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1.
Food Funct ; 12(9): 3978-3991, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977989

RESUMO

Tyrosinase is considered a molecular marker of melanoma, and few natural antitumor drugs targeting tyrosinase have been identified. In this study, proanthocyanidins (PAs) were isolated from the leaves of Photinia × fraseri and their structures were characterized by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and the effects of antityrosinase activity were investigated. The results showed that the basic structural units of PAs are composed of catechin and epicatechin and that oligomer is the main component. PAs exhibited better antityrosinase activity via chelation of copper ions and by disturbing o-quinone production. Furthermore, analyses of the cell cycle, apoptosis rate, and regulation of melanin protein expression revealed preliminarily that PAs could affect melanin production by downregulating microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) expression and by inhibiting the activities of tyrosinase and tyrosinase related protein 1 (TRP-1), leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of melanoma cells. Collectively, our study demonstrated that PAs are potential tyrosinase inhibitors and have good antimelanoma effects. These findings provide a theoretical support for the application of tyrosinase inhibitors and for further drug development.

2.
Elife ; 102021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33983119

RESUMO

During clathrin-mediated endocytosis in eukaryotes, actin assembly is required to overcome large membrane tension and turgor pressure. However, the molecular mechanisms by which the actin machinery adapts to varying membrane tension remain unknown. In addition, how cells reduce their membrane tension when they are challenged by hypotonic shocks remains unclear. We used quantitative microscopy to demonstrate that cells rapidly reduce their membrane tension using three parallel mechanisms. In addition to using their cell wall for mechanical protection, yeast cells disassemble eisosomes to buffer moderate changes in membrane tension on a minute time scale. Meanwhile, a temporary reduction of the rate of endocytosis for 2 to 6 minutes, and an increase in the rate of exocytosis for at least 5 minutes allow cells to add large pools of membrane to the plasma membrane. We built on these results to submit the cells to abrupt increases in membrane tension and determine that the endocytic actin machinery of fission yeast cells rapidly adapts to perform clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Our study sheds light on the tight connection between membrane tension regulation, endocytosis and exocytosis.

3.
Chemosphere ; 279: 130529, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878693

RESUMO

The mass load of pharmaceuticals in the municipal wastewater based on wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is a good indication of population consumption in the catchment. After successful application of illicit drugs' estimation, this method holds the potential to measure the geographical and temporal consumption of prescription medicines. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), acetaminophen (ACM), diclofenac (DCF), ibuprofen (IBU) and naproxen (NPX), in two wastewater treatment plants in Guangzhou City, China and compared the spatial and temporal consumption variation of them. Over a period of 28 days' sampling, the detection frequency of ACM, DCF, IBU, and NPX in the influent of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Guangzhou City were 91%, 66%, 100%, and 95%, and their concentrations were up to 128, 131, 372, and 324 ng/L, respectively. No significant inter-catchment difference was observed regarding the per capita mass load in the two WWTPs investigated. A literature review which covered 160 WWTPs in 18 countries was conducted to compare the population normalized mass load of four commonly used NSAIDs. ACM had the highest population normalized mass loads (29-17,430 mg/d/1000 inhabitants) and DCF had the lowest population normalized mass load (6.5-628 mg/d/1000 inhabitants) in the catchments located in 18 countries. The mass loads of selected NSAIDs in China were lower than those in European and North American. ACM and IBU consumptions were at least 2 times higher in winter than that in summer, in contrast, DCF and NPX consumptions had no significant seasonal variation.

4.
Appl Opt ; 60(10): 2788-2794, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798153

RESUMO

The Doppler effect of motional polarization grating is studied for the first time to the best of our knowledge. Based on the optical properties of polarization grating, the Doppler effect principle of polarization grating is elucidated theoretically. A method to obtain the Doppler frequency shift based on beat frequency signal that is produced by superposition of order ±1 diffraction beams of polarization grating is proposed, and a proof-of-concept experiment is conducted to measure the frequency signal of the motional polarization grating. The movement characteristics of polarization grating varying with time can be obtained after a short-time Fourier transformation of the light signal. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical predication, which verifies the correctness of the theoretical analysis and achieves the measurement of linear motion velocity and acceleration of motional polarization grating with high accuracy. This study proposes a new idea for laser frequency shift and has potential significance for further development of optical heterodyne detection.

