for DOM combination and adsorption. The loss of zirconium was only 2.11%, which was much lower than that of iron and aluminum. Furthermore, being recycled for 3 times after coagulant regeneration, the recovered zirconium coagulant showed no obvious difference with the original ZrCl4 for DOM removal, indicating the disposal problem of the produced coagulation sludge can be resolved. This study could provide a promising method for LLNC treatment.

3.
Adipocyte ; 11(1): 266-275, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443856

RESUMO

ABSTACTMyostatin (MSTN) resulted in reduced backfat thickness in MSTN-knockout (MSTN-KO) pigs, whereas the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In this study, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to screen differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in porcine fat tissues. We identified 285 DEGs, including 4 adipocyte differentiation-related genes (ADRGs). Matrix Metalloproteinase-2/7 (MMP-2/7), fibronectin (FN), and laminin (LN) were differentially expressed in MSTN-KO pigs compared with wild-type (WT) pigs. To investigate the molecular mechanism, we treated the preadipocytes with siRNA and recombinant MSTN protein. The results indicated that MSTN increased the expression of MMP-2/7/9 and promoted the preadipocyte differentiation. To further validate the effect of MSTN on MMP-2/7/9 expression, we treated MSTN-KO PK15 cells with recombinant MSTN protein and detected the expression of MMP-2/7/9. The data showed that MSTN increases the expression of MMP-2/7/9 in PK15. This study revealed that MSTN promoted preadipocyte differentiation and provided the basis for the mechanism of fatty deposition in pigs.


Assuntos
Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz , Miostatina , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/genética , Miostatina/genética , Miostatina/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Suínos
4.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 44, 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35428318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A remarkable drop in tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been achieved in China, although in 2019 it was still considered the second most communicable disease. However, TB's spatial features and risk factors in urban areas remain poorly understood. This study aims to identify the spatial differentiations and potential influencing factors of TB in highly urbanized regions on a fine scale. METHODS: This study included 18 socioeconomic and environmental variables in the four central districts of Guangzhou, China. TB case data obtained from the Guangzhou Institute of Tuberculosis Control and Prevention. Before using Pearson correlation and a geographical detector (GD) to identify potential influencing factors, we conducted a global spatial autocorrelation analysis to select an appropriate spatial scales. RESULTS: Owing to its strong spatial autocorrelation (Moran's I = 0.33, Z = 4.71), the 2 km × 2 km grid was selected as the spatial scale. At this level, TB incidence was closely associated with most socioeconomic variables (0.31 < r < 0.76, P < 0.01). Of five environmental factors, only the concentration of fine particulate matter displayed significant correlation (r = 0.21, P < 0.05). Similarly, in terms of q values derived from the GD, socioeconomic variables had stronger explanatory abilities (0.08 < q < 0.57) for the spatial differentiation of the 2017 incidence of TB than environmental variables (0.06 < q < 0.27). Moreover, a much larger proportion (0.16 < q < 0.89) of the spatial differentiation was interpreted by pairwise interactions, especially those (0.60 < q < 0.89) related to the 2016 incidence of TB, officially appointed medical institutions, bus stops, and road density. CONCLUSIONS: The spatial heterogeneity of the 2017 incidence of TB in the study area was considerably influenced by several socioeconomic and environmental factors and their pairwise interactions on a fine scale. We suggest that more attention should be paid to the units with pairwise interacting factors in Guangzhou. Our study provides helpful clues for local authorities implementing more effective intervention measures to reduce TB incidence in China's municipal areas, which are featured by both a high degree of urbanization and a high incidence of TB.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Tuberculose , China/epidemiologia , Geografia , Humanos , Incidência , Análise Espacial , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35216268

