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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5109, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198370

RESUMO

Splenic immune function was enhanced in diet-induced-obese (DIO) mice caused by Escherichia coli. The changes in spleen function on apoptosis were still unknown. Two hundred mice in groups Lean-E. coli and DIO-E. coli were intranasal instillation of E. coli. And another two hundred mice in groups Lean-PBS and DIO-PBS were given phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Subsequently, spleen histology was analyzed. Then the rates of spleen cell (SC) apoptosis, and expression of the genes and proteins of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9 were quantified in each group at 0 h (uninfected), 12 h, 24 h, and 72 h postinfection. The SC apoptosis rates of the DIO-E. coli groups were lower than those of the DIO-PBS groups at 12, 24 and 72 h (p < 0.05). Anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression gene and protein of the DIO-E. coli groups were higher than those of the DIO-PBS groups (p < 0.05). Gene expressions of pro-apoptotic Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9 of the DIO-E. coli groups were lower than those of DIO-PBS groups at 12, 24 and 72 h (p < 0.05). The SC apoptosis rates of the Lean-E. coli groups were higher than those of the Lean- PBS groups at 12 h and 24 h (p < 0.05). Interestingly, the SC apoptosis rates in the DIO-E. coli groups were lower than those of the Lean-E. coli groups at 12 h (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our results suggested that the DIO mice presented stronger anti-apoptotic abilities than Lean mice in non-fatal acute pneumonia induced by E. coli infection, which is more conducive to protecting the spleen and improving the immune defense ability of the body.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3210, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081946

RESUMO

Lysozyme (LZM) is a natural anti-bacterial protein that is found in the saliva, tears and milk of all mammals including humans. Its anti-bacterial properties result from the ability to cleave bacterial cell walls, causing bacterial death. The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary LZM on fecal microbial composition and variation in metabolites in sow. The addition of LZM decreased the fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Zonulin and endotoxin in the serum, and feces, were decreased with lysozyme supplementation. Furthermore, fecal concentrations of lipocalin-2 and the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α were also decreased while the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was increased by lysozyme supplementation. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the V3-V4 region suggested that fecal microbial levels changed at different taxonomic levels with the addition of LZM. Representative changes included the reduction of diversity between sows, decreased Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Tenericutes and Spirochaetes during lactation as well as an increase in Lactobacillus. These findings suggest that dietary lysozyme supplementation from late gestation to lactation promote microbial changes, which would potentially be the mechanisms by which maternal metabolites and inflammatory status was altered after LZM supplementation.

3.
J Immunol Res ; 2020: 5948256, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32104715

RESUMO

Obese mice exhibited more lymphocytes in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and milder lung injury after Escherichia coli (E. coli) infection. However, it remained unclear whether the spleen contributed to the effect of obese mice with infection. The study was purposed to reveal the histopathological changes of the spleen caused by oxidative stress and inflammation in diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice challenged by Escherichia coli. After infection, the spleen tissues were obtained in normal and DIO mice at 0 h (uninfected), 12 h, 24 h, and 72 h postinfection. Results revealed that DIO mice have higher contents of resistin, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1ß in the spleen than normal mice and lower concentrations of GSH-Px, SOD, and CAT and higher MDA than normal mice. After an intranasal drip of E. coli, the activities of GSH-Px, SOD, and CAT in the DIO mice were elevated and the content of MDA declined. The activities of SOD and CAT in the normal mice declined, and the content of MDA was elevated. Moreover, the contents of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1ß in the spleen declined in DIO mice at 24 and 72 h, although the contents of leptin, resistin, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1ß were elevated at 12 h. The contents of resistin, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1ß were elevated in normal mice at 12 and 24 h. Those results indicated that obesity elevated splenic oxidation and inflammatory levels, but it enhanced antioxidant capacity and reduced cytokine levels of the spleen in mice to resist splenic injury after an intranasal drip of E. coli.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228673, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017796

