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1.
Insect Sci ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039551

RESUMO

Swarming behavior facilitates pair formation, and therefore mating, in many eusocial termites. However, the physiological adjustments and morphological transformations of the flight muscles involved in flying and flightless insect forms are still unclear. Here, we found that the dispersal flight of the eusocial termite Reticulitermes chinensis Snyder led to a gradual decrease in ATP supply from oxidative phosphorylation, as well as a reduction in the activities of critical mitochondrial respiratory enzymes from preflight to dealation. Correspondingly, using three-dimensional reconstruction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the flight muscles were found to be gradually deteriorated during this process. In particular, two tergo-pleural muscles (IItpm5 and IIItpm5) necessary to adjust the rotation of wings for wing shedding behavior were present only in flying alates. These findings suggest that flight muscle systems varied in function and morphology to facilitate the swarming flight procedure, which sheds light on the important role of swarming in successful extension and fecundity of eusocial termites. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
BMC Neurosci ; 21(1): 7, 2020 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is a crucial task of brain science researches to explore functional connective maps of Biological Neural Networks (BNN). The maps help to deeply study the dominant relationship between the structures of the BNNs and their network functions. RESULTS: In this study, the ideas of linear Granger causality modeling and causality identification are extended to those of nonlinear Granger causality modeling and network structure identification. We employed Radial Basis Functions to fit the nonlinear multivariate dynamical responses of BNNs with neuronal pulse firing. By introducing the contributions from presynaptic neurons and detecting whether the predictions for postsynaptic neurons' pulse firing signals are improved or not, we can reveal the information flows distribution of BNNs. Thus, the functional connections from presynaptic neurons can be identified from the obtained network information flows. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, the Nonlinear Granger Causality Identification Method (NGCIM) is applied to the network structure discovery processes of Spiking Neural Networks (SNN). SNN is a simulation model based on an Integrate-and-Fire mechanism. By network simulations, the multi-channel neuronal pulse sequence data of the SNNs can be used to reversely identify the synaptic connections and strengths of the SNNs. CONCLUSIONS: The identification results show: for 2-6 nodes small-scale neural networks, 20 nodes medium-scale neural networks, and 100 nodes large-scale neural networks, the identification accuracy of NGCIM with the Gaussian kernel function was 100%, 99.64%, 98.64%, 98.37%, 98.31%, 84.87% and 80.56%, respectively. The identification accuracies were significantly higher than those of a traditional Linear Granger Causality Identification Method with the same network sizes. Thus, with an accumulation of the data obtained by the existing measurement methods, such as Electroencephalography, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Multi-Electrode Array, the NGCIM can be a promising network modeling method to infer the functional connective maps of BNNs.

3.
J Med Virol ; 92(4): 408-417, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944312

RESUMO

Respiratory tract viral infection caused by viruses or bacteria is one of the most common diseases in human worldwide, while those caused by emerging viruses, such as the novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV that caused the pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan, China most recently, have posed great threats to global public health. Identification of the causative viral pathogens of respiratory tract viral infections is important to select an appropriate treatment, save people's lives, stop the epidemics, and avoid unnecessary use of antibiotics. Conventional diagnostic tests, such as the assays for rapid detection of antiviral antibodies or viral antigens, are widely used in many clinical laboratories. With the development of modern technologies, new diagnostic strategies, including multiplex nucleic acid amplification and microarray-based assays, are emerging. This review summarizes currently available and novel emerging diagnostic methods for the detection of common respiratory viruses, such as influenza virus, human respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, human adenovirus, and human rhinovirus. Multiplex assays for simultaneous detection of multiple respiratory viruses are also described. It is anticipated that such data will assist researchers and clinicians to develop appropriate diagnostic strategies for timely and effective detection of respiratory virus infections.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(4): 1667-1672, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909990

