Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 111
Filtrar
1.
J Cancer Educ ; 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694133

RESUMO

The purpose of our study is to assess the impact of COVID-19 on the clinical responsibilities, training, and wellness of US radiation oncology residents. An anonymous cross-sectional survey was sent to all 91 radiation oncology residency programs in the USA. The survey included questions related to demographics, changes in clinical duties and training, job prospects, and wellness indicators. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate factors associated with residents endorsing high satisfaction with their departments' response to COVID-19. A total of 96 residents completed the survey from 67 US radiation oncology programs. In the multivariate logistic regression model, remote contouring (OR: 3.91 (95% CI: 1.11, 13.80), p = 0.03) and belief that one will be adequately trained to independently practice after completing residency (OR: 4.68 (1.12, 19.47), p = 0.03) were significantly associated with high resident satisfaction with their department's response to COVID-19. Most residents indicated that hypofractionation was encouraged to a greater extent (n = 79, 82.3%), patients were triaged by disease risk (n = 67, 69.8%), and most agreed/strongly agreed that they have been provided with adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) (n = 85, 88.5%). The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the training and wellness of radiation oncology residents. Our analysis suggests that radiation oncology programs might increase resident satisfaction with their department's response to COVID-19 by enabling remote contouring and working with residents to identity and remedy possible concerns regarding their ability to independently practice post residency.

2.
Oncoimmunology ; 10(1): 1863631, 2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33643689

RESUMO

We conducted a phase I dose-escalation trial of radiation with ipilimumab in patients with melanoma with ≥2 metastatic lesions. Here, we report the final full clinical analysis. Patients received RT (6 or 8 Gy x 2 or 3 doses) to a single lesion followed by 4 cycles of ipilimumab. The primary endpoint was maximum tolerated dose of RT, and secondary endpoint was response at non-radiated sites. Twenty-two patients with treatment-naïve (n = 11) or treatment-refractory (n = 11) Stage IV melanoma were enrolled. There were 31 treatment-related adverse events (AEs), of which 16 were deemed immune-related. Eleven patients had grade 3 AEs (no grade 4/5). There were no dose-limiting toxicities related to the radiation/ipilimumab combination. Five of 22 patients (22.7%, 95% CI 7.8-45.4%) had partial response as best response and three (13.6%) had stable disease. Median overall survival was 10.7 months (95% CI, 4.9 months to not-estimable) and median progression-free survival 3.6 months (95% CI, 2.9 months to 7.8 months). Seven patients were still alive at the time of last follow-up (median follow-up 89.2 months), most of whom received pembrolizumab after progression. Radiotherapy followed by ipilimumab was well tolerated and yielded a response rate that compares favorably to the objective response rate with ipilimumab alone. Furthermore, 32% of patients are long-term survivors, most of whom received pembrolizumab. Based on these results, the recommended dose that was used in subsequent Phase 2 trials was 8 Gy x 3 doses. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT01497808 (www.clinicaltrials.gov).

3.
Semin Radiat Oncol ; 31(2): 133-139, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610270

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors are approved for a variety of indications for locally advanced and metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and trials are ongoing in the early-stage setting. There is an unmet need to understand which patients may derive benefit from immunotherapies and how to harness combined modality therapies to improve overall response rates and durability. Here, we review studies from the bench-to-bedside to examine the role of radiation therapy (RT) on the tumor immune microenvironment in NSCLC with an eye toward augmenting antitumor immunity. Together, these data provide a foundation for developing future clinical trials harnessing RT to augment antitumor immunity and highlight the need for correlative translational studies to directly characterize the impact of RT on the human NSCLC tumor immune microenvironment.

4.
Semin Radiat Oncol ; 31(2): 95-96, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610275
5.
Phys Med Biol ; 65(20): 205007, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027064