RESUMO

Giardia duodenalis is a common enteric protozoan that infects a range of hosts including humans and other mammals. Multilocus genotyping of G. duodenalis in captive non-human primates (NHPs) from zoos in China is limited. In this study, we evaluated 302 NHP fecal samples collected from 32 different NHP species. The primates were from 12 zoos distributed across eight provinces and two municipalities (Chongqing and Beijing) of China. The overall infection rate was 8.3% (25/302). The six G. duodenalis-positive zoos and their infection rates were: Suzhou Zoo (40.0%, 4/10), Yangzhou Zoo (22.2%, 2/9), Dalian Zoo (16.7%, 4/24), Chengdu Zoo (12.8%, 6/47), Guiyang Forest Wildlife Zoo (12.1%, 7/58), and Changsha Zoo (4.7%, 2/43). Molecular analysis of three loci, beta-giardin (bg), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), showed high genetic heterogeneity, and seven novel subtypes (BIII-1, MB10-1, WB8-1, B14-1, MB9-1, DN7-1, and BIV-1) were detected within assemblage B. Additional analysis revealed 12 different assemblage B multilocus genotypes (MLGs), one known MLG and 11 novel MLGs. Based on phylogenetic analysis, 12 assemblage B MLGs formed two main clades, MLG-SW (10-12, 18) and MLG-SW (13, 14, 16, 17), the other four MLG-SW (15, 19, 20, 21) were scattered throughout the phylogenetic tree in this study. Using multilocus genotyping, this study expands our understanding of the occurrence of Giardia infection and genetic variation in Giardia in captive non-human primates from zoos in China.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19131, 2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836784

RESUMO

Bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) are the main cells of the dairy cow mammary gland. In addition to their role in milk production, they are effector cells of mammary immunity. However, there is little information about changes in metabolites of bMECs when stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This study describes a metabolomics analysis of the LPS-stimulated bMECs to provide a basis for the identification of potential diagnostic screening biomarkers and possible treatments for bovine mammary gland inflammation. In the present study, bMECs were challenged with 500 ng/mL LPS and samples were taken at 0 h, 12 h and 24 h post stimulation. Metabolic changes were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF MS) with univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Clustering and metabolic pathway changes were established by MetaboAnalyst. Sixty-three differential metabolites were identified, including glycerophosphocholine, glycerol-3-phosphate, L-carnitine, L-aspartate, glutathione, prostaglandin G2, α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid. They were mainly involved in eight pathways, including D-glutamine and D-glutamic acid metabolism; linoleic acid metabolism; α-linolenic metabolism; and phospholipid metabolism. The results suggest that bMECs are able to regulate pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidation and energy-producing related metabolites through lipid, antioxidation and energy metabolism in response to inflammatory stimuli.

6.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858401

RESUMO

The effects of prepartum dietary supplementation with selenium yeast on low abundant plasma proteins in postpartum dairy cows are not known. In this study, 24 healthy parturient dairy cows were divided into two groups (group C, a control group, and group T, a selenium treatment group). Low abundance proteins were extracted from plasma samples of calving cows, and 542 proteins were identified by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) proteomic analysis. Dietary supplementation with selenium yeast caused differential abundance of 48 proteins with a fold change of more than 1.2 or less than 0.83 (p < 0.05); 14 proteins were upregulated and 34 were downregulated. The top five gene ontology (GO) enrichment terms for the differentially expressed proteins were protein homotetramerization (or tetramerization), defense response to bacteria or fungus, acute-phase reactions, nucleotide catabolic process, and positive regulation of lipid metabolic process. All proteins involved in acute-phase reactions were downregulated, indicating that selenium ameliorates systemic inflammation. The vast majority of proteins involved in the defense response to microorganisms were downregulated, thereby affecting innate immunity. The decreased abundance of apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein C-II, critical proteins for positive regulation of lipid metabolism, indicated that selenium may optimize lipid metabolism. The iTRAQ results showed that prenatal supplementation with yeast selenium can relieve systemic inflammation after parturition. Moreover, selenium may reduce the effects of metabolic diseases, which can improve glyconeogenesis and prevent ketosis and fatty liver.

