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1.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224627, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682629

RESUMO

Giardia duodenalis is a zoonotic parasitic protist and poses a threat to human and animal health. This study investigated the occurrence of G. duodenalis infection in post-weaned calves from Sichuan province, China. Faecal samples were collected from a total of 306 post-weaned calves (3-12 months old) from 10 farms, including 4 intensive feeding farms and 6 free-ranging farms. The overall infection rate of G. duodenalis was 41.2% (126/306) based on the PCR results at any of the three genetic loci: beta-giardin (bg), triose-phosphate isomerase (tpi) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes. Giardia duodenalis assemblages E (n = 115, 91.3%), A (n = 3, 2.4%), and A mixed with E (n = 8, 6.3%) were identified among the 126 positive specimens. Multilocus sequence typing of G. duodenalis revealed 34 assemblage E multilocus genotypes (MLGs), 1 assemblage A MLG and 7 mixed assemblage (A and E) MLGs. The eBURST data showed a high degree of genetic diversity within assemblage E MLGs. The phylogenetic tree revealed that MLG E3 was the primary MLG subtype in Sichuan province and also the most widely distributed in China.

2.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-9, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638432

RESUMO

Ageratina adenophora is an invasive plant of global importance and has a broad distribution in the Western Himalayas. Endophtytic fungus Coniochaeta sp.F-8 was found in Ageratina adenophora. In this paper, we aim to investigate the antioxidative activity and cytotoxicity of the metabolites from Coniochaeta sp.F-8. Consequently, two compounds Phomoxanthone A and Penialidin A were isolated from the endophytic fungus of Ageratina adenophora for the first time. The structures of compounds were identified by IR, NMR and ESI-MS methods. Moreover, both of those compounds showed considerable antioxidative activity in vitro and resulted cytotoxicity in mouse embryo fibroblasts cell line Balb/c3T3. The present study provides a theoretical foundation for the development and utilization of endophytic fungi in Ageratina adenophora as a medicinal substance.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221815, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469857

RESUMO

Although many studies have confirmed that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs: PBD-mI and LUC-n) can be used as feed additives, there are few reports of their use in ruminants. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of AMPs on ameliorating rumen fermentation function and rumen microorganisms in goats. Eighteen 4-month-old Chuanzhong black goats were used in a 60-day experiment (6 goats per group). Group I was used as the control and was fed a basal diet, the group II were fed the basal diet supplemented with 2 g of AMPs [per goat/day] and group III were fed the basal diet supplemented 3 g of AMPs [per goat/day], respectively. Rumen fluid samples were collected at 0, 20 and 60 days. Bacterial 16S rRNA genes and ciliate protozoal 18S rRNA genes were amplified by PCR from DNA extracted from rumen samples. The amplicons were sequenced by Illumina MiSeq. Rumen fermentation parameters and digestive enzyme activities were also examined. Our results showed that dietary supplementation with AMPs increased the levels of the bacterial genera Fibrobacter, Anaerovibrio and Succiniclasticum and also increased the ciliates genus Ophryoscolex, but reduced the levels of the bacterial genera Selenomonas, Succinivibrio and Treponema, and the ciliate genera Polyplastron, Entodinium, Enoploplastron and Isotricha. Supplementation with AMPs increased the activities of xylanase, pectinase and lipase in the rumen, and also increased the concentrations of acetic acid, propionic acid and total volatile fatty acids. These changes were associated with improved growth performance in the goats. The results revealed that the goats fed AMPs showed improved rumen microbiota structures, altered ruminal fermentation, and improved efficiency regarding the utilization of feed; thereby indicating that AMPs can improve growth performance. AMPs are therefore suitable as feed additives in juvenile goats.

4.
Mol Reprod Dev ; 86(9): 1083-1085, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297893

RESUMO

Conjoined twins have been reported in trout, catfish, guppy, tilapia, and other fishes under natural conditions. However, they are rarely reported in medaka fish. As far as we know, only one case where two fries were connected to the same yolk sac was reported before. Here, we report a case of conjoined twins in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes).

