Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 73
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186849

RESUMO

Thermoacoustic (TA) effect has been discovered for more than 130 years. However, limited by the material characteristics, the performance of a TA sound source could not be compared with magnetoelectric and piezoelectric loudspeakers. Recently, graphene, a two-dimensional material with the lowest heat capacity per unit area, was discovered to have a good TA performance. Compared with a traditional sound source, graphene TA sound sources (GTASSs) have many advantages, such as small volume, no diaphragm vibration, wide frequency range, high transparency, good flexibility, and high sound pressure level (SPL). Therefore, graphene has a great potential as a next-generation sound source. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging can also be applied to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases using the photothermo-acoustic (PTA) effect. Therefore, in this review, we will introduce the history of TA devices. Then, the theory and simulation model of TA will be analyzed in detail. After that, we will talk about the graphene synthesis method. To improve the performance of GTASSs, many strategies such as lowering the thickness and using porous or suspended structures will be introduced. With a good PTA effect and large specific area, graphene PA imaging and drug delivery is a promising prospect in cancer treatment. Finally, the challenges and prospects of GTASSs will be discussed.

2.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027117

RESUMO

Single-crystal (SC) perovskite is currently a promising material due to its high quantum efficiency and long diffusion length. However, the reported perovskite photodetection range (<800 nm) and response time (>10 µs) are still limited. Here, to promote the development of perovskite-integrated optoelectronic devices, this work demonstrates wider photodetection range and shorter response time perovskite photodetector by integrating the SC CH3NH3PbBr3 (MAPbBr3) perovskite on silicon (Si). The Si/MAPbBr3 heterojunction photodetector with an improved interface exhibits high-speed, broad-spectrum, and long-term stability performances. To the best of our knowledge, the measured detectable spectrum (405-1064 nm) largely expands the widest response range reported in previous perovskite-based photodetectors. In addition, the rise time is as fast as 520 ns, which is comparable to that of commercial germanium photodetectors. Moreover, the Si/MAPbBr3 device can maintain excellent photocurrent performance for up to 3 months. Furthermore, typical gray scale face imaging is realized by scanning the Si/MAPbBr3 single-pixel photodetector. This work using an ultrafast photodetector by directly integrating perovskite on Si can promote advances in next-generation integrated optoelectronic technology.

3.
ACS Cent Sci ; 5(11): 1857-1865, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807687

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) hybrid perovskite sandwiched between two long-chain organic layers is an emerging class of low-cost semiconductor materials with unique optical properties and improved moisture stability. Unlike conventional semiconductors, ion migration in perovskite is a unique phenomenon possibly responsible for long carrier lifetime, current-voltage hysteresis, and low-frequency giant dielectric response. While there are many studies of ion migration in bulk hybrid perovskite, not much is known for its 2D counterparts, especially for ion migration induced by light excitation. Here, we construct an exfoliated 2D perovskite/carbon nanotube (CNT) heterostructure field effect transistor (FET), not only to demonstrate its potential in photomemory applications, but also to study the light induced ion migration mechanisms. We show that the FET I-V characteristic curve can be regulated by light and shows two opposite trends under different CNT oxygen doping conditions. Our temperature-dependent study indicates that the change in the I-V curve is probably caused by ion redistribution in the 2D hybrid perovskite. The first principle calculation shows the reduction of the migration barrier of I vacancy under light excitation. The device simulation shows that the increase of 2D hybrid perovskite dielectric constant (enabled by the increased ion migration) can change the I-V curve in the trends observed experimentally. Finally, the so synthesized FET shows the multilevel photomemory function. Our work shows that not only we could understand the unique ion migration behavior in 2D hybrid perovskite, it might also be used for many future memory function related applications not realizable in traditional semiconductors.

4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(43): 40850-40859, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577407

RESUMO

In this work, a thin-film transistor gas sensor based on the p-N heterojunction is fabricated by stacking chemical vapor deposition-grown tungsten disulfide (WS2) with a sputtered indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) film. To the best of our knowledge, the present device has the best NO2 gas sensor response compared to all the gas sensors based on transition-metal dichalcogenide materials. The gas-sensing response is investigated under different NO2 concentrations, adopting heterojunction device mode and transistor mode. High sensing response is obtained of p-N diode in the range of 1-300 ppm with values of 230% for 5 ppm and 18 170% for 300 ppm. On the transistor mode, the gas-sensing response can be modulated by the gate bias, and the transistor shows an ultrahigh response after exposure to NO2, with sensitivity values of 6820% for 5 ppm and 499 400% for 300 ppm. Interestingly, the transistor has a typical ambipolar behavior under dry air, while the transistor becomes p-type as the amount of NO2 increases. The assembly of these results demonstrates that the WS2/IGZO device is a promising platform for the NO2-gas detection, and its gas-modulated transistor properties show a potential application in tunable engineering for two-dimensional material heterojunction-based transistor device.