7.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224627, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682629

RESUMO

Giardia duodenalis is a zoonotic parasitic protist and poses a threat to human and animal health. This study investigated the occurrence of G. duodenalis infection in post-weaned calves from Sichuan province, China. Faecal samples were collected from a total of 306 post-weaned calves (3-12 months old) from 10 farms, including 4 intensive feeding farms and 6 free-ranging farms. The overall infection rate of G. duodenalis was 41.2% (126/306) based on the PCR results at any of the three genetic loci: beta-giardin (bg), triose-phosphate isomerase (tpi) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes. Giardia duodenalis assemblages E (n = 115, 91.3%), A (n = 3, 2.4%), and A mixed with E (n = 8, 6.3%) were identified among the 126 positive specimens. Multilocus sequence typing of G. duodenalis revealed 34 assemblage E multilocus genotypes (MLGs), 1 assemblage A MLG and 7 mixed assemblage (A and E) MLGs. The eBURST data showed a high degree of genetic diversity within assemblage E MLGs. The phylogenetic tree revealed that MLG E3 was the primary MLG subtype in Sichuan province and also the most widely distributed in China.

8.
Reprod Fertil Dev ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739842

RESUMO

Adipokines can affect intrauterine development while calf birthweight (CBW) is a breeding standard of calves, which reflects the status of fetal intrauterine development. To explore the correlation between placental adipokines and CBW, 54 healthy Chinese Holstein cows were used in the present study. The cows were grouped according to the CBW of their calves. Placentas were collected immediately after delivery and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to detect the placental expression levels of adiponectin, leptin, visfatin and resistin. Our results show that the mRNA transcription and blood placental content of adiponectin, leptin, visfatin and resistin increased with increasing CBW. The analysis showed that the mRNA transcription levels of placental adiponectin, leptin and resistin were positively correlated with CBW. The mRNA and protein expression levels of adiponectin, leptin and visfatin between the three groups were significantly correlated. Placental resistin mRNA levels correlated positively with adiponectin mRNA, but not leptin or visfatin. The protein expression levels of resistin were significantly positively correlated with those of adiponectin, leptin and visfatin. These results suggest that placental adipokines play important roles in regulating calf intrauterine growth.

9.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-9, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638432

RESUMO

Ageratina adenophora is an invasive plant of global importance and has a broad distribution in the Western Himalayas. Endophtytic fungus Coniochaeta sp.F-8 was found in Ageratina adenophora. In this paper, we aim to investigate the antioxidative activity and cytotoxicity of the metabolites from Coniochaeta sp.F-8. Consequently, two compounds Phomoxanthone A and Penialidin A were isolated from the endophytic fungus of Ageratina adenophora for the first time. The structures of compounds were identified by IR, NMR and ESI-MS methods. Moreover, both of those compounds showed considerable antioxidative activity in vitro and resulted cytotoxicity in mouse embryo fibroblasts cell line Balb/c3T3. The present study provides a theoretical foundation for the development and utilization of endophytic fungi in Ageratina adenophora as a medicinal substance.

10.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(9)2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480207

RESUMO

This study explored the impact of fresh sweet potato vine on the growth as well as the metabolites and colon microbial composition in Chinese Meishan gilt. Twenty Meishan gilts (body weight 30 ± 0.18 kg, n = 10 per treatment) were randomly assigned to a control (CON) or sweet potato vine (SPV) supplementation diet treatment. Gilts were housed in individual stalls. In the SPV treatment, 2 kg fresh sweet potato vine was used instead of 0.18 kg basal diet which provided the same amount of digestive energy and crude protein with the exception of crude fiber (CON, 51.00 g/d vs. SPV, 73.94 g/d) in terms of dry matter intake. Gilts were slaughtered and samples were collected on day 19 after the third estrus cycle. The SPV treatment tended to increase slaughter weight of gilts (p = 0.07); it also increased (p < 0.05) gastrointestinal tract weight and intestinal muscle layer thickness. SPV treatment also decreased (p < 0.05) carcass yield and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The concentration of zonulin and endotoxin in plasma was decreased (p < 0.05) as the gilt consumed the SPV diet. Colonic fecal concentrations of endotoxin, lipocalin-2, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were decreased (p < 0.05), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) was increased (p < 0.05) in the SPV treatment. Butyric acid and acetate concentration in colonic content as well as acetate concentration in caecal content were increased (p < 0.05) in the SPV treatment. Furthermore, the expression of carnitine palmityl transferase (CPT-1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) in gilt liver in SPV treatment was increased (p < 0.05) in comparison with CON treatment. Meanwhile, the composition of the colon microbes was also altered by SPV; representative changes included an increase in Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, Roseburia, and Lachnospira. These results indicate that gilt fed with sweet potato vine had decreased gut permeability, endotoxin and pro-inflammatory cytokines concentrations; colonic fecal microbiota was also changed, which may be further beneficial to the intestinal health of Chinese Meishan gilt.