RESUMO

DNA-mediated assembly of inorganic particles has demonstrated to be a powerful approach for preparing nanomaterials with a range of interesting optical and electrical properties. Building on this inspiration, we describe a generalizable gram-scale method to assemble nanoparticles through the formation of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) triple-helices. In this work, alkene-terminated syndiotactic (st-) and isotactic (it-) PMMA polymers were prepared and subsequently functionalized to afford nanoparticle ligands. Nanoparticles with complementary st- and it-PMMA ligands could then be spontaneously assembled upon mixing at room temperature. This process was robust and fully reversible through multiple heating and cooling cycles. The versatility of PMMA stereocomplexation was highlighted by assembling hybrid structures composed of nanoparticles of different compositions (e.g., Au and quantum dots) and shapes (e.g., spheres and rods). These initial demonstrations of nanoparticle self-assembly from inexpensive PMMA-based materials present an attractive alternative to DNA-based nanomaterials.

5.
Proteomics ; 20(2): e1900257, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826332

RESUMO

Temperature affects almost all aspects of the fish life. To cope with low temperature, fish have evolved the ability of cold acclimation for survival. However, intracellular signaling events underlying cold acclimation in fish remain largely unknown. Here, the formation of cold acclimation in zebrafish embryonic fibroblasts (ZF4) is monitored and the phosphorylation events during the process are investigated through a large-scale quantitative phosphoproteomic approach. In total, 11 474 phosphorylation sites are identified on 4066 proteins and quantified 5772 phosphosites on 2519 proteins. Serine, threonine, and tyrosine (Ser/Thr/Tyr) phosphorylation accounted for 85.5%, 13.3%, and 1.2% of total phosphosites, respectively. Among all phosphosites, 702 phosphosites on 510 proteins show differential regulation during cold acclimation of ZF4 cells. These phosphosites are divided into six clusters according to their dynamic changes during cold exposure. Kinase-substrate prediction reveals that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) among the kinase groups is predominantly responsible for phosphorylation of these phosphosites. The differentially regulated phosphoproteins are functionally associated with various cellular processes such as regulation of actin cytoskeleton and MAPK signaling pathway. These data enrich the database of protein phosphorylation sites in zebrafish and provide key clues for the elucidation of intracellular signaling networks during cold acclimation of fish.

6.
Int J Mol Med ; 45(1): 245-254, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746346

RESUMO

The steroidal saponin RCE­4 (1ß, 3ß, 5ß, 25S)­spirostan­1, 3­diol 1­[α­L­rhamnopyranosyl­(1→2)­ß­D­xylopyranoside], isolated from Reineckia carnea, exerts significant anti­cervical cancer activity by inducing apoptosis. The potential effect of RCE­4 on proliferation inhibition and autophagy induction has rarely been studied. Therefore, the focus of the present study was to investigate the effects of RCE­4 on proliferation, and to elucidate the detailed mechanisms involved in autophagy induction in cervical cancer cells. CaSki cells were treated with RCE­4 or/and autophagy inhibitors, and the effect of RCE­4 on cellular proliferation was assessed by MTT assay. The pro­autophagic properties of RCE­4 were subsequently confirmed using monomeric red fluorescent protein­green fluorescent protein­microtubule­associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B (LC3) adenoviruses and CYTO­ID autophagy assays, and by assessing the accumulation of lipid­modified LC3 (LC3II). The mechanisms of RCE­4­induced autophagy were investigated by western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that inhibiting autophagy significantly promoted RCE­4­induced cell death, indicating that autophagy served a protective role following RCE­4 treatment. In addition, RCE­4­induced autophagy was reflected by increased expression levels of the serine/threonine­protein kinase ULK1, phosphorylated (p)­ULK1, p­Beclin­1 and LC3II, the formation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes, and sequestosome 1 (p62) degradation. Subsequent analysis indicated that RCE­4 activated the AMP­activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway by upregulating AMPK and p­AMPK, and also inhibited the PI3K and extracellular signal­regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways by downregulating p­PI3K, p­Akt, p­mTOR, Ras, c­Raf, p­c­Raf, dual specificity mitogen­activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)1/2, p­MEK1/2 and p­Erk1/2. Additionally, with increased treatment times RCE­4 may impair lysosomal cathepsin activity and inhibit autophagy flux by suppressing the expression of AMPK, p­AMPK, ULK1, p­ULK1 and p­Beclin­1, and upregulating that of p62. These results indicated that the dual RCE­4­induced inhibition of the PI3K and ERK pathways may result in a more significant anti­tumor effect and prevent chemoresistance, compared with the inhibition of either single pathway; furthermore, dual blockade of PI3K and ERK, and the AMPK pathway may be involved in the regulation of autophagy caused by RCE­4. Taken together, RCE­4 induced autophagy to protect cancer cells against apoptosis, but AMPK­mediated autophagy was inhibited in the later stages of RCE­4 treatment. In addition, autophagy inhibition improved the therapeutic effect of RCE­4. These data highlight RCE­4 as a potential candidate for cervical cancer treatment.