RESUMO

We investigated the sensitivity of regional tumor response prediction to variability in voxel clustering techniques, imaging features, and machine learning algorithms in 25 patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) enrolled on the FLARE-RT clinical trial. Metabolic tumor volumes (MTV) from pre-chemoradiation (PETpre) and mid-chemoradiation fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG PET) images (PETmid) were subdivided into K-means or hierarchical voxel clusters by standardized uptake values (SUV) and 3D-positions. MTV cluster separability was evaluated by CH index, and morphologic changes were captured by Dice similarity and centroid Euclidean distance. PETpre conventional features included SUVmean, MTV/MTV cluster size, and mean radiation dose. PETpre radiomics consisted of 41 intensity histogram and 3D texture features (PET Oncology Radiomics Test Suite) extracted from MTV or MTV clusters. Machine learning models (multiple linear regression, support vector regression, logistic regression, support vector machines) of conventional features or radiomic features were constructed to predict PETmid response. Leave-one-out-cross-validated root-mean-squared-error (RMSE) for continuous response regression (ΔSUVmean) and area-under-receiver-operating-characteristic-curve (AUC) for binary response classification were calculated. K-means MTV 2-clusters (MTVhi, MTVlo) achieved maximum CH index separability (Friedman p < 0.001). Between PETpre and PETmid, MTV cluster pairs overlapped (Dice 0.70-0.87) and migrated 0.6-1.1 cm. PETmid ΔSUVmean response prediction was superior in MTV and MTVlo (RMSE = 0.17-0.21) compared to MTVhi (RMSE = 0.42-0.52, Friedman p < 0.001). PETmid ΔSUVmean response class prediction performance trended higher in MTVlo (AUC = 0.83-0.88) compared to MTVhi (AUC = 0.44-0.58, Friedman p = 0.052). Models were more sensitive to MTV/MTV cluster regions (Friedman p = 0.026) than feature sets/algorithms (Wilcoxon signed-rank p = 0.36). Top-ranked radiomic features included GLZSM-LZHGE (large-zone-high-SUV), GTSDM-CP (cluster-prominence), GTSDM-CS (cluster-shade) and NGTDM-CNT (contrast). Top-ranked features were consistent between MTVhi and MTVlo cluster pairs but varied between MTVhi-MTVlo clusters, reflecting distinct regional radiomic phenotypes. Variability in tumor voxel cluster response prediction can inform robust radiomic target definition for risk-adaptive chemoradiation in patients with LA-NSCLC. FLARE-RT trial: NCT02773238.

6.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 107(4): 631-640, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused radiotherapy resource pressures and led to increased risks for lung cancer patients and healthcare staff. An international group of experts in lung cancer radiotherapy established this practice recommendation pertaining to whether and how to adapt radiotherapy for lung cancer in the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: For this ESTRO & ASTRO endorsed project, 32 experts in lung cancer radiotherapy contributed to a modified Delphi consensus process. We assessed potential adaptations of radiotherapy in two pandemic scenarios. The first, an early pandemic scenario of risk mitigation, is characterized by an altered risk-benefit ratio of radiotherapy for lung cancer patients due to their increased susceptibility for severe COVID-19 infection, and minimization of patient travelling and exposure of radiotherapy staff. The second, a later pandemic scenario, is characterized by reduced radiotherapy resources requiring patient triage. Six common lung cancer cases were assessed for both scenarios: peripherally located stage I NSCLC, locally advanced NSCLC, postoperative radiotherapy after resection of pN2 NSCLC, thoracic radiotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation for limited stage SCLC and palliative thoracic radiotherapy for stage IV NSCLC. RESULTS: In a risk-mitigation pandemic scenario, efforts should be made not to compromise the prognosis of lung cancer patients by departing from guideline-recommended radiotherapy practice. In that same scenario, postponement or interruption of radiotherapy treatment of COVID-19 positive patients is generally recommended to avoid exposure of cancer patients and staff to an increased risk of COVID-19 infection. In a severe pandemic scenario characterized by reduced resources, if patients must be triaged, important factors for triage include potential for cure, relative benefit of radiation, life expectancy, and performance status. Case-specific consensus recommendations regarding multimodality treatment strategies and fractionation of radiotherapy are provided. CONCLUSION: This joint ESTRO-ASTRO practice recommendation established pragmatic and balanced consensus recommendations in common clinical scenarios of radiotherapy for lung cancer in order to address the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Consenso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Oncologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sociedades Médicas , Humanos , Gestão de Riscos , Triagem
7.
Adv Radiat Oncol ; 5(3): 434-443, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529138