11.
R Soc Open Sci ; 6(7): 190127, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417717

RESUMO

Ageratina adenophora is an invasive weed with potent toxicological effects on livestock. Oxidative stress and pyroptosis play a pivotal role in regulating animal or human health and disease. The object of this study was to determine the mechanism underlying splenic toxicity induced by A. adenophora in a mouse model. Ageratina adenophora significantly increased the levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, but decreased the antioxidants like catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase. In addition, the activity of the antioxidant enzymes was also decreased upon A. adenophora treatment. The induction of the pyroptosis pathway was evaluated in terms of the expression levels of Nod-like receptor protein 3, nuclear factor-κB, caspase-1, gasdermin-D and interleukin-1ß, all of which were significantly elevated by A. adenophora. These findings suggest that A. adenophora impairs spleen function in mice through oxidative stress damage and pyroptosis.

12.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221815, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469857

RESUMO

Although many studies have confirmed that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs: PBD-mI and LUC-n) can be used as feed additives, there are few reports of their use in ruminants. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of AMPs on ameliorating rumen fermentation function and rumen microorganisms in goats. Eighteen 4-month-old Chuanzhong black goats were used in a 60-day experiment (6 goats per group). Group I was used as the control and was fed a basal diet, the group II were fed the basal diet supplemented with 2 g of AMPs [per goat/day] and group III were fed the basal diet supplemented 3 g of AMPs [per goat/day], respectively. Rumen fluid samples were collected at 0, 20 and 60 days. Bacterial 16S rRNA genes and ciliate protozoal 18S rRNA genes were amplified by PCR from DNA extracted from rumen samples. The amplicons were sequenced by Illumina MiSeq. Rumen fermentation parameters and digestive enzyme activities were also examined. Our results showed that dietary supplementation with AMPs increased the levels of the bacterial genera Fibrobacter, Anaerovibrio and Succiniclasticum and also increased the ciliates genus Ophryoscolex, but reduced the levels of the bacterial genera Selenomonas, Succinivibrio and Treponema, and the ciliate genera Polyplastron, Entodinium, Enoploplastron and Isotricha. Supplementation with AMPs increased the activities of xylanase, pectinase and lipase in the rumen, and also increased the concentrations of acetic acid, propionic acid and total volatile fatty acids. These changes were associated with improved growth performance in the goats. The results revealed that the goats fed AMPs showed improved rumen microbiota structures, altered ruminal fermentation, and improved efficiency regarding the utilization of feed; thereby indicating that AMPs can improve growth performance. AMPs are therefore suitable as feed additives in juvenile goats.

13.
Mol Reprod Dev ; 86(9): 1083-1085, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297893

RESUMO

Conjoined twins have been reported in trout, catfish, guppy, tilapia, and other fishes under natural conditions. However, they are rarely reported in medaka fish. As far as we know, only one case where two fries were connected to the same yolk sac was reported before. Here, we report a case of conjoined twins in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes).

14.
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl ; 9: 298-304, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341768

RESUMO

Blastocystis is a common enteric protist that colonizes humans and a wide range of animals. Although some studies have reported incidences of Blastocystis in humans and animals in China, there is no information available on the prevalence of Blastocystis in giant pandas, red pandas, or bird species. The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence, subtype distribution, and genetic characterizations of Blastocystis in these animals in a captive situation in southwestern China, as well as assess the zoonotic potential of Blastocystis isolates. A total of 168 fecal specimens, including 81 from giant pandas, 23 from red pandas, 38 from black swans, 11 from ruddy shelducks, and 15 from green peafowl were collected at the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding in Sichuan province. The overall minimum prevalence of Blastocystis was 11.3% (19/168) based on PCR amplification of the barcode region of the SSU rRNA gene. The highest prevalence of Blastocystis was observed in ruddy shelduck (18.2%) and the lowest was found in green peafowl (6.7%). The prevalence of Blastocystis in giant pandas >5.5 years of age was higher than that in younger giant pandas. Two potentially zoonotic subtypes (ST1 and ST8) were identified, and ST1 (n = 12) was found to be more prevalent than ST8 (n = 7). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the prevalence and subtypes of Blastocystis in giant pandas, red pandas, and bird species in China. The findings of this study will improve our understanding of the genetic diversity and public health potential of Blastocystis.