5.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(4): 302-306, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167688

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of Ageratina adenophora essential oil (AAEO-CP) and its effects on the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) protein in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells. Methods RAW264.7 cells were divided into control group, LPS group, and LPS combined with AAEO-CP group. The cytotoxicity of AAEO-CP was detected by CCK-8 assay. The mRNA and protein expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10 were detected by real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively, and the protein expression of TLR4 in RAW264.7 cells was measured by Western blotting. Results AAEO-CP below 20 mg/mL was not cytotoxic to RAW264.7 cells. LPS increased the protein expression of TLR4, also increased the protein and mRNA expression of IL-6, but decrease the protein and mRNA expression of IL-10 in RAW264.7 cells. And all of the above results were reversed by AAEO-CP. Conclusion AAEO-CP can play the anti-inflammatory effects by increasing the expression of IL-10 protein and decreasing the expression of IL-6 protein, and inhibiting TLR4 protein in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells.


Assuntos
Ageratina/química , Inflamação/patologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Animais , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(11)2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174254

RESUMO

Mycotoxins, which are widely found in feed ingredients and human food, can exert harmful effects on animals and pose a serious threat to human health. As the first barrier against external pollutants, the intestinal mucosa is protected by a mechanical barrier, chemical barrier, immune barrier, and biological barrier. Firstly, mycotoxins can disrupt the mechanical barrier function of the intestinal mucosa, by destroying the morphology and tissue integrity of the intestinal epithelium. Secondly, mycotoxins can cause changes in the composition of mucin monosaccharides and the expression of intestinal mucin, which in turn affects mucin function. Thirdly, mycotoxins can cause damage to the intestinal mucosal immune barrier function. Finally, the microbiotas of animals closely interact with ingested mycotoxins. Based on existing research, this article reviews the effects of mycotoxins on the intestinal mucosal barrier and its mechanisms.

7.
Cell Mol Biol Lett ; 24: 36, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164908

RESUMO

Common environmental pollutants and drugs encountered in everyday life can cause toxic damage to the body through oxidative stress, inflammatory stimulation, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of energy metabolism. Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase, is a member of the evolutionarily highly conserved Sir2 (silent information regulator 2) superprotein family, which is located in the nucleus and cytoplasm. It can deacetylate protein substrates in various signal transduction pathways to regulate gene expression, cell apoptosis and senescence, participate in the process of neuroprotection, energy metabolism, inflammation and the oxidative stress response in living organisms, and plays an important role in toxic damage caused by toxicants and in the process of SIRT1 activator/inhibitor antagonized toxic damage. This review summarizes the role that SIRT1 plays in toxic damage caused by toxicants via its interactions with protein substrates in certain signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Transdução de Sinais , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Toxinas Biológicas/toxicidade , Animais , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 10(1): 173, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation has been widely applied to the treatment of malignant blood diseases. However, limited number of functional HSCs hinders successful transplantation. The purpose of our current study is to develop a new and cost-efficient medium formulation that could greatly enhance the expansion of HSCs while retaining their long-term repopulation and hematopoietic properties for effective clinical transplantation. METHODS: Enriched human CD34+ cells and mobilized nonhuman primate peripheral blood CD34+ cells were expanded with a new, cost-efficient expansion medium formulation, named hematopoietic expansion medium (HEM), consisting of various cytokines and nutritional supplements. The long-term repopulation potential and hematologic-lineage differentiation ability of expanded human cells were studied in the non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mouse model. Furthermore, the efficacy and safety studies were performed by autologous transplantation of expanded primate cells in the nonhuman primate model. RESULTS: HEM could effectively expand human CD34+ cells by up to 129 fold within 9 days. Expanded HSCs retained long-term repopulation potential and hematologic-lineage differentiation ability, as indicated by (1) maintenance (over unexpanded HSCs) of immunophenotypes of CD38-CD90+CD45RA-CD49f+ in CD34+ cells after expansion; (2) significant presence of multiple human hematopoietic lineages in mouse peripheral blood and bone marrow following primary transplantation; (3) enrichment (over unexpanded HSCs) in SCID-repopulating cell frequency measured by limiting dilution analysis; and (4) preservation of both myeloid and lymphoid potential among human leukocytes from mouse bone marrow in week 24 after primary transplantation or secondary transplantation. Moreover, the results of autologous transplantation in nonhuman primates demonstrated that HEM-expanded CD34+ cells could enhance hematological recovery after myelo-suppression. All primates transplanted with the expanded autologous CD34+ cells survived for over 18 months without any noticeable abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these findings demonstrate promising potential for the utility of HEM to improve expansion of HSCs for clinical application.

