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1.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(9): 11-12, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. It is known from various parts of India. However Central India was naive to any epidemics of scrub typhus with occasional and sporadic occurrence now and then. This part of India witnessed an outbreak of scrub typhus in the months of August and September 2018. Therefore present research was carried out with an objective to study the clinical profile and treatment outcome in scrub typhus patients in central India. METHOD: In this study, total 140 patients with an acute febrile illness diagnosed as scrub typhus by positive IgM antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi were enrolled, over a period of two months (August to October 2018). All relevant data were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: Among 140 cases, 52.14% patients reported from urban area and 47.85% patients from rural area. The mean age of patients was 43.75±16.82 years, ranged from 12-83 years with female predominance (male: female-1:1.37). Fever (100%), cough (38.57%) breathlessness (27.85%), altered sensorium (9.28%) and headache (7.85%) were the predominant clinical features. Eschar was seen in 33 patients (23.57 %). Renal (73; 52.14%) and hepatic dysfunction (68; 48.57%) was the commonest followed by respiratory dysfunction (59; 42.14%). All patients (except pregnant patients) were treated with oral or inj doxycycline. Seventeen patients needed mechanical ventilation and five patients required dialysis. Total 24 (17.14%) patients died during the study period. CONCLUSION: Scrub typhus has become a leading infectious disease in central India and an important cause of infectious fever. An increasing awareness of this disease coupled with prompt management will go a long way in reducing both morbidity and mortality from this disease.


Assuntos
Orientia tsutsugamushi , Tifo por Ácaros , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Doxiciclina , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tifo por Ácaros/diagnóstico , Tifo por Ácaros/tratamento farmacológico , Tifo por Ácaros/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
2.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 6: 1684-1695, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156719

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Infections remain a major challenge in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Induction-related mortality reported in the literature is approximately < 5% in clinical trials. However, the real-world scenario is different, especially in developing countries, given the high incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms, high incidence of fungal pneumonia at baseline, and significant delay before initiation of chemotherapy. We aimed to look at contemporary infections and infection-related mortality and analyze the patterns of infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at a large tertiary care oncology center in India. Patients with newly diagnosed AML who were older than age 15 years, considered fit for intensive therapy, and treated in the general wards of the adult hematolymphoid unit from March 1, 2014, until December 31, 2015, were included. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-one patients were treated during the study period. The most common presenting complaint was fever (85%). The focus of infection at presentation was found in 63% of patients, with respiratory infection being the most common (47%). MDR organisms were isolated in 55% of patients during induction from various foci. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most common blood culture isolate (42.9%). Fungal pneumonia was diagnosed in 55% of patients during induction despite antifungal prophylaxis. Treatment-related mortality was 10.7% in all phases, with an induction mortality rate of 7.4%. Complete remission was attained in 69% of patients. Of all patients who received induction chemotherapy, 74% completed all three consolidation cycles. The 121 patients were followed up for a median period of 53 months. Four-year event-free survival was 35.8%, and 4-year overall survival was 41.5%. CONCLUSION: Infections and infection-related mortality are major challenges during AML induction. Gram-negative MDR and fungal infections are particularly common in our region.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090916

RESUMO

Purpose: There is lack of consensus on management of adolescent and young adult (AYA) Hodgkin lymphoma with respect to chemotherapy approach (adult or pediatric). Hence we sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vinblastine and Dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy in AYA Hodgkin lymphoma. Patients and Methods: It is a retrospective, observational, single-center study. From January 2013 to December 2016, all consecutive patients with AYA (15-25 years, all stages) were analyzed. The primary endpoint of the study was event-free survival (EFS). Secondary endpoints were complete response rates (CR) and overall survival (OS). Results: A total of 220 patients (70% men) with median age 20 years were evaluated. A significant proportion of patients had adverse features such as stage III/IV disease (63%), bulky disease (63%), extranodal involvement (37%), and marrow involvement (22%). After two cycles and end of therapy, 77% patients achieved complete response. Primary progressive disease was seen in 6% patients. With a median follow-up of 2.6 years, 19 (8.6%) patients relapsed, 1 patient developed second malignancy, and 6 patients died. Three-year EFS and OS were 81.3% and 97%, respectively. Bleomycin-induced lung injury was seen in 16% patients. On multivariate analysis stage at presentation, bone marrow involvement, partial response at interim positron emission tomography and International prognosis score (IPS) >3 were predictors of poor EFS. Conclusion: ABVD is an effective and safe regimen in AYA Hodgkin lymphoma. Advanced disease with high IPS (>3) score needs an early escalation approach to escBEACOPP regimen.

4.
Curr Hematol Malig Rep ; 15(3): 168-176, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542586

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The treatment landscape of treatment-naive chronic lymphocytic leukemia (TN-CLL) is rapidly evolving. As more and more new drugs and combinations are becoming part of therapeutic armamentarium, it becomes highly pertinent to understand the evidence for each of the treatment options to select the right drug for the right patient. We summarize the recent data of the available frontline treatment options. RECENT FINDINGS: The novel agents can overcome adverse biological attributes and provide long-term disease control. MRD may become a reliable surrogate for survival in the evaluation of future therapies. FCR still remains one of the best options in a young fit CLL with mutated IGVH. Long-term follow-up data of ibrutinib confirm its efficacy and safety in both high-risk and elderly TN-CLL patients. A combination of venetoclax with obinutuzumab has provided the hope of fixed-duration therapy and the potential for functional cure in TN-CLL. Several other trials testing the efficacy of other targeted agents and the optimal sequencing approaches are underway. Chemoimmunotherapy holds its ground as an effective treatment in the IGVH-mutated CLL. The targeted agents either singly or in combination have become standard of care in many subsets of TN-CLL.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia/mortalidade , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/imunologia , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/mortalidade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Fatores de Tempo , Transplante Homólogo
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