15.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 10(1): 173, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation has been widely applied to the treatment of malignant blood diseases. However, limited number of functional HSCs hinders successful transplantation. The purpose of our current study is to develop a new and cost-efficient medium formulation that could greatly enhance the expansion of HSCs while retaining their long-term repopulation and hematopoietic properties for effective clinical transplantation. METHODS: Enriched human CD34+ cells and mobilized nonhuman primate peripheral blood CD34+ cells were expanded with a new, cost-efficient expansion medium formulation, named hematopoietic expansion medium (HEM), consisting of various cytokines and nutritional supplements. The long-term repopulation potential and hematologic-lineage differentiation ability of expanded human cells were studied in the non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mouse model. Furthermore, the efficacy and safety studies were performed by autologous transplantation of expanded primate cells in the nonhuman primate model. RESULTS: HEM could effectively expand human CD34+ cells by up to 129 fold within 9 days. Expanded HSCs retained long-term repopulation potential and hematologic-lineage differentiation ability, as indicated by (1) maintenance (over unexpanded HSCs) of immunophenotypes of CD38-CD90+CD45RA-CD49f+ in CD34+ cells after expansion; (2) significant presence of multiple human hematopoietic lineages in mouse peripheral blood and bone marrow following primary transplantation; (3) enrichment (over unexpanded HSCs) in SCID-repopulating cell frequency measured by limiting dilution analysis; and (4) preservation of both myeloid and lymphoid potential among human leukocytes from mouse bone marrow in week 24 after primary transplantation or secondary transplantation. Moreover, the results of autologous transplantation in nonhuman primates demonstrated that HEM-expanded CD34+ cells could enhance hematological recovery after myelo-suppression. All primates transplanted with the expanded autologous CD34+ cells survived for over 18 months without any noticeable abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these findings demonstrate promising potential for the utility of HEM to improve expansion of HSCs for clinical application.

16.
Cell Mol Biol Lett ; 24: 36, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164908

RESUMO

Common environmental pollutants and drugs encountered in everyday life can cause toxic damage to the body through oxidative stress, inflammatory stimulation, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of energy metabolism. Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase, is a member of the evolutionarily highly conserved Sir2 (silent information regulator 2) superprotein family, which is located in the nucleus and cytoplasm. It can deacetylate protein substrates in various signal transduction pathways to regulate gene expression, cell apoptosis and senescence, participate in the process of neuroprotection, energy metabolism, inflammation and the oxidative stress response in living organisms, and plays an important role in toxic damage caused by toxicants and in the process of SIRT1 activator/inhibitor antagonized toxic damage. This review summarizes the role that SIRT1 plays in toxic damage caused by toxicants via its interactions with protein substrates in certain signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Transdução de Sinais , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Toxinas Biológicas/toxicidade , Animais , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(4): 302-306, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167688

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of Ageratina adenophora essential oil (AAEO-CP) and its effects on the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) protein in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells. Methods RAW264.7 cells were divided into control group, LPS group, and LPS combined with AAEO-CP group. The cytotoxicity of AAEO-CP was detected by CCK-8 assay. The mRNA and protein expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10 were detected by real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively, and the protein expression of TLR4 in RAW264.7 cells was measured by Western blotting. Results AAEO-CP below 20 mg/mL was not cytotoxic to RAW264.7 cells. LPS increased the protein expression of TLR4, also increased the protein and mRNA expression of IL-6, but decrease the protein and mRNA expression of IL-10 in RAW264.7 cells. And all of the above results were reversed by AAEO-CP. Conclusion AAEO-CP can play the anti-inflammatory effects by increasing the expression of IL-10 protein and decreasing the expression of IL-6 protein, and inhibiting TLR4 protein in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells.


Assuntos
Ageratina/química , Inflamação/patologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Animais , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(11)2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174254

RESUMO

Mycotoxins, which are widely found in feed ingredients and human food, can exert harmful effects on animals and pose a serious threat to human health. As the first barrier against external pollutants, the intestinal mucosa is protected by a mechanical barrier, chemical barrier, immune barrier, and biological barrier. Firstly, mycotoxins can disrupt the mechanical barrier function of the intestinal mucosa, by destroying the morphology and tissue integrity of the intestinal epithelium. Secondly, mycotoxins can cause changes in the composition of mucin monosaccharides and the expression of intestinal mucin, which in turn affects mucin function. Thirdly, mycotoxins can cause damage to the intestinal mucosal immune barrier function. Finally, the microbiotas of animals closely interact with ingested mycotoxins. Based on existing research, this article reviews the effects of mycotoxins on the intestinal mucosal barrier and its mechanisms.


Assuntos
Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Animais , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucinas/genética , Mucinas/metabolismo , Micotoxinas/farmacologia
19.
BMC Microbiol ; 19(1): 113, 2019 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trichosporon is the dominant genus of epidermal fungi in giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and causes local and deep infections. To provide the information needed for the diagnosis and treatment of trichosporosis in giant pandas, the sequence of ITS, D1/D2, and IGS1 loci in 29 isolates of Trichosporon spp. which were isolated from the body surface of giant pandas were combination to investigate interspecies identification and genotype. Morphological development was examined via slide culture. Additionally, mice were infected by skin inunction, intraperitoneal injection, and subcutaneous injection for evaluation of pathogenicity. RESULTS: The twenty-nine isolates of Trichosporon spp. were identified as 11 species, and Trichosporon jirovecii and T. asteroides were the commonest species. Four strains of T. laibachii and one strain of T. moniliiforme were found to be of novel genotypes, and T. jirovecii was identified to be genotype 1. T. asteroides had the same genotype which involved in disseminated trichosporosis. The morphological development processes of the Trichosporon spp. were clearly different, especially in the processes of single-spore development. Pathogenicity studies showed that 7 species damaged the liver and skin in mice, and their pathogenicity was stronger than other 4 species. T. asteroides had the strongest pathogenicity and might provoke invasive infection. The pathological characteristics of liver and skin infections caused by different Trichosporon spp. were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple species of Trichosporon were identified on the skin surface of giant panda, which varied in morphological development and pathogenicity. Combination of ITS, D1/D2, and IGS1 loci analysis, and morphological development process can effectively identify the genotype of Trichosporon spp.

20.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 5769752, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944693

RESUMO

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common contaminant of grain worldwide and is often detected in the human diet and animal feed. Selenium is an essential trace element in animals. It has many biological functions. The role of selenium in the body is mainly orchestrated by selenoprotein. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) also exists widely in the body and has attracted much attention due to its high antioxidant capacity. In order to explore the effect of the GPx1 gene on toxicity of DON, in this study, we overexpressed or knockdown GPx1 in porcine splenic lymphocytes, then added different concentrations of DON (0.1025, 0.205, 0.41, and 0.82 µg/mL) and sodium selenite (2 µmol/L) to the culture system. Using various techniques, we detected antioxidant function, free radical content, cell apoptosis, and methylation-related gene expression to explore the effect of GPx1 expression on DON-induced cell damage. We also explored whether selenium can antagonize the toxicity of DON in these two cell models and revealed the protective effect of sodium selenite on DON-induced cell damage in GPx1-overexpressing or knockdown splenic lymphocytes. Finally, our findings revealed the following: (1) GPx1 can regulate the antioxidant capacity, apoptosis rate, and expression of DNA methylation-related genes in pig splenic lymphocytes. (2) Na2SeO3 (2 µmol/L) can regulate the antioxidant capacity, apoptosis rate, and expression of DNA methylation-related genes in pig splenic lymphocytes, and this effect is more significant in GPx1-overexpressing cells than in GPx1-knockdown cells. (3) DON can cause oxidative damage, apoptosis, and methylation injury in GPx1-overexpressing or knockdown pig splenic lymphocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. (4) Na2SeO3 (2 µmol/L) can antagonize the toxic effect of DON on GPx1-overexpressing or knockdown pig splenic lymphocytes. Our findings may have important implications for food/feed safety, human health, and environmental protection.


Assuntos
Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Baço/fisiopatologia , Tricotecenos/toxicidade , Animais , Humanos , Selenito de Sódio , Suínos , Transfecção
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