RESUMO

Brassinosteriods (BRs) are plant hormones essential for plant growth and development. The receptor-like kinase (RLK) BRI1 perceives BRs to initiate a well-known transduction pathway which finally activate the transcription factors BZR1/BES1 specifically regulating BR-mediated gene expression. The RLK EMS1 governs tapetum formation via the same signaling pathway shared with BRI1. BRI1 and EMS1 have a common signal output, but the gene structural specificity and the molecular response remain unclear. In this study, we identified that the transmembrane (TM), intracellular juxtamembrane (iJM), kinase, and leucin-rich repeats 1-13 (LRR1-13) domains of EMS1 could replace the corresponding BRI1 domain to maintain the BR receptor function, whereas the extracellular juxtamembrane (eJM) and LRR1-14 domains could not, indicating that the LRR14-EJM domain conferred functional specificity to BRI1. We compared the kinase domains of EMS1 and BRI1, and found that EMS1's kinase activity was weaker than BRI1's. Further investigation of the specific phosphorylation sites in BRI1 and EMS1 revealed that the Y1052 site in the kinase domain was essential for the BRI1 biological function, but the corresponding site in EMS1 showed no effect on the biological function of EMS1, suggesting a site regulation difference in the two receptors. Furthermore, we showed that EMS1 shared the substrate BSKs with BRI1. Our study provides insight into the structural specificity and molecular mechanism of BRI1 and EMS1, as well as the origin and divergence of BR receptors.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Quimera/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Fosforilação/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
6.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(1)2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35011225

RESUMO

The intramuscular fat is a major quality trait of meat, affecting sensory attributes such as flavor and texture. Several previous GWAS studies identified Acyl-CoA Synthetase Long Chain Family Member 4 (ACSL4) gene as the candidate gene to regulate intramuscular fat content in different pig populations, but the underlying molecular function of ACSL4 in adipogenesis within pig skeletal muscle is not fully investigated. In this study, we isolated porcine endogenous intramuscular adipocyte progenitors and performed ACSL4 loss- and gain-of-function experiments during adipogenic differentiation. Our data showed that ACSL4 is a positive regulator of adipogenesis in intramuscular fat cells isolated from pigs. More interestingly, the enhanced expression of ACSL4 in pig intramuscular adipocytes could increase the cellular content of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as gamma-L eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The above results not only confirmed the function of ACSL4 in pig intramuscular adipogenesis and meat quality attributes, but also provided new clues for the improvement of the nutritional value of pork for human health.

7.
J Invest Surg ; 35(2): 284-292, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377808

RESUMO

PURPOSE/AIM OF THE STUDY: Colposcopy-directed cervical biopsy has played a major role in diagnosing cervical lesions. The precision of colposcopy-guided biopsy has been questioned. We analyzed several factors that may be correlated with the accuracy of biopsy. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE were searched from January 1, 1998 to March 1, 2020. Odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. SELECTION CRITERIA: Included studies evaluated factors correlated with the accuracy of biopsy and patients' final diagnosis was established by histological examination of the specimen obtained by conization, loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP), or colpohysterectomy. RESULTS: A total of 10 studies were selected for the systematic review and meta-analysis. The pooled analysis indicated that the diagnostic inaccuracies of colposcopy-directed cervical biopsy were magnified in women who were 50 years of age or older. Postmenopausal status and transformation zone 3 type were also associated with the diagnostic inaccuracies of colposcopy-directed biopsy. High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions had better concordance rates than low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. The number of vaginal deliveries, number of biopsies, and HPV type were associated with biopsy underdiagnosis and biopsy overestimation. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis found that the correlation between the histological findings at biopsy and after surgical treatment was influenced by women's age, menopausal status, and the transformation zone type. The diagnostic efficacy was also better for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions than for low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. Further large-scale randomized clinical trials are required to analyze the factors correlated with biopsy underdiagnosis and biopsy overestimation.