RESUMO

Purpose: There are limited clinical data on scanning-beam proton therapy (SPT) in treating locally advanced lung cancer, as most published studies have used passive-scatter technology. There is increasing interest in whether the dosimetric advantages of SPT compared with photon therapy can translate into superior clinical outcomes. We present our experience of SPT and photon intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with clinical dosimetry and outcomes in patients with stage III lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients with stage III lung cancer treated at our center between 2013 and May 2018 were identified in compliance with our institutional review board (64 patients = 34 SPT + 30 IMRT). Most proton patients were treated with pencil beam scanning (28 of 34), and 6 of 34 were treated with uniform scanning. Fisher exact test, χ2 test, and Mann-Whitney test were used to compare groups. All tests were 2-sided. Results: Patient characteristics were similar between the IMRT and SPT patients, except for worse lung function in the IMRT group. Mean dose to lung, heart, and esophagus was lower in the SPT group, with most benefit in the low-dose region (lungs, 9.7 Gy vs 15.7 Gy for SPT vs IMRT, respectively [P = .004]; heart, 7 Gy vs 14 Gy [P = .001]; esophagus, 28.2 Gy vs 30.9 Gy [P = .023]). Esophagitis and dermatitis grades were not different between the 2 groups. Grade 2+ pneumonitis was 21% in the SPT group and 40% in the IMRT group (P = .107). Changes in blood counts were not different between the 2 groups. Overall survival and progression-free survival were not different between SPT and IMRT (median overall survival, 41.6 vs 30.7 months, respectively [P = .52]; median progression-free survival, 19.5 vs 14.6 months [P = .50]). Conclusions: We report our experience with SPT and IMRT in stage III lung cancer. Our cohort of patients treated with SPT had lower doses to normal organs (lungs, heart, esophagus) than our IMRT cohort. There was no statistically significant difference in toxicity rates or survival, although there may have been a trend toward lower rates of pneumonitis.

8.
Oncologist ; 25(7): 638-640, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501581
9.
Med Phys ; 47(9): 4626-4633, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452034

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Clinical studies in radiation therapy with conventional fractionation show a reduction in the tumor control probability (TCP) with an increase in the total and hypoxic tumor volumes. The main objective of this article is to derive an analytical relationship between the TCP and the hypoxic and total tumor volumes. This relationship is applied to clinical data on the TCP reduction with increasing total tumor volume and, also, dose escalation to target tumor hypoxia. METHODS: The TCP equation derived from the Poisson probability distribution predicts that both (a) an increase in the number of tumor clonogens and (b) an increase in the average cell surviving fraction are the factors contributing to the loss of local control. Using asymptotic mathematical properties of the TCP formula and the linear quadratic (LQ) cell survival model with two levels of hypoxic and oxygenated cells, we separated the TCP dependence on the total and hypoxic tumor volumes. The predicted trends in the local control as a function of total and hypoxic tumor volumes were evaluated in radiotherapy model problems with conventional dose fractionation for head and neck and non-small cell lung cancers. Tumor-specific parameters in the LQ model and the density of clonogens in the TCP model were taken from published data on predictive assays and the plating efficiency measurements, respectively. RESULTS: Our simulations show that, at the dose levels used in conventional radiation therapy for head and neck and non-small cell lung cancers, the TCP dependence on the total tumor volume is negligible for completely oxygenated tumors. However, the presented results demonstrate that tumor hypoxia introduces a significant volume effect into estimates of the TCP. The extent of tumor hypoxia is a plausible mechanism to explain the TCP reduction with increasing total tumor volume observed in clinical studies. To achieve the same level of tumor control in a hypoxic tumor region relative to well oxygenated tumor regions, the delivered dose should, in principle, be escalated by a factor equal to the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER). The theoretically required hypoxia-targeted dose escalation could be as large as 100% because it has been estimated that hypoxic tumor regions may have an OER = 2 for conventional fractionation. However, our results indicate that clinically acceptable values of the TCP would require much lower hypoxia-targeted dose escalation (<50%) when the effects of total and hypoxic tumor volumes are taken into account. CONCLUSIONS: The reported studies and models suggest that the effect of total tumor volume on the TCP is negligible for oxygenated head and neck and non-small cell lung tumors treated with conventional fractionation. According to our simulations, the volume effects in the TCP observed in clinical studies are defined primarily by the hypoxic volume. This information can be useful for the analysis of treatment outcomes and the dose escalation to target tumor hypoxia.