5.
ACS Nano ; 13(11): 12613-12620, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525030

RESUMO

MXenes have attracted great attention for their potential applications in electrochemical and electronic devices due to their excellent characteristics. Traditional sound sources based on the thermoacoustic effect demonstrated that a conductor needs to have an extremely low heat capacity and high thermal conductivity. Hence, a thin MXene film with a low heat capacity per unit area (HCPUA) and special layered structure is emerging as a promising candidate to build loudspeakers. However, the use of MXenes in a sound source device has not been explored. Herein, we have successfully prepared sound source devices on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) and a flexible polyimide (PI) substrates by using the prepared Ti3C2 MXene nanoflakes. Due to the larger interlayer distance of MXene, the MXene-based sound source device has a higher sound pressure level (SPL) than that of graphene of the same thickness. High-quality Ti3C2 MXene nanoflakes were fabricated by selectively etching the Ti3AlC2 powder. The as-fabricated MXene sound source device on an AAO substrate exhibits a higher SPL of 68.2 dB (f = 15 kHz) and has a very stable sound spectrum output with frequency varying from 100 Hz to 20 kHz. A theoretical model has been built to explain the mechanism of the sound source device on an AAO substrate, matching well with the experimental results. Furthermore, the MXene sound source device based on a flexible PI substrate has been attached to the arms, back of the hand, and fingers, indicating an excellent acoustic wearability. Then, the MXene film is packaged successfully into a commercial earphone case and shows an excellent performance at high frequencies, which is very suitable for human audio equipment.

6.
Nanoscale ; 11(41): 18923-18945, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532436

RESUMO

The human body is a "delicate machine" full of sensors such as the fingers, nose, and mouth. In addition, numerous physiological signals are being created every moment, which can reflect the condition of the body. The quality and the quantity of the physiological signals are important for diagnoses and the execution of therapies. Due to the incompact interface between the sensors and the skin, the signals obtained by commercial rigid sensors do not bond well with the body; this decreases the quality of the signal. To increase the quantity of the data, it is important to detect physiological signals in real time during daily life. In recent years, there has been an obvious trend of applying graphene devices with excellent performance (flexibility, biocompatibility, and electronic characters) in wearable systems. In this review, we will first provide an introduction about the different methods of synthesis of graphene, and then techniques for graphene patterning will be outlined. Moreover, wearable graphene sensors to detect mechanical, electrophysiological, fluid, and gas signals will be introduced. Finally, the challenges and prospects of wearable graphene devices will be discussed. Wearable graphene sensors can improve the quality and quantity of the physiological signals and have great potential for health-care and telemedicine in the future.

7.
Small ; : e1901124, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364311

RESUMO

Recently, advancement in materials production, device fabrication, and flexible circuit has led to the huge prosperity of wearable electronics for human healthcare monitoring and medical diagnosis. Particularly, with the emergence of 2D materials many merits including light weight, high stretchability, excellent biocompatibility, and high performance are used for those potential applications. Thus, it is urgent to review the wearable electronics based on 2D materials for the detection of various human signals. In this work, the typical graphene-based materials, transition-metal dichalcogenides, and transition metal carbides or carbonitrides used for the wearable electronics are discussed. To well understand the human physiological information, it is divided into two dominated categories, namely, the human physical and the human chemical signals. The monitoring of body temperature, electrograms, subtle signals, and limb motions is described for the physical signals while the detection of body fluid including sweat, breathing gas, and saliva is reviewed for the chemical signals. Recent progress and development toward those specific utilizations are highlighted in the Review with the representative examples. The future outlook of wearable healthcare techniques is briefly discussed for their commercialization.