7.
Int J Radiat Biol ; 96(2): 187-196, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682784

RESUMO

Purpose: This study evaluated the DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) induced by indirect actions and its misrepairs to estimate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of proton beams.Materials and methods: From experimental data, DSB induction was evaluated in cells irradiated by 62 MeV proton beams in the presence of dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) and under hypoxic conditions. The DNA damage yields for calculating the RBE were estimated using Monte Carlo Damage Simulation (MCDS) software. The repair outcomes (correct repairs, mutations and DSB conversions) were estimated using Monte Carlo Excision Repair (MCER) simulations.Results: The values for RBE of 62 MeV protons (LET = 1.051 keV/µm) for DSB induction and enzymatic DSB under aerobic condition (21% O2) was 1.02 and 0.94, respectively, as comparing to 60Co γ-rays (LET = 2.4 keV/µm). DMSO mitigated the inference of indirect action and reduced DSB induction to a greater extent when damaged by protons rather than γ-rays, resulting in a decreased RBE of 0.86. DMSO also efficiently prevented enzymatic DSB yields triggered by proton irradiation and reduced the RBE to 0.83. However, hypoxia (2% O2) produced a similar level of DSB induction with respect to the protons and γ-rays, with a comparable RBE of 1.02.Conclusions: The RBE values of proton beams estimated from DSB induction and enzymatic DSB decreased by 16% and 12%, respectively, in the presence of DMSO. Our findings indicate that the overall effects of DSB induction and enzymatic DSB could intensify the tumor killing, while alleviate normal tissue damage when indirect actions are effectively interrupted.

8.
Adv Mater ; 32(6): e1905661, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851401

RESUMO

Defects, inevitably produced within bulk and at perovskite-transport layer interfaces (PTLIs), are detrimental to power conversion efficiency (PCE) and stability of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). It is demonstrated that a crosslinkable organic small molecule thioctic acid (TA), which can simultaneously be chemically anchored to the surface of TiO2 and methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3 ) through coordination effects and then in situ crosslinked to form a robust continuous polymer (Poly(TA)) network after thermal treatment, can be introduced into PSCs as a new bifacial passivation agent for greatly passivating the defects. It is also discovered that Poly(TA) can additionally enhance the charge extraction efficiency and the water-resisting and light-resisting abilities of perovskite film. These newly discovered features of Poly(TA) make PSCs herein achieve among the best PCE of 20.4% ever reported for MAPbI3 with negligible hysteresis, along with much enhanced ultraviolet, air, and operational stabilities. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the passivation of MAPbI3 bulk and PTLIs by Poly(TA) occurs through the interaction of functional groups (COOH, CS) in Poly(TA) with under-coordinated Pb2+ in MAPbI3 and Ti4+ in TiO2 , which is supported by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

9.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 28(2): 115236, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843459