5.
Oncogene ; 40(14): 2596-2609, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750895

RESUMO

Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are effective against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with EGFR-activating mutations. The mechanisms underlying EGFR-TKI resistance are not fully understood. This study aimed to analyze the effects of seven EGFR ligands on EGFR-TKI sensitivity in NSCLC cells and patients. Cells with EGFR E746-A750del mutation were treated with recombinant EGFR ligands, and analyzed for cell viability, proliferation, and apoptosis. shRNA knockdown of endogenous Epiregulin (EREG) or overexpression of exogenous EREG and immunofluorescence experiments were carried out. Public gene expression datasets were used for tumor microenvironment and clinical assessment. Among the EGFR ligands, EREG significantly diminished cellular sensitivity to TKIs and was associated with decreased response to erlotinib in NSCLC patients. EREG induced AKT phosphorylation and attenuated TKI-induced cellular apoptosis in an ErbB2-dependent manner. EREG induced the formation of the EGFR/ErbB2 heterodimer regardless of gefitinib treatment. However, overexpression or knockdown of EREG in cancer cells had little impact on TKI sensitivity. Single-cell RNA sequencing data revealed that EREG was predominantly expressed in macrophages in the tumor microenvironment. In addition, EREG-enriched macrophage conditional medium induced EGFR-TKI resistance. These findings shed new light on the mechanism underlying EGFR-TKI resistance, and suggest macrophage-produced intratumoral EREG as a novel regulator and biomarker for EGFR-TKI therapy in NSCLC.

6.
Cell Rep ; 34(11): 108870, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730585

RESUMO

Ibrutinib, a bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor, provokes robust clinical responses in aggressive mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), yet many patients relapse with lethal Ibrutinib-resistant (IR) disease. Here, using genomic, chemical proteomic, and drug screen profiling, we report that enhancer remodeling-mediated transcriptional activation and adaptive signaling changes drive the aggressive phenotypes of IR. Accordingly, IR MCL cells are vulnerable to inhibitors of the transcriptional machinery and especially so to inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9), the catalytic subunit of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). Further, CDK9 inhibition disables reprogrammed signaling circuits and prevents the emergence of IR in MCL. Finally, and importantly, we find that a robust and facile ex vivo image-based functional drug screening platform can predict clinical therapeutic responses of IR MCL and identify vulnerabilities that can be targeted to disable the evolution of IR.

7.
Ear Nose Throat J ; : 1455613211000292, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734878

RESUMO

Facial nerve schwannoma (FNS) is a benign, slow-growing schwannoma that originates from Schwann cells. Facial nerve schwannoma is the most common tumor of the facial nerve but rare and only accounts for 0.15% to 0.8% of intracranial neurinomas. It may be manifested as asymmetric hearing loss, facial palsy, and hemifacial spasm. A 56-year-old woman was transferred to our department, because of pain behind the right ear and spasm of the right lateral muscle for more than 2 years and pulsatile tinnitus for half a year. Based on the preoperative medical history, physical signs, and auxiliary examination, it was diagnosed with jugular foramen (JF) space-occupying lesion. We removed the tumor through the infratemporal fossa type A approach and found that the tumor originated from the facial nerve. After the tumor resection, sural nerve transplantation was performed. The patient demonstrated postoperative facial palsy (House-Brackman grade VI) and was smoothly discharged after good recovery. Facial nerve schwannoma rarely invades the JF, and the most common tumor in the JF is the glomus jugular tumor, followed by the posterior cranial schwannoma. They have common symptoms, making it difficult to obtain a correct diagnosis. Clinical data, medical history, and auxiliary examinations should be carefully analyzed to avoid misdiagnosis or mistreatment. Infratemporal fossa type A approach is an effective method for treating FNS of JF.

8.
Neuroimage ; 233: 117966, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744460

RESUMO

Volitional eye closure is observed only in conscious and awake humans, and is rare in animals. It is believed that eye closure can focus one's attention inward and facilitate activities such as meditation and mental imagery. Congenital blind individuals are also required to close their eyes for these activities. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) studies have found robust differences between the eyes-closed (EC) and eyes-open (EO) conditions in some brain regions in the sighted. This study analyzed data from 21 congenital blind individuals and 21 sighted controls by using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of RS-fMRI. The blind group and the sighted group shared similar pattern of differences between the EC and EO condition: ALFF was higher in the EC condition than the EO condition in the bilateral primary sensorimotor cortex, bilateral supplementary motor area, and inferior occipital cortex, while ALFF was lower in the EC condition than the EO condition in the medial prefrontal cortex, highlighting the "nature" effect on the difference between the EC and EO conditions. The results of other matrices such as fractional ALFF (fALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) showed similar patterns to that of ALFF. Moreover, no significant difference was observed between the EC-EO pattern of the two subgroups of congenital blind (i.e., with and without light perception), suggesting that the EC-EO difference is irrespective of residual light perception which reinforced the "nature" effect. We also found between-group differences, i.e., more probably "nurture effect", in the posterior insula and fusiform. Our results suggest that the acts of closing and opening the eyes are of importance for the congenital blind, and that these actions and their differences might be inherent in the nature of humans.

9.
Food Funct ; 12(7): 3044-3056, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710209

RESUMO

The occurrence of constipation involves the whole gastrointestinal tract. Konjac glucomannan (KGM) has been clinically proven to alleviate constipation, but its mechanism has not been fully understood. The present study aimed to investigate the excretion-promoting effect of KGM on constipated mice and the underlying molecular mechanism. In this study, the UHPLC-QE orbitrap/MS method was used to determine the metabolic phenotypes of total gastrointestinal segments (i.e., the stomach {St}, small intestine {S}, and large intestine {L}) in constipated mice treated with KGM. The results showed that KGM improved the fecal water content, body weight growth rate, and serum gastrointestinal regulation related peptide levels. The metabolomics results revealed the decreased levels of amino acids, cholines, deoxycholic acid, arachidonic acid, thiamine and the increased levels of indoxyl sulfate, histamine, linoelaidic acid etc. The KEGG pathway analysis indicated that the relaxation effect of KGM supplementation was most likely driven by modulating the expression levels of various key factors involved in biosynthesis of amino acid (i.e., phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan), linoleic acid metabolism, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and arachidonic acid metabolism signalling pathways. The results indicated that KGM alleviates constipation by regulating potential metabolite markers and metabolic pathways in different gastrointestinal segments.

10.
Br J Cancer ; 124(9): 1566-1580, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MPNST is a rare soft-tissue sarcoma that can arise from patients with NF1. Existing chemotherapeutic and targeted agents have been unsuccessful in MPNST treatment, and recent findings implicate STAT3 and HIF1-α in driving MPNST. The DNA-binding and transcriptional activity of both STAT3 and HIF1-α is regulated by Redox factor-1 (Ref-1) redox function. A first-generation Ref-1 inhibitor, APX3330, is being tested in cancer clinical trials and could be applied to MPNST. METHODS: We characterised Ref-1 and p-STAT3 expression in various MPNST models. Tumour growth, as well as biomarkers of apoptosis and signalling pathways, were measured by qPCR and western blot following treatment with inhibitors of Ref-1 or STAT3. RESULTS: MPNSTs from Nf1-Arfflox/floxPostnCre mice exhibit significantly increased positivity of p-STAT3 and Ref-1 expression when malignant transformation occurs. Inhibition of Ref-1 or STAT3 impairs MPNST growth in vitro and in vivo and induces apoptosis. Genes highly expressed in MPNST patients are downregulated following inhibition of Ref-1 or STAT3. Several biomarkers downstream of Ref-1 or STAT3 were also downregulated following Ref-1 or STAT3 inhibition. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings implicate a unique therapeutic approach to target important MPNST signalling nodes in sarcomas using new first-in-class small molecules for potential translation to the clinic.

12.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 17(2): 279-290, 2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785098

RESUMO

Retinopathy is an eye disease caused by the death of retinal cells in the macular area and the surrounding choroid. As the retinal rod cell dysfunction and death lead to the loss of night vision, the disease will lead to visual dysfunction and blindness as the disease progresses. Because of the irreversible nature of cell death, gene therapy has become a research hotspot in the field of retinopathy. But the technology is still in animal studies or clinical trials, and more research is needed to prove its feasibility. In this study, oxidative damage cell model was established and divided into a control group, H2O2 group, SS31 +NEC1 group, SS31 +H2O2 group, and SS31 +NEC1 +H2O2 group, for different interventions. The cell survival rate of the H2O2 group was significantly increased compared with those of the SS31 + H2O2 group, SS31 +NEC1 +H2O2 group, and NEC1 +H2O2 group. Nec1 combined treatment significantly reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production compared with that in the H2O2 group. The level of MDA in the SS31 group, Nec-1 group and combined treatment of SS31 +NEC1 group decreased significantly compared with the H2O2 group. The proportion of cells with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in the H2O2 group significantly increased, and the rate of positivity for propidium iodide (PI) of 661W cells in the H2O2 group and the control group significantly increased. Nine hours after H2O2 treatment of 661W cells, the RIP3 expression level began to increase, and peaked at 24 h. The level of RIP3 in the H2O2 group was significantly increased, while this level was downregulated in the SS31 and NEC1 treatment groups. Therefore, this study suggests that SS31 has a partial protective effect on 661W cells by inhibiting necrosis, which has certain guiding significance for the treatment of retinal diseases.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias , Oxidantes , Animais , Apoptose , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Necroptose , Oligopeptídeos/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Oxidantes/metabolismo , Oxidantes/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676007

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess whether a full enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) program can further improve perioperative outcomes among patients undergoing gynecologic laparoscopic procedures relative to those receiving limited ERAS management. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial SETTING: A tertiary hospital, China: December 2018 to October 2019 PATIENTS: A total of 144 women scheduled for simple elective gynecologic laparoscopic surgery. INTERVENTIONS: The participants were randomized into two groups: full ERAS intervention or limited ERAS management (without preoperative carbohydrate loading or total intravenous anesthesia or opiate-sparing multimodal analgesia). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was postoperative length of stay (LOS), and the secondary outcomes included postoperative pain, time to postoperative milestones, morbidity, and in-hospital cost. Postoperative LOS for the full ERAS program showed a 1-day reduction in comparison to the limited ERAS group (median of 1.0 day versus 2.0 days, respectively; P = .001). Multivariate regression analysis identified preoperative carbohydrate loading and opioid-sparing analgesia as the independent factors for discharging on postoperative day (POD) 1. Patients in the full ERAS program reported less pain within 72 hours after surgery and had a lower narcotic consumption rate compared with those in the limited ERAS management. They also enjoyed better and faster recovery as demonstrated by the QoR-15 scale on POD 3: 137.0 (interquartile range, 126.3-141.0) for full ERAS program versus 130.0 (23.5-139.0) for limited ERAS management, respectively (P = .030). There were no significant differences between groups regarding postoperative 30-day morbidity, readmission rate, or in-hospital cost. CONCLUSION: The addition of full ERAS management can further reduce postoperative length of stay and improve patients' quality of life after laparoscopic surgery for gynecologic diseases.

14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6517, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753770

RESUMO

Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor and an oncogene product, which plays a pivotal role in tumor progression. Therefore, targeting persistent STAT3 signaling directly is an attractive anticancer strategy. The aim of this study is to test the efficacy of a novel STAT3 small molecule inhibitor, LLL12B, in suppressing medulloblastoma cells in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. LLL12B selectively inhibited the induction of STAT3 phosphorylation by interleukin-6 but not induction of STAT1 phosphorylation by INF-γ. LLL12B also induced apoptosis in human medulloblastoma cells. In addition, LLL12B exhibited good oral bioavailability in vivo and potent suppressive activity in tumor growth of medulloblastoma cells in vivo. Besides, combining LLL12B with cisplatin showed greater inhibition of cell viability and tumorsphere formation as well as induction of apoptosis comparing to single agent treatment in medulloblastoma cells. Furthermore, LLL12B and cisplatin combination exhibited greater suppression of medulloblastoma tumor growth than monotherapy in vivo. The present study supported that LLL12B is a novel therapeutic agent for medulloblastoma and the combination of LLL12B with a chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin may be an effective approach for medulloblastoma therapy.

15.
Small ; 17(8): e2006925, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522119

RESUMO

Yolk-shell magnetic mesoporous microspheres exhibit potential applications in biomedicine, bioseparation, and catalysis. Most previous reports focus on establishing various interface assembly strategies to construct yolk-shell mesoporous structures, while little work has been done to control their surface topology and study their relevant applications. Herein, a unique kind of broccoli-like yolk-shell magnetic mesoporous silica (YS-BMM) microsphere is fabricated through a surfactant-free kinetic controlled interface assembly strategy. The obtained YS-BMM microspheres possess a well-defined structure consisting of a magnetic core, middle void, mesoporous silica shell with tunable surface roughness, large superparamagnetism (36.4 emu g-1 ), high specific surface area (174 m2 g-1 ), and large mesopores of 10.9 nm. Thanks to these merits and properties, the YS-BMM microspheres are demonstrated to be an ideal support for immobilization of ultrafine Pt nanoparticles (≈3.7 nm) and serve as superior nanocatalysts for hydrogenation of 4-nitrophenol with yield of over 90% and good magnetic recyclability. Furthermore, YS-BMM microspheres show excellent biocompatibility and can be easily phagocytosed by osteoclasts, revealing a potential candidate in sustained drug release in orthopedic disease therapy.

16.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; 42(8): e2000677, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522026

RESUMO

Inspired by protein polymerizations, much progress has been made in making "polymer-like" supramolecular structures from small synthetic subunits through non-covalent bonds. A few regulation mechanisms have also been explored in synthetic platforms to create supramolecular polymers and materials with dynamic properties. Herein, a type of reactive regulator that facilitates the dimerization of the monomer precursors through dynamic bonds to trigger the supramolecular assembly from small molecules in an aqueous solution is described. The supramolecular structures are crystalline in nature and the reaction coupled assembly strategy can be extended to a supramolecular assembly of aromatic amide derivatives formed in-situ. The method may be instructive for the development of supramolecular nanocrystalline materials with desired physical properties.

18.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 57, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine the standard remnant liver volume (SRLV) threshold to avoid postoperative hepatic insufficiency inpatients in different stages of hepatic fibrosis who undergo right hemi-hepatectomy. METHODS: Data for 85 patients at our single medical center were analysed prospectively to examine whether the following factors differed significantly between those who experienced postoperative hepatic insufficiency and those who did not: height, prothrombin time, remnant liver volume, SRLV or hepatic fibrosis stage. RESULTS: Logistic regression showed SRLV and hepatic fibrosis stage to be independent risk factors for postoperative hepatic insufficiency. The threshold SRLV for predicting insufficiency was 203.2 ml/m2 across all patients [area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) 0.778, sensitivity 66.67%, specificity 83.64%, p<0.0001), 193.8 ml/m2 for patients with severe hepatic fibrosis (AUC 0.938, sensitivity 91.30%, specificity 85.71%, p<0.0001), and 224.3 ml/m2 for patients with cirrhosis (AUC 0.888, sensitivity 100%, specificity 64.29%, p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Right hemi-hepatectomy may be safer in Chinese patients when the standard remnant liver volume is more than 203.2 ml/m2 in the absence of hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis, 193.8 ml/m2 in the presence of severe hepatic fibrosis or 224.3 ml/m2 in the presence of cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hepatectomia/efeitos adversos , Cirrose Hepática , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Fígado , Adulto , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Hepatectomia/métodos , Insuficiência Hepática/etiologia , Insuficiência Hepática/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/cirurgia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão , Estudos Prospectivos , Padrões de Referência , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 764: 144279, 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401041

RESUMO

Arsenic-rich schwertmannite may cause arsenic (As) release during phase transition. In this study, microbial sulfidogenesis on As(V)-loaded schwertmannite (As-Sch) and associated As mobility at different SO42- concentrations were investigated under anaerobic conditions by Desulfosporosinus meridiei (D. meridiei). For biotic treatments, the more SO42- was added, the more Fe3+ was reduced to Fe2+, and the more As(V) was released during the reductive dissolution of As-Sch. The reduction of As(V) to As(III) by D. meridiei resulted in a higher concentration, toxicity, solubility and mobility of As than the corresponding abiotic treatments. However, compared with the abiotic treatments, a variety of new minerals (such as mackinawite, vivianite, sulfur, As2S3, and parasymplesite) were generated in the biotic treatments, and the As concentration in aqueous solution was less than 1 µM at the end of the incubation period regardless of the presence of SO42-. The results of continuous extraction of different species of As from secondary minerals showed that the effect of microorganisms decreased As content of amorphous iron oxide-bound phase, while increasing that bound on the surface of iron oxide surface-bound phase, thus increasing As fluidity. Our findings indicated that under anaerobic conditions, D. meridiei sulfidogenesis can trigger significant As mobilization in the early stage and remove As from the aqueous solutions when new minerals are formed at a later stage.


Assuntos
Arsênico , Compostos Férricos , Ferro , Compostos de Ferro , Oxirredução , Peptococcaceae
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 142414, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254861

RESUMO

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is considered as an effective tool for monitoring drug consumption, which is often obtained by back-calculation using the influent concentration and other parameters of wastewater treatment plants. Lack of information on the transformation of drugs in municipal wastewater and sewers may lead to inaccurate consumption estimation. Fourteen prescription drugs in four major categories of diseases (cardiovascular, diabetes, depression, and asthma) were selected to study their adsorption and biodegradation in wastewater and biofilm sewers under different temperatures, pH and biofilms conditions. The result demonstrated that the decay percentage of drugs in wastewater is increased with temperature. Within 72 h, eleven of these 14 drugs, such as metformin, metoprolol, bezafibrate, etc., have decay percentages below 20% in wastewater, which are considered as stable drugs; and the decay percentages of the other three, monluster, paroxetine, and sertraline, are greater than 20%, which are the most unstable drugs. In lab-scale aerobic and anaerobic sewers, the decay percentages of metformin, glipizide, metoprolol, gemfibrozil, and atorvastatin are less than 20% within 24 h. The decay percentages of venlafaxine, citalopram, fluoxetine, salmeterol, and salbutamol within 24 h are 20%-60% and paroxetine and sertraline are close to or even exceed 80% within 6 h. Biodegradation of drugs in sewers with aerobic or anaerobic biofilms is higher than that in wastewater systems without biofilms. The results showed that when the per capita consumption of drugs is estimated by using the WBE method, the stability of drugs in wastewater and different types of sewers will significantly affect their residual concentrations.


Assuntos
Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biofilmes , Esgotos , Águas Residuárias , Vigilância Epidemiológica Baseada em Águas Residuárias
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