Assuntos
Colposcopia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Biópsia , Feminino , Humanos , Histerectomia Vaginal , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/cirurgia
8.
World J Urol ; 40(2): 577-583, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762172

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To balance epidemic prevention with the therapeutic needs of patients with urolithiasis during the COVID-19 pandemic, we developed a triage system to guide medical staff in making priority decisions. METHODS: The study began with a review of the literature to propose a theoretical framework. Then, focus groups were assembled to develop, supplement, refine and form a consensus on the indications of the triage system. Finally, the system was implemented in the clinic. The validity and reliability of the system were tested by a content validity index and the interrater reliability kappa coefficient. Changes in patient characteristics and waiting time before and after the epidemic were compared. RESULTS: The theoretical framework was based on disease pathophysiology, including obstruction, infection, kidney dysfunction, and other symptoms. With this guide, a 28-item triage system with categories of T1-5 (low priority to urgent) was developed. The content validity index and the interrater reliability coefficient were 0.833 and 0.812, respectively. During clinical application, although the total number of patients remained steady, the proportion of T1 decreased significantly; even though the overall waiting time of patients did not change significantly, it increased for T1 and decreased for T2-4 in 2020 compared with 2019 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This triage tool based on the dimensions of obstruction, infection, kidney dysfunction, and other symptoms has good psychometric properties and significant utility for prioritizing patients with urolithiasis during times of crisis. With this system, patients of moderate to high priority were treated promptly during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Triagem , Urolitíase , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Pandemias , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Triagem/métodos , Urolitíase/complicações , Urolitíase/diagnóstico , Urolitíase/terapia
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 344(Pt B): 126264, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737053

RESUMO

The complex structure of lignocellulosic biomass forms the recalcitrance to prevent the embedded holo-cellulosic sugars from undergoing the biodegradation. Therefore, a pretreatment is often required for an efficient enzymatic lignocellulosic hydrolysis. Recently, glycerol organosolv (GO) pretreatment is revealed potent in selective deconstruction of various lignocellulosic biomass and effective improvement of enzymatic hydrolysis. Evidently, the GO pretreatment is capable to modify the structure of dissolved components by glycerolysis, i.e., by trans-glycosylation onto glyceryl glycosides and by hydroxylation grafting onto glyceryl lignin. Such modifications tend to protect these main components against excessive degradation, which can be mainly responsible for the obviously less fermentation inhibitors arising in the GO pretreatment. This pretreatment can provide opportunities for valorization of emerging lignocellulosic biorefinery with production of value-added biochemicals. Recent advances in GO pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass followed by enzymatic hydrolysis are reviewed, and perspectives are made for addressing remaining challenges.


Assuntos
Glicerol , Açúcares , Biomassa , Hidrólise , Lignina
10.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34835961

RESUMO

Globally, anemia among school-age children (SAC) remains a serious public health problem, impacting their growth, development, educational attainment and future learning potential. National and subnational anemia prevalence among SAC in China has not been assessed recently. Based on data from Chinese Nutrition and Health Surveillance (2016-2017), the current anemia status of SAC in primary schools in China was investigated. Anemia prevalence of SAC in primary schools in China was 4.4%, dropping 63.6% compared with that in 2002. Even though anemia was no longer a significant public health problem at the national level, there were significant spatial disparities of anemia prevalence in different areas: anemia prevalence in 63% of provinces of northern and eastern China has lowered to below 5%, while in provinces of southern China, it was still ranging from 5% to 11.0%, about 3 times of other areas. For those children in southern China, mother's education level (OR = 1.24, p = 0.04) and father's education level (OR = 1.27, p = 0.01) below senior high school, eating meat less than 3 times per week (OR = 1.18, p = 0.01) were risk factors of anemia. Older age (OR = 0.35-0.72, p < 0.01) was a protective factor. Targeted interventions should be taken to improve SAC anemia in Southern China, despite anemia of SAC in primary schools no longer being a significant public health problem.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Geografia , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(9): e0009745, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, frequent outbreaks of dengue fever (DF) have become an increasingly serious public health issue in China, especially in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) with fast socioeconomic developments. Previous studies mainly focused on the historic DF epidemics, their influencing factors, and the prediction of DF risks. However, the future risks of this disease under both different socioeconomic development and representative concentration pathways (RCPs) scenarios remain little understood. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, a spatial dataset of gross domestic product (GDP), population density, and land use and land coverage (LULC) in 2050 and 2070 was obtained by simulation based on the different shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs), and the future climatic data derived from the RCP scenarios were integrated into the Maxent models for predicting the future DF risk in the PRD region. Among all the variables included in this study, socioeconomics factors made the dominant contribution (83% or so) during simulating the current spatial distribution of the DF epidemics in the PRD region. Moreover, the spatial distribution of future DF risk identified by the climatic and socioeconomic (C&S) variables models was more detailed than that of the climatic variables models. Along with global warming and socioeconomic development, the zones with DF high and moderate risk will continue to increase, and the population at high and moderate risk will reach a maximum of 48.47 million (i.e., 63.78% of the whole PRD) under the RCP 4.5/SSP2 in 2070. CONCLUSIONS: The increasing DF risk may be an inevitable public health threat in the PRD region with rapid socioeconomic developments and global warming in the future. Our results suggest that curbs in emissions and more sustainable socioeconomic growth targets offer hope for limiting the future impact of dengue, and effective prevention and control need to continue to be strengthened at the junction of Guangzhou-Foshan, north-central Zhongshan city, and central-western Dongguan city. Our study provides useful clues for relevant hygienic authorities making targeted adapting strategies for this disease.