RESUMO

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) and Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) are very promising targets for hematological malignancies and autoimmune diseases. In recent years, a few compounds have been approved as a marketed medicine, and several are undergoing clinical trials. By recombining the dominant backbone of known active compounds, constructing a foused library, and screening a broad panel of kinases, we found a class of compounds with dual activities of anti-BTK and anti-JAK3. Some of the compounds have shown 10-folds more active in the enzyme and cell-based assays than a known active compound. Furthermore, liver microsome stability experiments show that these compounds have better stability than ibrutinib. These explorations offered new clues to discover benzoxaborole fragment and pyrimidine scaffold as more effective BTK and JAK3 dual inhibitors.

10.
Langmuir ; 35(51): 16752-16760, 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790270

RESUMO

In this work, PtFeCu concave octahedron nanocrystals were synthesized by a one-pot solvothermal method. The PtFeCu concave octahedron nanocrystals were applied as an electrocatalyst for the electrooxidation of methanol and have shown high electrocatalytic activity and long-term durability. The electrocatalysis performances of the PtFeCu concave octahedron nanocrystals are better than those of the PtFe and PtCu nanocrystals and commercial Pt/C. The synergistic effect of the Pt, Fe, and Cu metals and the unique concave octahedron morphology may be the main cause of the superior electrocatalytic performances of the PtFeCu nanocrystals. The PtFeCu concave octahedron nanocrystals have a potential application as an anode catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells.

11.
Chem Rev ; 119(24): 12279-12336, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793285

RESUMO

The extraordinary properties of biological materials often result from their sophisticated hierarchical structures. Through multilevel and cross-scale structural designs, biological materials offset the weakness of their individual building blocks and enhance performance at multiple length scales to match the multifunctional needs of organisms. One essential merit of hierarchical structure is that it can optimize the interfacial features of the "building blocks" at different length scales, from the molecular level to the macroscale. Understanding the roles of biological material interfaces (BMIs) on the determination of properties and functions of biological materials has become a growing interdisciplinary research area in recent years. A pivotal aim of these studies is to use BMIs as inspiration for developing bioinspired and biomimetic materials and devices with advanced structures and functions. Given these considerations, this review aims to comprehensively discuss the structure-property-function relationships of BMIs in nature. We particularly focus on the discussion of BMIs and their inspired materials from mechanical and optical perspectives because these two directions are the most well-investigated and closely related. The challenges and directions of design and fabrication of BMI-inspired mechanical and optical materials are also discussed. This review is expected to garner interest from advanced material communities as well as environmental, nanotechnology, food processing, and engineering fields.

12.
Clin Chim Acta ; 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794763

RESUMO

Very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCAD deficiency), a rare autosomal recessive disorder, is characterized by hypoketotic hypoglycemia, cardiomyopathy, liver damage, and myopathy. VLCAD deficiency is caused by defects of ACADVL gene, which encodes VLCAD protein. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical, biochemical, prognosis and mutation spectrum of patients with VLCAD deficiency in mainland China. A total of Six families visited us, four patients (2 boys and 2 girls) were admitted in hospital due to liver dysfunction, hypoglycemia, and positive newborn screen result. The parents of the other two patients (2 girls) visited us for genetic consultation after their children's death. All the six patients had elevated level of serum tetradecenoylcarnitine (C14:1-carnitine), four of them showed decreased free carnitine (C0) level, and three had dicarboxylic aciduria. Eight types of mutations of the ACADVL gene were detected, three of them are novel, including c.563G > A (p.G188D) c.1387G > A (p.G463R) and c.1582_1586del (p.L529Sfs*31). The p.R450H mutation accounts for 9/52 alleles (5/40 in previous study of 20 unrelated patients, and 4/12 in this study) of genetically diagnosed Chinese VLCAD deficiency cases. The four alive patients (Patient 1-4) responded well to diet prevention and drug therapy with stable hepatic dysfunction condition. In conclusion, we describe three novel mutations of the ACADVL gene among six unrelated families with VLCAD deficiency. Moreover, we suggest that the p.R450H may be a potential hotspot mutation in the Chinese population.

13.
Clin Oral Investig ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797170

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) in the healing of teeth extraction sockets and in alveolar ridge preservation. This may provide an experimental basis for the widespread application of HBO in oral implantation. METHODS: A total of 32 beagle dogs were included in the study and randomly divided equally between an HBO group treated with hyperbaric oxygen (100% O2, 2.4 atm, 90 min/day, 5 times/week, 6 weeks) and a normobaric oxygen (NBO) group treated with normal air in the same chamber. The lateral incisors of the maxillary and mandible of each dog were extracted, and the right upper and lower incisor extraction sockets (A2C2) were allowed to heal naturally, while left upper and lower incisor sockets (B2D2) received implants of a commercial bone substitute. At 4 and 8 weeks after surgery, clinical observation, cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT), histomorphology observation, and expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) were analyzed to evaluate new bone formation, mineralization, and reconstruction. RESULTS: After 4 and 8 weeks, bone width and lip contour of the extraction socket in the NBO group were significantly reduced and collapsed in comparison with the HBO group. CBCT showed that the difference in vertical height between the alveolar crest of the labial tongue and palatal side of the extraction sockets was smaller in the HBO than NBO group. There was a significant difference in new bone formation (P < 0.05) and bone mineral density (P < 0.05) between the HBO and NBO groups, and the HBO group showed significantly greater new bone and bone reconstruction based on histology. Furthermore, the expression levels of VEGF and BMP-2 were higher in the HBO group. CONCLUSION: HBO reduced bone resorption and promoted early bone formation, bone mineralization, and reconstruction in the extraction sockets. HBO greatly reduced the healing time of the extraction sockets and promoted alveolar ridge preservation, thus showing promise for the clinic.

14.
Patient Prefer Adherence ; 13: 1817-1827, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806935

RESUMO

Purpose: No instrument exists for measuring TB patients' self-efficacy which is vital for choosing and insisting in benefit TB-management behaviors. Our study aimed to develop and test a new tuberculosis self-efficacy scale (TBSES). Patients and methods: The TBSES was designed through literature review, individual interviews, Delphi surveys, and pilot testing. After that, 460 TB patients were recruited to validate TBSES. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and correlation analysis were used to evaluate the scale reliability and validity. The cut-off point for TBSES was identified using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: The final TBSES includes 21 items scored on a 5-point Likert scale, and these items are loaded in four distinct factors that explain 67.322% of the variance, both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis proved that the scale had good construct validity. The scale had adequate internal consistency, split-half reliability, test-retest reliability, as well as demonstrated content, concurrent validity. The ROC analysis results showed the cut-off point was 86.5. Conclusion: This 21-item TBSES demonstrated favorable psychometric properties. It provides an instrument for not only measuring specific self-efficacy in TB, but also identifying patients with low self-efficacy and determining the specific area toward designing interventions for enhance self-efficacy.

15.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(24): 2905-2913, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the growing epidemic of heart failure (HF), there is limited data available to systematically compare non-cardiac comorbidities in the young-old, old-old, and oldest-old patients hospitalized for HF. The precise differences will add valuable information for better management of HF in elderly patients. METHODS: A total of 1053 patients aged 65 years or older hospitalized with HF were included in this study. Patients were compared among three age groups: (1) young-old: 65 to 74 years, (2) old-old: 75 to 84 years, and (3) oldest-old: ≥85 years. Clinical details of presentation, comorbidities, and prescribed medications were recorded. RESULTS: The mean age was 76.7 years and 12.7% were 85 years or older. Most elderly patients with HF (97.5%) had at least one of the non-cardiac comorbidities. The patterns of common non-cardiac comorbidities were different between the young-old and oldest-old group. The three most common non-cardiac comorbidities were anemia (53.6%), hyperlipidemia (45.9%), and diabetes (42.4%) in the young-old group, while anemia (73.1%), infection (58.2%), and chronic kidney disease (44.0%) in the oldest-old group. Polypharmacy was observed in 93.0% elderly patients with HF. Additionally, 29.2% patients were diagnosed with infection, and 67.0% patients were prescribed antibiotics. However, 60.4% patients were diagnosed with anemia with only 8.9% of them receiving iron repletion. CONCLUSIONS: Non-cardiac comorbidities are nearly universal in three groups but obviously differ by age, and inappropriate medications are very common in elderly patients with HF. Further treatment strategies should be focused on providing optimal medications for age-specific non-cardiac conditions.