8.
ACS Nano ; 13(8): 8639-8647, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268667

RESUMO

Most mute people cannot speak due to their vocal cord lesion. Herein, to assist mute people to "speak", we proposed a wearable skinlike ultrasensitive artificial graphene throat (WAGT) that integrated both sound/motion detection and sound emission in single device. In this work, the growth and patterning of graphene can be realized at the same time, and a thin poly(vinyl alcohol) film with laser-scribed graphene was obtained by a water-assisted transferring process. In virtue of the skinlike and low-resistant substrate, the WAGT has a high detection sensitivity (relative resistance changes up to 150% at 133 Ω) and an excellent sound-emitting ability (up to 75 dB at 0.38 W power and 2 mm distance). On the basis of the excellent mechanical-electrical performance of graphene structure, the sound detecting and emitting mechanisms of WAGT are realized and discussed. For sound detection, both the motion of larynx and vibration of vocal cord contribute to throat movements. For sound emission, a thermal acoustic model for WAGT was established to reveal the principle of sound emitting. More importantly, a homemade circuit board was fabricated to build a dual-mode system, combining the detection and emitting systems. Meanwhile, different human motions, such as strong and small throat movements, were also detected and transformed into different sounds like "OK" and "NO". Therefore, the implementation of these sound/motion detection acoustic systems enable graphene to achieve device-level applications to system-level applications, and those graphene acoustic systems are wearable for its miniaturization and light weight.

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(27): 24386-24394, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192578

RESUMO

Inspired by the turbinate structure in the olfaction system of a dog, a biomimetic artificial nose based on 3D porous laser-induced graphene (LIG) decorated with palladium (Pd) nanoparticles (NPs) has been developed for room-temperature hydrogen (H2) detection. A 3D porous biomimetic turbinate-like network of graphene was synthesized by simply irradiating an infrared laser beam onto a polyimide substrate, which could further be transferred onto another flexible substrate such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) to broaden its application. The sensing mechanism is based on the catalytic effect of the Pd NPs on the crystal defect of the biomimetic LIG turbinate-like microstructure, which allows facile adsorption and desorption of the nonpolar H2 molecules. The sensor demonstrated an approximately linear sensing response to H2 concentration. Compared to chemical vapor-deposited (CVD) graphene-based gas sensors, the biomimetic turbinate-like microstructure LIG-gas sensor showed ∼1 time higher sensing performance with much simpler and lower-cost fabrication. Furthermore, to expand the potential applications of the biomimetic sensor, we modulated the resistance of the biomimetic LIG sensor by varying laser sweeping gaps and also demonstrated a well-transferred LIG layer onto transparent substrates. Moreover, the LIG sensor showed good mechanical flexibility and robustness for potential wearable and flexible device applications.

10.
Nanoscale ; 11(23): 11114-11120, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166339

RESUMO

Inspired by biological neural systems, neuromorphic devices may lead to new computing paradigms for exploring cognition, learning and limits of parallel computation. Synapses form the basis of neuromorphic computing and have attracted significant research interest in recent years. Herein, a three-terminal transistor based on a transition metal sulfide and zinc oxide heterojunction is proposed for emulating biological synapses. The transistor exhibits an ON/OFF ratio (104) and significant rectifying behavior with forward-to-reverse bias current ratios of 104. The device demonstrates the essential synaptic behaviors, such as excitatory postsynaptic current, modulation of synaptic weight and paired-pulse facilitation. Furthermore, we show that the hysteretic effect of the transfer curves and the post-synapse current triggered by the presynaptic pulses can be modulated by illumination, and the current under illumination conditions is about 10 times greater than that in the dark. These synapses combine photonic with electric neuromorphic functions, thus showing the application prospects of the optoelectronic interfaces for integrated photonic circuits based on mixed-mode electro-optical operation. Hence, this work offers a new landscape for 2D-material electronics and encourages future research on neuro-electronics.

11.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1058: 70-79, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851855

RESUMO

In this work, a high integrated water detection system comprised a miniaturized and high precision homemade colorimeter, a microfluidic analysis module and a wireless module was reported. A reagent reaction based on the ammonium molybdate spectrophotometric method was recorded for the estimation of phosphate in natural water. A laser self-modulating module of 880 nm was used as the radiation source. A microfluidic chip was employed to fit the colorimeter with an optimized micro flow path for low liquid consumption and high precision detection. The wireless module consisted of two parts, using ZigBee and GSM modules to realize short and remote displaying and controlling. Applying a novel optimized algorithm, a wide linear response was obtained ranging from 0.02 up to 9.5 mg L-1. The optimization of colorimeterare mainly in the core detection part, allowing an improvement of the detection limit, achieving a result of 0.009 mg L-1. A low reagent consumption of 0.004 mg ascorbic acid and 0.011 mg ammonium molybdate for per determination was attained. Experimental results have also shown that the system could maintain good stability among broad room temperature changing from 17 °C to 35 °C with less energy consumption. The miniaturized colorimeter-based water detection system opens new avenue for operating in remote distance to get high precision measurements of phosphate in natural water.