Assuntos
Demografia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Modelos Biológicos , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Rios , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deficits in event-related potential (ERP) including duration mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a have been demonstrated widely in chronic schizophrenia (SZ) but inconsistent findings were reported in first-episode patients. Psychotropic medications and diagnosis might contribute to different findings on MMN/P3a ERP in first-episode patients. The present study examined MMN and P3a in first episode drug naïve SZ and bipolar disorder (BPD) patients and explored the relationships among ERPs, neurocognition and global functioning. METHODS: Twenty SZ, 24 BPD and 49 age and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Data of clinical symptoms [Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), Young Manic Rating Scale (YMRS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD)], neurocognition [Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Cattell's Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CCFT), Delay Matching to Sample (DMS), Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP)], and functioning [Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST)] were collected. P3a and MMN were elicited using a passive auditory oddball paradigm. RESULTS: Significant MMN and P3a deficits and impaired neurocognition were found in both SZ and BPD patients. In SZ, MMN was significantly correlated with FAST (r = 0.48) and CCFT (r = -0.31). In BPD, MMN was significantly correlated with DMS (r = -0.54). For P3a, RVP and FAST scores were significant predictors in SZ, whereas RVP, WAIS and FAST were significant predictors in BPD. CONCLUSIONS: The present study found deficits in MMN, P3a, neurocognition in drug naïve SZ and BPD patients. These deficits appeared to link with levels of higher-order cognition and functioning.

13.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(20): e2102785, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423593

RESUMO

Respiratory tract microbiome is closely related to respiratory tract infections, while characterization of oropharyngeal microbiome in recovered coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients is not studied. Herein, oropharyngeal swabs are collected from confirmed cases (CCs) with COVID-19 (73 subjects), suspected cases (SCs) (36), confirmed cases who recovered (21), suspected cases who recovered (36), and healthy controls (Hs) (140) and then completed MiSeq sequencing. Oropharyngeal microbial α-diversity is markedly reduced in CCs versus Hs. Opportunistic pathogens are increased, while butyrate-producing genera are decreased in CCs versus Hs. The classifier based on eight optimal microbial markers is constructed through a random forest model and reached great diagnostic efficacy in both discovery and validation cohorts. Notably, the classifier successfully diagnosed SCs with positive IgG antibody as CCs and is demonstrated from the perspective of the microbiome. Importantly, several genera with significant differences gradually increase and decrease along with recovery from COVID-19. Forty-four oropharyngeal operational taxonomy units (OTUs) are closely correlated with 11 clinical indicators of SARS-CoV-2 infection and Hs based on Spearman correlation analysis. Together, this research is the first to characterize oropharyngeal microbiota in recovered COVID-19 cases and suspected cases, to successfully construct and validate the diagnostic model for COVID-19 and to depict the correlations between microbial OTUs and clinical indicators.


Assuntos
COVID-19/microbiologia , Microbiota , Orofaringe/microbiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
J Int Med Res ; 49(8): 3000605211015079, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369192

RESUMO

Primary liver cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in China. Currently, immunotherapy for liver cancer is a research hotspot. Experimental studies and epidemiological investigations have confirmed the antineoplastic activity of low ionizing radiation. The aim of this study was to explore the optimal dose of low ionizing radiation to enhance immune function. Twenty-five New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into five groups (n = 5 each): experimental group 1 (25 mGy), experimental group 2 (50 mGy), experimental group 3 (75 mGy), experimental group 4 (100 mGy), and the control group (0 mGy). VX-2 tumor tissue was injected into rabbits using a high-frequency B-ultrasound probe (3.5 MHz). Rabbits were irradiated, and on day 4 after irradiation, blood was collected from each rabbit. Blood chemistry, interleukin (IL)-4, interferon (IFN)-γ, immunoglobulin (Ig)G, and IgM levels were assessed. On day 15 after irradiation, macrophage phagocytic function was assessed. The rabbits were sacrificed, and the spleen was removed and weighed to calculate its spleen index. Each parameter was highest in the experimental group 3 (75 mGy). Thus, we suspect the optimal low ionizing radiation dose to improve immune function may be 75 mGy.


Assuntos
Radiação Ionizante , Baço , Animais , China , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Imunidade , Coelhos
16.
Bioresour Technol ; 338: 125505, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273627

RESUMO

The acquisition during biomass saccharification of elevated levels of fermentable sugars with lower cellulase concentration is central to ensuring an economically viable and industrially relevant hydrolytic process. Thus, using a new cellulase preparation (LT4) at low cellulase loading (2 mg protein/g dried substrate), this study assessed the possible boosting effect of integrating accessory enzymes and additives on high-solids hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse via fed-batch feeding. Hydrolysis which commenced with initial 8% solids loading and subsequent substrate feeding of 4% solids at 6 h, 18 h, and 24 h respectively, proved optimal for the 20% high-solids saccharification producing 158 g/L total sugars and 83% glucose yield after 72 h with the combined optimized additives and accessory enzymes. The results obtained indicate that the integration of accessory enzymes and additives offers a benignant approach to minimizing the enzyme load and cost of high solids saccharification of lignocellulosic heteropolymers while also boosting enzyme hydrolytic performance.


Assuntos
Celulase , Saccharum , Álcalis , Catálise , Celulose , Digestão , Glicerol , Hidrólise
17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 675822, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34122437

RESUMO

We have reported that tumor-derived autophagosomes (DRibbles) were efficient carriers of tumor antigens and DRibbles antigens could be present by DRibbles-activated B cells to stimulate effect and naïve T cells in mice. However, the effect of DRibbles on human B cells remains unclear. Herein, we found that DRibbles can also efficiently induce proliferation and activation of human B cells and lead to the production of chemokines, cytokines and hematopoietic growth factors. We further demonstrated human B cells can effectively phagocytose DRibbles directly and cross-present DRibbles antigens to stimulate antigen-specific memory T cells. Furthermore, we found that membrane-bound high-mobility group B1 (HMGB1) on DRibbles was crucial for inducing human B cells activation. Therefore, these findings provide further evidence to promote the clinical application of B-DRibbles vaccines.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Autofagossomos/fisiologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Memória Imunológica , Ativação Linfocitária , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteína HMGB1/fisiologia , Humanos
18.
Am J Transl Res ; 13(5): 4092-4102, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34150001

RESUMO

Classical aluminum adjuvant is a deficient antigen carrier for cross-presentation and cross-priming of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. Our previous research has demonstrated that cross-presentation efficiency significantly increased when antigens are conjugated covalently to α-Al2O3 nanoparticles. Here we found that coating conventional aluminum adjuvants with polyethyleneimine (PEI) could enhance antigen cross-presentation of DCs (dendritic cells) in vitro and in vivo. PEIs exerted differential effects on antigen cross-presentation. These findings provided an alternative approach to promote the rapid translation of alumina nanoparticles adjuvants into clinical application.