16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 91: 223-231, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838216

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) polymorphisms and susceptibility to anti-tuberculous therapy-associated drug-induced liver injury (ATT-DILI). METHODS: A total of 746 tuberculosis (TB) patients were enrolled in this study. Twenty-one selected single nucleotide polymorphisms in BCL2 were analyzed by custom-by-design 2×48-Plex SNPscan kit. The allele and genotype frequencies between patients with and without ATT-DILI were compared using three different genetic models. RESULTS: A total of 727/746 participants were successfully genotyped, and 112 of them were diagnosed with ATT-DILI. The A allele of rs8085707, G allele of rs76986960, and A allele of rs949037 conferred an increased risk of ATT-DILI, with estimated odd ratios (ORs) of 2.181 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.345-3.536, p=0.001), 1.983 (95% CI 1.060-3.709, p=0.029), and 1.390 (95% CI 1.032-1.873, p=0.03), respectively. Bonferroni correction indicated that the A allele of rs8085707 was a risk factor for ATT-DILI (Bonferroni correction: p=0.026). The additive model suggested that patients with the AA genotype of rs8085707 had a significantly higher risk of ATT-DILI compared with those with the GG genotype (Bonferroni correction: p=0.036). The influence of BCL2 polymorphisms on clinical characteristics (clinical symptoms, disease subtypes, and laboratory indicators) was also identified. CONCLUSIONS: This study is novel in suggesting an association between BCL2 polymorphisms and the risk of ATT-DILI.

17.
Contrast Media Mol Imaging ; 2019: 9738464, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866800

RESUMO

Objective: To qualitatively and quantitatively compare the contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in one-stop shop of abdominal imaging with Gadobutrol and Gd-DTPA at equimolar doses of gadolinium. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective designed, multiple center, intraindividual comparison study. All volunteers underwent Gadobutrol- and Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRA and MRI in one-stop shop. Qualitative analysis for large vessels and small vessels was performed by a three-point scale, while for minute small vessels, by a five-point scale. Quantitative analysis was performed for large vessels by signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Visceral organ enhancements on the equilibrium phase were also analyzed. Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-rank tests were used to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative results. Results: 40 volunteers were enrolled. Qualitative analyses results for large vessels, small vessels, and minute small vessels of Gadobutrol and Gd-DTPA were 20.98 ± 2.11, 6.03 ± 1.03, and 3.41 ± 1.18 and 20.01 ± 2.18, 5.28 ± 1.67, and 2.61 ± 1.40, respectively. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests revealed Gadobutrol-enhanced MRA was superior to that of Gd-DTPA significantly for small vessels (p=0.028) and minute small vessels (p=0.007). For quantitative analysis of large vessels, no statistic difference was found. Gadobutrol-enhanced MRI had higher CNR of the liver (p=0.003), spleen (p=0.001), and pancreas (p=0.001) and higher SNR of spleen (p=0.009) than those of Gd-DTPA statistically. Conclusion: Our study proved Gadobutrol was superior to Gd-DTPA in qualitative analysis of CE-MRA and quantitative analysis of visceral organ enhancement on CE-MRI in abdomen of healthy volunteers. Gadobutrol may be more suitable for abdominal one-stop examination for CE-MRA and CE-MRI.