10.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 43(8): 545-552, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404596

RESUMO

AIM/OBJECTIVES/BACKGROUND: To standardize the practice of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) cooperatively developed the practice parameter for SBRT. SBRT is a treatment technique that delivers radiation dose to a well-defined extracranial target in 5 fractions or less and usually employs a higher dose per fraction than used in conventional radiation. METHODS: The ACR-ASTRO Practice Parameter for the Performance of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy was revised according to the process described on the ACR website ("The Process for Developing ACR Practice Parameters and Technical Standards," www.acr.org/ClinicalResources/Practice-Parameters-and-Technical-Standards) by the Committee on Practice Parameters of the ACR Commission on Radiation Oncology in collaboration with the ASTRO. Both societies then reviewed and approved the document. RESULTS: Given the complexities of SBRT, a separate document was created to develop a technical standard for the medical physics of SBRT (ACR-AAPM Technical Standard for Medical Physics Performance Monitoring of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy). Workflow, qualifications and responsibilities of personnel, specifications, documentation, quality control/safety/improvement, simulation/treatment, and follow-up were addressed in this practice parameter. CONCLUSIONS: This practice parameter assists practitioners in providing safe and appropriate SBRT treatment and care for patients when clinically indicated. As technologies and techniques continue to evolve, this document will be reviewed, revised and renewed accordingly to a 5 year or sooner timeline specified by the ACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia/normas , Humanos
11.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(7): 482, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32395526

RESUMO

Background: Bones are one of the most common metastatic sites for solid malignancies. Bone metastases can significantly increase mortality and decrease the quality of life of cancer patients. In the United States, around 350,000 people die each year from bone metastases. This study aimed to analyze and update the incidence and prognosis of bone metastases with solid tumors at the time of cancer diagnosis and its incidence rate for each solid cancer. Methods: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to find patients diagnosed with solid cancers originating from outside the bones and joints between 2010 and 2016. Data were stratified by age, sex, and race. Patients with a tumor in situ or with an unknown bone metastases stage were excluded. We then selected most of the sites where cancer often occurred, leaving 2,207,796 patients for the final incidence analysis. For the survival analysis, patients were excluded if they were diagnosed at their autopsy or on their death certificate, or had unknown follow-ups. The incidence of bone metastases and overall survival was compared between patients with different primary tumor sites. Results: We identified 2,470,634 patients, including 426,594 patients with metastatic disease and 113,317 patients with bone metastases, for incidence analysis. The incidence of bone metastases among the metastatic subset was 88.74% in prostate cancer, 53.71% in breast cancer, and 38.65% in renal cancer. In descending order of incidence, there were patients with other cancers in the genitourinary system (except for renal, bladder, prostate, and testicular cancer) (37.91%), adenocarcinoma of the lung (ADC) (36.86%), other gynecologic cancers (36.02%), small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) (34.56%), non-small cell lung cancer not otherwise specified and others [NSCLC (NOS/others)] (33.55%), and bladder (31.08%) cancers. The rate of bone metastases is 23.19% in SCLC, 22.50% in NSCLC (NOS/others), 20.28% in ADC, 8.44% in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung (SCC), and 4.11% in bronchioloalveolar carcinoma [NSCLC (BAC)]. As for the digestive system, the overall bone metastases rate was 7.99% in the esophagus, 4.47% in the gastric cancer, 4.42% in the hepatobiliary cancer, 3.80% in the pancreas, 3.26% in other digestive organs, 1.24% in the colorectum, and 1.00% in the anus. Overall, the incidence rate of bone metastases among the entire cohort in breast and prostate cancer was 3.73% and 5.69%, respectively. Conclusions: The results of this study provide population-based estimates for the incidence rates of patients with bone metastases at initial diagnosis of their solid tumor. The findings can help clinicians to early detect bone metastases by bone screening to anticipate the occurrence of symptoms and favorably improve the prognosis.

12.
Brachytherapy ; 19(4): 401-411, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359937

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to highlight the importance of timely brachytherapy treatment for patients with gynecologic, breast, and prostate malignancies, and provide a framework for brachytherapy clinical practice and management in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We review amassing evidence to help guide the management and timing of brachytherapy for gynecologic, breast, and prostate cancers. Where concrete data could not be found, peer-reviewed expert opinion is provided. RESULTS: There may be a significant negative impact on oncologic outcomes for patients with gynecologic malignancies who have a delay in the timely completion of therapy. Delay of prostate or breast cancer treatment may also impact oncologic outcomes. If a treatment delay is expected, endocrine therapy may be an appropriate temporizing measure before delivery of radiation therapy. The use of shorter brachytherapy fractionation schedules will help minimize patient exposure and conserve resources. CONCLUSIONS: Brachytherapy remains a critical treatment for patients and may shorten treatment time and exposure for some. Reduced patient exposure and resource utilization is important during COVID-19. Every effort should be made to ensure timely brachytherapy delivery for patients with gynecologic malignancies, and endocrine therapy may help temporize treatment delays for breast and prostate cancer patients. Physicians should continue to follow developing institutional, state, and federal guidelines/recommendations as challenges in delivering care during COVID-19 will continue to evolve.