19.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 647647, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34055878

RESUMO

Organ failure resulting from excessive inflammation is the leading cause of death in the early phase of acute pancreatitis (AP). The autonomic nervous system was reported to be involved in AP, and the vagus nerve could exert anti-inflammatory effects through α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) signaling. Acupuncture has been widely used in traditional Asian medicine, and recent studies suggested the inflammation modulating effect of electroacupuncture (EA) might be mediated by the autonomic nervous system. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of EA in AP animal models. Two independent AP mouse models were used, namely, caerulein hyperstimulation and pancreatic duct ligation. We found that EA at Zusanli acupoint increased vagus nerve activity, suppressed systemic inflammation, and alleviated the histopathological manifestations and leukocyte infiltrations of the pancreas. Induction of AP resulted in a remarkable decrease in the frequency of α7nAchR+ macrophages in the pancreas, while EA counteracted this phenomenon. The anti-inflammatory, pancreatic protective and upregulation of α7nAchR effects of EA were reduced in mice with vagotomy. Moreover, the therapeutic effects of EA were attenuated in mice treated with methyllycaconitine citrate, a selective α7nAChR antagonist. Taken together, EA could modulate inflammation, thereby exerting protective effects in AP. The mechanism may include activating the vagus nerve through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway.

20.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(19): 2376-2393, 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34040329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a common disease in intensive care units, with high morbidity and mortality. Intestinal microecology plays a vital part in the development and progression of this disease, possibly because sepsis and its treatment cause specific changes in the composition of the intestinal flora. AIM: To investigate the characteristics of intestinal flora disturbance in sepsis patients treated with antibiotics. METHODS: In this prospective comparative study, we enrolled ten patients with sepsis (sepsis group), hospitalized in the Department of Critical Care Medicine of the General Hospital, Ningxia Medical University, China (a class IIIa general hospital) from February 2017 to June 2017; ten patients without sepsis hospitalized in the same period (non-sepsis group) and ten healthy individuals (control group) were also enrolled. Fecal samples collected from the three groups were subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing and the intestinal flora diversity, structure, and composition were determined. Additionally, the dynamics of the intestinal flora diversity, structure, and composition in sepsis patients were investigated via 16S rRNA gene sequencing of samples collected 0 d, 3 d, and 7 d after admittance to the intensive care unit. Correlations between the serum levels of procalcitonin, endotoxin, diamine oxidase, and D-lactic acid and the intestinal flora composition of sepsis patients were also investigated. RESULTS: Compared with the healthy control group, sepsis and non-sepsis patients showed reduced intestinal flora α-diversity and a distinct flora structure, with Firmicutes as the dominant phylum, and significantly decreased proportions of Bacteroidetes, as well as Prevotella and Lachnospira, among other genera. Of note, the proportion of Enterococcus was significantly increased in the intestinal tract of sepsis patients. Interestingly, the α-diversity in the sepsis group decreased gradually, from days 1 to 7 of treatment. However, pairwise comparisons showed that both the diversity and structure of the intestinal flora were not significantly different considering the three different time points studied. Curiously, the serum levels of procalcitonin, endotoxin, diamine oxidase, and D-lactic acid in sepsis patients correlated with the prevalence of various bacterial genera. For example, the prevalence of Ruminococcus was positively correlated with serum procalcitonin, endotoxins, and diamine oxidase; similarly, the prevalence of Roseburia was positively correlated with serum procalcitonin, endotoxins, and D-lactic acid. CONCLUSION: Sepsis patients in intensive care units show dysbiosis, lasting for at least 1 wk.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Sepse , China/epidemiologia , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sepse/terapia
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