18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(52): e18353, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine the effectiveness of text message reminders (TMR) on medication adherence (MA) and to investigate the effects of TMR on clinical outcomes. METHODS: The PubMed, Cochrane library, EMbase, and China Biology Medicine databases were searched for randomized-controlled trials with TMR as the intervention for patients with coronary heart disease. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. Meta-analysis was conducted using Stata 15.0 software. RESULTS: In total, 1678 patients in 6 trials were included. Compared with the control group, the MA was 2.85 times greater among the intervention group (RR [relative risk] 2.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-7.58). TMR reduced systolic blood pressure (BP) (weighted mean difference) = -6.51; 95% CI -9.79 to -3.23), cholesterol (standard mean difference = -0.26; 95% CI -0.4 to -0.12) and increased the number of patients with BP <140/90 mm Hg (RR 1.39; 95% CI 1.26-1.54). CONCLUSION: TMR significantly promoted MA and reduced systolic BP, cholesterol level, and body mass index, but had no effect on mortality, diastolic BP, or lipoproteins. However, substantial heterogeneity existed in our analyses.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação , Sistemas de Alerta , Mensagem de Texto , Humanos
19.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 262, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary pulmonary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) is a rare tumor and often misdiagnosed as squamous carcinoma. In the current study, clinical characteristics and outcome of primary pulmonary LELC were systematically compared with pulmonary squamous carcinoma. METHODS: Forty-two cases of primary pulmonary LELC and 134 squamous carcinomas were enrolled retrospectively. Characteristic and prognosis difference between the two groups was compared, and the independent prognostic factor for pulmonary LELC was identified as well. RESULTS: In comparison to squamous carcinoma, pulmonary LELC was more common in women with a younger median age and less smokers. LELC seemed to be smaller in diameter on computed tomography (CT) scans than squamous carcinoma, with scarce spiculation and vascular convergence signs. Epstein-Bar virus-encoded RNA (EBER) by in-situ hybridization was detected in 33 LELC cases, among whom 27 ones were positive in serum EBV-DNA examination. LELC patients presented a much longer median progression-free survival (PFS) than squamous carcinoma. Positive serum EBV-DNA, distant lymph node invasion, advanced clinical stage and receiving radiotherapy were correlated with the shorter PFS in LELC patients. However, only positive serum EBV-DNA was the independent PFS predictor. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary LELC looks like distinct from squamous carcinoma. Middle-aged women and nonsmokers are comparatively predominated. CT features of pulmonary LELC are relatively less-malignant. Correspondently, the progression of pulmonary LELC is seemingly favorable than squamous carcinoma and the positive serum EBV-DNA appears to be the predictor of PFS.

20.
Materials (Basel) ; 12(22)2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717329

RESUMO

In this paper, the microstructures and corrosion behaviors of as-cast Mg-5Sn-xGa alloys with varying Ga content (x = 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 wt %) were investigated. The results indicated that Ga could not only adequately refine the grain structure of the alloys, but could also improve the corrosion resistance. The microstructures of all alloys exhibited typical dendritic morphology. No Ga-rich secondary phases were detected when 0.5 wt % Ga was added, while only the morphology of Mg2Sn phase was changed. However, when the addition rate of Ga exceeded 0.5 wt %, an Mg5Ga2 intermetallic compound started to form from the interdendritic region. The volume fraction of Mg5Ga2 monotonically increased with the increasing Ga addition level. Although Mg5Ga2 phase was cathode phase, its pitting sensitivity was weaker than Mg2Sn. In addition, the standard potential of Ga (-0.55 V) was lower than that of Sn (-0.14 V), which relieved the driving force of the secondary phases for the micro-galvanic corrosion. An optimized composition of 3 wt % Ga was concluded based on the immersion tests and polarization measurements, which recorded the best corrosion resistance.

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