Assuntos
Braquiterapia , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/radioterapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Betacoronavirus , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo para o Tratamento
13.
Pract Radiat Oncol ; 2020 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461036

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Radiation therapy for mesothelioma remains challenging, as normal tissue toxicity limits the amount of radiation that can be safely delivered to the pleural surfaces, especially radiation dose to the contralateral lung. The physical properties of proton therapy result in better sparing of normal tissues when treating the pleura, both in the postpneumonectomy setting and the lung-intact setting. Compared with photon radiation, there are dramatic reductions in dose to the contralateral lung, heart, liver, kidneys, and stomach. However, the tissue heterogeneity in the thorax, organ motion, and potential for changing anatomy during the treatment course all present challenges to optimal irradiation with protons. METHODS: The clinical data underlying proton therapy in mesothelioma are reviewed here, including indications, advantages, and limitations. RESULTS: The Particle Therapy Cooperative Group Thoracic Subcommittee task group provides specific guidelines for the use of proton therapy for mesothelioma. CONCLUSIONS: This consensus report can be used to guide clinical practice, insurance approval, and future research.

14.
Radiother Oncol ; 146: 223-229, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused radiotherapy resource pressures and led to increased risks for lung cancer patients and healthcare staff. An international group of experts in lung cancer radiotherapy established this practice recommendation pertaining to whether and how to adapt radiotherapy for lung cancer in the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: For this ESTRO & ASTRO endorsed project, 32 experts in lung cancer radiotherapy contributed to a modified Delphi consensus process. We assessed potential adaptations of radiotherapy in two pandemic scenarios. The first, an early pandemic scenario of risk mitigation, is characterized by an altered risk-benefit ratio of radiotherapy for lung cancer patients due to their increased susceptibility for severe COVID-19 infection, and minimization of patient travelling and exposure of radiotherapy staff. The second, a later pandemic scenario, is characterized by reduced radiotherapy resources requiring patient triage. Six common lung cancer cases were assessed for both scenarios: peripherally located stage I NSCLC, locally advanced NSCLC, postoperative radiotherapy after resection of pN2 NSCLC, thoracic radiotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation for limited stage SCLC and palliative thoracic radiotherapy for stage IV NSCLC. RESULTS: In a risk-mitigation pandemic scenario, efforts should be made not to compromise the prognosis of lung cancer patients by departing from guideline-recommended radiotherapy practice. In that same scenario, postponement or interruption of radiotherapy treatment of COVID-19 positive patients is generally recommended to avoid exposure of cancer patients and staff to an increased risk of COVID-19 infection. In a severe pandemic scenario characterized by reduced resources, if patients must be triaged, important factors for triage include potential for cure, relative benefit of radiation, life expectancy, and performance status. Case-specific consensus recommendations regarding multimodality treatment strategies and fractionation of radiotherapy are provided. CONCLUSION: This joint ESTRO-ASTRO practice recommendation established pragmatic and balanced consensus recommendations in common clinical scenarios of radiotherapy for lung cancer in order to address the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Consenso , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Técnica Delfos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos
17.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 18(2): 120-131, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023525

RESUMO

The NCCN Guidelines for Uveal Melanoma include recommendations for staging, treatment, and follow-up of patients diagnosed with uveal melanoma of the choroid or ciliary body. In addition, because distinguishing between uveal melanoma and benign uveal nevi is in some cases difficult, these guidelines also contain recommendations for workup of patients with suspicious pigmented uveal lesions, to clarify the tests needed to distinguish between those who should have further workup and treatment for uveal melanoma versus those with uncertain diagnosis and low risk who should to be followed and later reevaluated. These NCCN Guidelines Insights describe recommendations for treatment of newly diagnosed nonmetastatic uveal melanoma in patients who have already undergone a complete workup.

18.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 108(3): 635-643, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035187

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our purpose was to compare dosimetric parameters and late gastrointestinal outcomes between patients treated with proton beam therapy (PBT) for localized prostate cancer with rectal balloon immobilization versus a hydrogel rectal spacer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with localized, clinical stage T1-4 prostate adenocarcinoma were treated at a single institution using conventionally fractionated, dose-escalated PBT from 2013 to 2018. Patient-reported gastrointestinal toxicity was prospectively collected, and the incidence of rectal bleeding was retrospectively reviewed from patient records. RESULTS: One hundred ninety-two patients were treated with rectal balloon immobilization, and 75 were treated with a rectal spacer. Rectal hydrogel spacer significantly improved rectal dosimetry while maintaining excellent target coverage. The 2-year actuarial rate of grade 2+ late rectal bleeding was 19% and 3% in the rectal balloon and hydrogel spacer groups, respectively (P = .003). In univariable analysis, the probability of grade 2+ rectal bleeding was significantly correlated with increasing rectal dose. In multivariable analysis, only receipt of spacer hydrogel (hazard ratio, 0.145; P = .010) and anticoagulation use (hazard ratio, 5.019; P < .001) were significantly associated with grade 2+ bleeding. At 2-year follow-up, patient-reported Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite bowel quality of life composite scores were less diminished in the hydrogel spacer group (absolute mean difference, 5.5; P = .030). CONCLUSIONS: Use of rectal hydrogel spacer for prostate PBT is associated with a significantly lower incidence of clinically relevant, late rectal bleeding and lower decrement in long-term, patient-reported bowel quality of life compared with rectal balloon immobilization. Our results suggest that hydrogel spacer may improve rectal sparing compared with rectal balloon immobilization during PBT for prostate cancer.

19.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 43(3): 149-159, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028342

RESUMO

AIM/OBJECTIVES/BACKGROUND: The American College of Radiology (ACR) and the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) have jointly developed the following practice parameter for proton beam radiation therapy. Proton radiotherapy is the application of a high-energy proton beam to a patient in a clinical setting with therapeutic intent. Proton radiotherapy may permit improved therapeutic ratios with lower doses to sensitive normal structures and greater dose to target tumor tissues. METHODS: A literature search was performed to identify published articles regarding clinical outcomes, reviews, quality assurance methodologies, and guidelines and standards for proton radiation therapy. Selected articles are referenced in the text. The following recommendations are based on firsthand experiences of multiple clinical authorities who employ proton therapy and have been peer reviewed by experts at different practicing institutions. RESULTS: This practice parameter is developed to serve as a tool in the appropriate application of this evolving technology in the care of cancer patients or other patients with conditions where radiation therapy is indicated. It addresses clinical implementation of proton radiation therapy, including personnel qualifications, quality assurance standards, indications, and suggested documentation. CONCLUSIONS: This practice parameter is a tool to guide technical use of proton therapy and does not assess the relative clinical indication of proton radiotherapy when compared with other forms of radiotherapy, but to focus on the best practices required to deliver proton therapy safely and effectively, when clinically indicated. Costs of proton treatments are high, and the economic costs of proton radiotherapy may also need to be considered.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/radioterapia , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Terapia com Prótons/normas , Humanos
20.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 106(3): 639-647, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983560

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We sought to develop a quality surveillance program for approximately 15,000 US veterans treated at the 40 radiation oncology facilities at the Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals each year. METHODS AND MATERIALS: State-of-the-art technologies were used with the goal to improve clinical outcomes while providing the best possible care to veterans. To measure quality of care and service rendered to veterans, the Veterans Health Administration established the VA Radiation Oncology Quality Surveillance program. The program carries forward the American College of Radiology Quality Research in Radiation Oncology project methodology of assessing the wide variation in practice pattern and quality of care in radiation therapy by developing clinical quality measures (QM) used as quality indices. These QM data provide feedback to physicians by identifying areas for improvement in the process of care and identifying the adoption of evidence-based recommendations for radiation therapy. RESULTS: Disease-site expert panels organized by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) defined quality measures and established scoring criteria for prostate cancer (intermediate and high risk), non-small cell lung cancer (IIIA/B stage), and small cell lung cancer (limited stage) case presentations. Data elements for 1567 patients from the 40 VA radiation oncology practices were abstracted from the electronic medical records and treatment management and planning systems. Overall, the 1567 assessed cases passed 82.4% of all QM. Pass rates for QM for the 773 lung and 794 prostate cases were 78.0% and 87.2%, respectively. Marked variations, however, were noted in the pass rates for QM when tumor site, clinical pathway, or performing centers were separately examined. CONCLUSIONS: The peer-review protected VA-Radiation Oncology Surveillance program based on clinical quality measures allows providers to compare their clinical practice to peers and to make meaningful adjustments in their personal patterns of care unobtrusively.


Assuntos
Institutos de Câncer/normas , Hospitais de Veteranos/normas , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/normas , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Masculino , Revisão por Pares , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/normas , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Melhoria de Qualidade/normas , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/radioterapia , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Estados Unidos , Veteranos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...