12.
ACS Nano ; 13(2): 2205-2212, 2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30694651

RESUMO

With rapid development of integrated circuits, urgent requirements for a transistor with lower subthreshold swing (SS) and better contact properties are needed. To optimize the SS and contact issues, we propose a concept of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) filament transistor with two modes. We successfully fabricated the proposed devices in a wafer-scale. Mode I can enable the device with extremely low SS down to 2.26 mV/dec by switching the contact filament between on and off while mode II can realize a record high on/off ratio of 2.6 × 109 by using filament as quasi-zero dimensional (quasi-0D) contact. Compared to conventional three-dimensional (3D) contact, quasi-0D contact using conductive filament improves the current density nearly 50 times. We also built a spice model to simulate the electrical behaviors, and the simulation results show an extremely low SS in mode I (using abrupt filament formation/rupture) and excellent quasi-0D contact in mode II. The two-mode MoS2 filament transistor can significantly improve the SS and contact comparing to those of the state-of-the-art transistors, which has the great potential to boost the development of the next generation mainstream transistors.

13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(50): 44173-44182, 2018 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30465422

RESUMO

Recently, flexible and wearable mechanical sensors have attracted great attention because of their potential applications in monitoring various physiological signals. However, conventional mechanical sensors rarely have both pressure and strain sensing abilities that can meet the demands of both subtle and large human motion detection. Besides, the mechanical sensors with tunable sensitivity or measuring range are also essential for their practical applications. Herein, the graphene ink dip-coating method with merits of time saving, low cost, and large scale was used to fabricate the foam-structured graphene sensors with both pressure and strain sensing performance. Because of high elasticity of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) substrates and stacked graphene flakes, the tunable mechanical sensors exhibit a high gauge factor (GF) and large measuring range for specific human motion detection. The pressure sensor shows a GF of 2.02 kPa-1 with a pressure range up to 172 kPa, and the strain sensor displays a GF of 250 with a strain range up to 86%. On the one hand, various detections of subtle vital signals with small strain change were demonstrated by the pressure sensor because of its flexibility and high sensitivity. On another hand, the strain sensor with large strain change shows excellent ability to detect various large human motions including the bending of neck, finger, wrist, and knee. Interestingly, both the pressure sensor and strain sensor exhibit great capability for recognizing 26 letters written by hand. The working mechanism based on the contact area variation was also investigated by the morphology evolution and resistance model. We suppose that the foam-structured graphene mechanical sensors would be promising in wearable electronics for human healthcare and activity monitoring in the future.


Assuntos
Grafite , Movimento (Física) , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Humanos , Pressão
14.
Nanoscale ; 10(42): 20013-20019, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351316

RESUMO

We demonstrate an ultra-sensitive photodetector based on a graphene/monolayer MoS2 vertical heterostructure working at room temperature. Highly confined plasmon waves are efficiently excited through a periodic array of monolayer graphene ribbons in which plasmon resonance has remarkably large oscillator strength, resulting in a sharp optical absorption peak in the normal-incidence transmission spectrum. A significant amount of electron-hole pairs are produced in graphene ribbons by optical absorption, separated by the built-in electric field across the graphene/MoS2 heterojunction. The responsivity reaches up to 1 × 107 A W-1 at room temperature due to very strong resonance in the heterostructure, yielding a highly sensitive graphene-based photodetector. Additionally, the absorption can be tuned over a wide spectral range (6-16 µm) by varying gate biasing. The ultra-sensitive, spectrally tunable photodetector could be potentially used as a promising candidate for mid-infrared micro-spectrometers.

15.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4305, 2018 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30333492

RESUMO

There is a growing need for developing machine learning applications. However, implementation of the machine learning algorithm consumes a huge number of transistors or memory devices on-chip. Developing a machine learning capability in a single device has so far remained elusive. Here, we build a Markov chain algorithm in a single device based on the native oxide of two dimensional multilayer tin selenide. After probing the electrical transport in vertical tin oxide/tin selenide/tin oxide heterostructures, two sudden current jumps are observed during the set and reset processes. Furthermore, five filament states are observed. After classifying five filament states into three states of the Markov chain, the probabilities between each states show convergence values after multiple testing cycles. Based on this device, we demo a fixed-probability random number generator within 5% error rate. This work sheds light on a single device as one hardware core with Markov chain algorithm.