9.
BMC Microbiol ; 19(1): 113, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trichosporon is the dominant genus of epidermal fungi in giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and causes local and deep infections. To provide the information needed for the diagnosis and treatment of trichosporosis in giant pandas, the sequence of ITS, D1/D2, and IGS1 loci in 29 isolates of Trichosporon spp. which were isolated from the body surface of giant pandas were combination to investigate interspecies identification and genotype. Morphological development was examined via slide culture. Additionally, mice were infected by skin inunction, intraperitoneal injection, and subcutaneous injection for evaluation of pathogenicity. RESULTS: The twenty-nine isolates of Trichosporon spp. were identified as 11 species, and Trichosporon jirovecii and T. asteroides were the commonest species. Four strains of T. laibachii and one strain of T. moniliiforme were found to be of novel genotypes, and T. jirovecii was identified to be genotype 1. T. asteroides had the same genotype which involved in disseminated trichosporosis. The morphological development processes of the Trichosporon spp. were clearly different, especially in the processes of single-spore development. Pathogenicity studies showed that 7 species damaged the liver and skin in mice, and their pathogenicity was stronger than other 4 species. T. asteroides had the strongest pathogenicity and might provoke invasive infection. The pathological characteristics of liver and skin infections caused by different Trichosporon spp. were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple species of Trichosporon were identified on the skin surface of giant panda, which varied in morphological development and pathogenicity. Combination of ITS, D1/D2, and IGS1 loci analysis, and morphological development process can effectively identify the genotype of Trichosporon spp.

10.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 5769752, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944693

RESUMO

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common contaminant of grain worldwide and is often detected in the human diet and animal feed. Selenium is an essential trace element in animals. It has many biological functions. The role of selenium in the body is mainly orchestrated by selenoprotein. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) also exists widely in the body and has attracted much attention due to its high antioxidant capacity. In order to explore the effect of the GPx1 gene on toxicity of DON, in this study, we overexpressed or knockdown GPx1 in porcine splenic lymphocytes, then added different concentrations of DON (0.1025, 0.205, 0.41, and 0.82 µg/mL) and sodium selenite (2 µmol/L) to the culture system. Using various techniques, we detected antioxidant function, free radical content, cell apoptosis, and methylation-related gene expression to explore the effect of GPx1 expression on DON-induced cell damage. We also explored whether selenium can antagonize the toxicity of DON in these two cell models and revealed the protective effect of sodium selenite on DON-induced cell damage in GPx1-overexpressing or knockdown splenic lymphocytes. Finally, our findings revealed the following: (1) GPx1 can regulate the antioxidant capacity, apoptosis rate, and expression of DNA methylation-related genes in pig splenic lymphocytes. (2) Na2SeO3 (2 µmol/L) can regulate the antioxidant capacity, apoptosis rate, and expression of DNA methylation-related genes in pig splenic lymphocytes, and this effect is more significant in GPx1-overexpressing cells than in GPx1-knockdown cells. (3) DON can cause oxidative damage, apoptosis, and methylation injury in GPx1-overexpressing or knockdown pig splenic lymphocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. (4) Na2SeO3 (2 µmol/L) can antagonize the toxic effect of DON on GPx1-overexpressing or knockdown pig splenic lymphocytes. Our findings may have important implications for food/feed safety, human health, and environmental protection.


Assuntos
Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Baço/fisiopatologia , Tricotecenos/toxicidade , Animais , Humanos , Selenito de Sódio , Suínos , Transfecção
11.
Cytokine ; 119: 168-174, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925325

RESUMO

Resistin is a cysteine-rich cytokine, which has been indicated as a mediator of insulin resistance and inflammation. Previous studies demonstrated that lipoprotein lipase (LPL) was an important enzyme that could mediate lipid accumulation in macrophages. Additionally, the intracellular molecules phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/serine-threonine protein kinase (AKT)/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) were supposed to be involved in the lipid accumulation process in cells. However, it remains unclear whether resistin was correlated with the dysregulation of lipid metabolism in macrophages. The present study investigated that resistin could up-regulate the expression of LPL and increase the contents of intracellular triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) in RAW264.7 macrophages. In addition, intracellular molecules PI3K, AKT and PPARγ were significantly up-regulated and activated in resitin-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages (P < 0.05). In contrast, the effects of resistin on RAW264.7 macrophages could be abrogated by specific inhibitors for LPL (LPL-siRNA) and PI3K/AKT signaling pathway (LY294002). All together, this study demonstrated that resistin could up-regulate the expression of LPL and induce lipid accumulation in RAW264.7 macrophages. More importantly, the PPARγ-dependent PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was relevant to the lipid accumulation process in resistin-stimulated macrophages.

12.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17676, 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518949

RESUMO

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a cytotoxic mycotoxin that can cause cell damages. The main effect is to inhibit protein synthesis. Oxidative stress is one of the effects of DON. Selenium (Se) can ameliorate the cell damage caused by DON-induced oxidative stress, but it is unclear whether through selenoprotein glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1). We established GPX1-knockdown porcine spleen lymphocytes, and treated them with DON and Se. Untransfected porcine splenic lymphocytes (group P) and transfected cells (group M, GPX1 knockdown) were treated with or without DON (0.824, 0.412, 0.206, or 0.103 µg/mL, group D1-4), Se (Na2SeO3, 2 µM, group Se), or both (group SD1-4) for 6, 12, or 24 h. The cells were collected and the activities of SOD and CAT, levels of GSH, H2O2, malonaldehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and the inhibition of free hydroxyl radicals were determined. Levels of ROS were measured at 24 h. Compared with group P, the antioxidant capacity of group M was reduced. DON caused greater oxidative damage to the GPX1-knockdown porcine splenic lymphocytes than to the normal control cells. When Na2SeO3 was combined with DON, it reduced the damage in the GPX1-knockdown porcine splenic lymphocytes, but less effectively than in the normal porcine splenic lymphocytes.

13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 18(1): 347, 2018 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-saturate molecular linkage maps are an important tool in studies on plant molecular biology and assisted breeding. Development of a large set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) via next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based methods, restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq), and the generation of a highly saturated genetic map help improve fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL). RESULTS: We generated a highly saturated genetic map to identify significant traits in two elite grape cultivars and 176 F1 plants. In total, 1,426,967 high-quality restriction site-associated DNA tags were detected; 51,365, 23,683, and 70,061 markers were assessed in 19 linkage groups (LGs) for the maternal, paternal, and integrated maps, respectively. Our map was highly saturated in terms of marker density and average "Gap ≤ 5 cM" percentage. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, RAD-seq of 176 F1 plants and their parents yielded 8,481,484 SNPs and 1,646,131 InDel markers, of which 65,229 and 4832, respectively, were used to construct a highly saturated genetic map for grapevine. This map is expected to facilitate genetic studies on grapevine, including an evaluation of grapevine and deciphering the genetic basis of economically and agronomically important traits. Our findings provide basic essential genetic data the grapevine genetic research community, which will lead to improvements in grapevine breeding.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genes de Plantas/genética , Mapeamento por Restrição/métodos , Vitis/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Metagenômica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
14.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 34(8): 673-677, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30384863

RESUMO

Objective To explore the relationship between resistin and PPARγ and to investigate the pro-inflammatory functions of bovine resistin. Methods Bovine alveolar macrophages (BAMs) were incubated with 100 ng/mL bovine-resistin for 0, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 24 hours, respectively. The mRNA expression levels of PPARγ, NF-κB, and resistin were tested by qRT-PCR, the protein expression levels of PPARγ and NF-κB were analyzed by Western blot analysis, and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß and TNF-α) in the supernatant were measured by ELISA. Results After BAMs were treated with resistin for 1.5 hours, the level of PPARγ of BAMs was significantly reduced and there was a time dependent effect. Meanwhile, the mRNA levels of NF-κB and resistin in BAMs increased significantly since induced by bovine resistin for 6 hours and to peak at 12 hours. The protein expression of PPARγ in BAMs decreased significantly after incubating with bovine-resistin for 12 hours, while the expression of NF-κB increased significantly at 12 hours. Both IL-1ß and TNF-α increased in a time-dependent manner after 1.5 hours. Conclusion Bovine-resistin might induce BAMs producing pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1ß and TNF-α via inhibiting PPARγ whereas activating the NF-κB mediated pathway.

15.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 10(11): 3161-3172, 2018 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30398974

RESUMO

To investigate the different effects of acute pulmonary infection induced by Escherichia coli (E. coli) on lipid metabolism between diet-induced obesity (DIO, fed with high-fat diet) mice and lean mice. A total of 180 ICR mice were selected to be challenged intranasally with phosphate-buffered saline or 109 CFUs/mL of E. coli, and the body character indexes, biochemical indexes and expressions of genes and proteins involved in lipid metabolism were examined pre- and post-infection. Results revealed that, before infection, DIO mice had significantly higher body weight, adipose and liver indexes, free fatty acid and triglyceride contents than lean mice. After infection, increased free fatty acid and triglyceride contents, increased expressions of resistin, SREBP-1c, ACC1, FAS and SCD-1, and declined PPARα, CPT-1α expressions and AMPKα phosphorylation were detected in the infected group, while the change rates were more serious in the lean mice than the DIO mice. The above-mentioned findings verified that, after being infected with E. coli, hepatic lipid metabolism disorder was aggravated by activating SREBP-1c related lipid synthesis pathway and inhibiting PPARα related fatty acid oxidation pathway. However, infection-induced lipid metabolic disorders was slighter in the DIO mice than the lean mice through AMPKα pathway.

16.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 16032, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30375483

RESUMO

Increasing evidences have demonstrated that Ageratina adenophora (A. adenophora) can cause hepatotoxicity of animals. Liver is an important site in immune regulation and inflammatory responses. However, the information about hepatotoxicity induced by A. adenophora in relation to inflammation is still finite. To investigate the underlying mechanism, we conducted animal experiments with different dosage of A. adenophora. Mice were randomly divided into 4 groups and administrated with 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% levels of A. adenophora pallet diet in control, group A, B and C, respectively. The results showed that A. adenophora caused hepatotoxicity as revealed by increasing alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase. Then, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were shown to be elicited by A. adenophora through flow cytometry assay in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, pyroptosis was activated by A. adenophora, which was characterized by increasing protein and mRNA levels of caspase-1, gasdermin D and interleukin-1ß. Notably, ROS down-stream factors, including nod-like receptor inflammasome protein 3 and nuclear factor-κB, were also activated by A. adenophora. These data demonstrated that A. adenophora caused liver inflammatory injury and induced hepatocyte pyroptosis by activating NLRP3 inflammasome, which was triggered by elevating ROS production levels. This research might provide new insights into the mechanism of hepatotoxicity induced by A. adenophora.

17.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2018 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30267312

RESUMO

Animal feed is prone to becoming infected with molds during production and storage, resulting in secondary metabolite mycotoxins, such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), T-2 toxins, deoxynivalenol (DON), and ochratoxin A (OTA), which are harmful to humans and animals. Selenium is an essential trace element for humans and animals, and it is also an effective antioxidant. Many studies have shown that selenium can reduce the damage caused by mycotoxins in animals. This article reviews the current literature on the antagonistic effects of selenium on AFB1, T-2, DON, and OTA toxicity.

18.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0199325, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912930

RESUMO

Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are common gastrointestinal protozoa in mammals. Many studies have been conducted on the distribution of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. genotypes in sheep and cattle. However, in China, information about molecular characterization and genetic analysis of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in goats is limited. In this study, 342 fecal samples from adult goats were collected from 12 farms in Sichuan Province, China. The occurrence of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in adult goats was 14.9% (51/342) and 4.7% (16/342), respectively. All G. duodenalis were identified as assemblage E, with two novel genotypes (assemblages E17 and E18) being detected at the beta-giardin (bg) locus. Based on three loci-beta-giardin (bg), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh)-multilocus sequence typing revealed three novel multilocus genotypes (MLGs) of assemblage E (MLG-E1, E2, E3 (sc)). Small Subunit (SSU) rRNA-based PCR identified two Cryptosporidium species, namely C. xiaoi (11/16) and C. suis (5/16). This study is not only the first to report C. suis infection in adult goats in China but is also the first to use the MLG approach to identify G. duodenalis in adult goats.

19.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6590, 2018 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29700370

RESUMO

Human and animal infections of Enterocytozoon bieneusi (E. bieneusi) have consistently been reported worldwide, garnering public attention; however, the molecular epidemiology of E. bieneusi in the giant panda remains limited. We surveyed captive giant pandas in China for the presence of E. bieneusi by using PCR and sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) revealing a 34.5% positive rate, with seven known genotypes (SC02, EpbC, CHB1, SC01, D, F, and Peru 6) and five novel genotypes (SC04, SC05, SC06, SC07, and SC08) identified. We similarly analyzed water samples, and E. bieneusi was detected in two samples, with genotype SC02 identified. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that CHB1 did not cluster with any recognized group, while the remaining genotypes belonged to group 1. The predominance of zoonotic group 1 genotypes indicates a public health threat that giant pandas could spread E. bieneusi to humans. The identification of E. bieneusi in water samples suggests giant pandas could contribute to water contamination. Effective control measures are therefore needed to minimize the contamination of the water and prevent a human microsporidiosis outbreak.

20.
Cytokine ; 110: 357-366, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29655569

RESUMO

Resistin, a previously discovered cysteine-rich adipokine known to regulate glucose metabolism, has been emerged as a mediator in inflammation and immunity. Its level was supposed to be related to the expression of indicators, such as interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in inflammation. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was reported to be a receptor for resistin in cells, like leukocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). However, the pro-inflammatory role of resistin and its intracellular mechanisms in alveolar macrophages have not been thoroughly validated. Here we found that the pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) was positively correlated with resistin. Our results also showed that resistin induced the expression of TLR4, intracellular molecules myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88), TRIF-related adaptor molecule (TRAM) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in PAMs. In contrast, inhibition of TLR4, MyD88, TRAM and NF-κB abrogated the pro-inflammatory effect of resistin on PAMs. Additionally, the associations among TLR4, MyD88/TRAM and NF-κB were investigated by introducing TLR4-siRNA, MyD88-siRNA and TRAM-siRNA respectively into PAMs prior to the treatment with resistin. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that resistin promoted the production of pro-inflammatory cytokine in PAMs via TLR4/NF-κB-mediated pathway (TLR4/MyD88/TRAM/NF-κB).

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