16.
iScience ; 7: 110-119, 2018 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30267673

RESUMO

Organometal trihalide perovskites (OTPs) are promising optoelectronic materials for high-performance photodetectors. However, up to now, traditional polycrystal OTP-based photodetectors have demonstrated limited effective photo-sensing range. Recently, bulk perovskite single crystals have been seen to have the potential for position-sensitive photodetection. Herein, for the first time, we demonstrate a position-dependent photodetector based on perovskite single crystals by scanning a focused laser beam over the device perpendicular to the channel. The photodetector shows the best-ever effective photo-sensing distance up to the millimeter range. The photoresponsivity and photocurrent decrease by nearly an order of magnitude when the beam position varies from 0 to 950 µm and the tunability of carrier diffusion length in CH3NH2PbBr3 with the variation of the exciting laser intensity is demonstrated. Furthermore, a numerical model based on transport of photoexcited carriers is proposed to explain the position dependence. This photodetector shows excellent potential for application in future nanoelectronics and optoelectronics systems.

17.
ACS Nano ; 12(9): 9134-9141, 2018 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30134097

RESUMO

Recently, wearable devices have been attracting significantly increased interest in human motion detection and human physiological signal monitoring. Currently, it is still a great challenge to fabricate strain sensors with high performance and good fit to the human body. In this work, we fabricated a close-fitting and wearable graphene textile strain sensor based on a graphene textile without polymer encapsulation. Graphene oxide acts as a colorant to dye the polyester fabric and is reduced at high temperature, which endows the graphene textile strain sensor with excellent performance. Compared with the previously reported strain sensors, our strain sensor exhibits a distinctive negative resistance variation with increasing strain. In addition, the sensor also demonstrates fascinating performance, including high sensitivity, long-term stability, and great comfort. Based on its superior performance, the graphene textile strain sensor can be knitted on clothing for detecting both subtle and large human motions, showing the tremendous potential for applications in wearable electronics.


Assuntos
Grafite/química , Movimento (Física) , Têxteis , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Humanos
18.
ACS Nano ; 12(9): 8839-8846, 2018 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30040381

RESUMO

Due to its excellent flexibility, graphene has an important application prospect in epidermal electronic sensors. However, there are drawbacks in current devices, such as sensitivity, range, lamination, and artistry. In this work, we have demonstrated a multilayer graphene epidermal electronic skin based on laser scribing graphene, whose patterns are programmable. A process has been developed to remove the unreduced graphene oxide. This method makes the epidermal electronic skin not only transferable to butterflies, human bodies, and any other objects inseparably and elegantly, merely with the assistance of water, but also have better sensitivity and stability. Therefore, pattern electronic skin could attach to every object like artwork. When packed in Ecoflex, electronic skin exhibits excellent performance, including ultrahigh sensitivity (gauge factor up to 673), large strain range (as high as 10%), and long-term stability. Therefore, many subtle physiological signals can be detected based on epidermal electronic skin with a single graphene line. Electronic skin with multiple graphene lines is employed to detect large-range human motion. To provide a deeper understanding of the resistance variation mechanism, a physical model is established to explain the relationship between the crack directions and electrical characteristics. These results show that graphene epidermal electronic skin has huge potential in health care and intelligent systems.


Assuntos
Grafite/química , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Humanos , Lasers , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
19.
Nanoscale ; 10(24): 11524-11530, 2018 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29892738

RESUMO

An ultrasensitive strain sensor with a wide strain range based on graphene armour scales is demonstrated in this paper. The sensor shows an ultra-high gauge factor (GF, up to 1054) and a wide strain range (ε = 26%), both of which present an advantage compared to most other flexible sensors. Moreover, the sensor is developed by a simple fabrication process. Due to the excellent performance, this strain sensor can meet the demands of subtle, large and complex human motion monitoring, which indicates its tremendous application potential in health monitoring, mechanical control, real-time motion monitoring and so on.

20.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 116: 123-129, 2018 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29879538

RESUMO

Respiration is as one of the most essential physiological signals, which can be used to monitor human healthcare and activities. Herein, we report a flexible, lightweight and highly conductive porous graphene network as the humidity sensor for respiration monitoring. To enhance the sensing performance, the graphene oxide (GO), poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS) and Ag colloids (AC) were used to modify the porous graphene. The humidity properties of porous based graphene networks have been investigated at different relative humidity (RH). The porous based graphene sensors exhibit excellent capability of monitoring different breathing patterns including mouse and nose respiration, normal and deep respiration. Besides, the signal variations before and after water intake was recorded by the sensor, which demonstrates the ability to monitor water loss during breathing period. Furthermore, the humidity sensor shows the ability to detect physiological activities including skin moisture, speaking and whistle rhythm, which could be a promising electronic for clinical respiration monitoring.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Grafite/química , Umidade , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Respiração , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/química , Humanos , Polímeros/química , Poliestirenos/química , Porosidade , Prata/química
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA