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1.
Eur Respir J ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439683

RESUMO

The characteristics that predict progression to overt COPD in smokers without spirometric airflow obstruction are not clearly defined.We conducted a post-hoc analysis of 849 current and former smokers (≥20 pack-years) with preserved spirometry from the SPIROMICS cohort who had baseline computed tomography (CT) scans of lungs and serial spirometry. We examined whether CT-derived lung volumes representing air trapping could predict adverse respiratory outcomes and more rapid decline in spirometry to overt COPD using mixed effect linear modelling.Among these subjects with normal forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity ratio (FEV1/FVC), CT-measured residual volume to total lung capacity ratio (RVCT/TLCCT) varied widely, from 21% to 59%. Over 2.5±0.7 years of follow-up, subjects with higher RVCT/TLCCT had a greater differential rate of decline in FEV1/FVC; those in the upper RVCT/TLCCT tertile had a 0.66% [95%CI=0.06%-1.27%] faster rate of decline per year compared to those in the lower tertile (p=0.015) regardless of demographics, baseline spirometry, respiratory symptoms score, smoking status (former versus current), or smoking burden (pack-years). Accordingly, subjects with higher RVCT/TLCCT were more likely to develop spirometric COPD (odds ratio=5.7 [95%CI=2.4-13.2] in upper versus lower RVCT/TLCCTtertile; p<0.001). Other CT indices of air trapping showed similar patterns of association with lung function decline; however, when all CT indices of air trapping, emphysema, and airway disease were included in the same model, only RVCT/TLCCT retained its significance.Increased air trapping based on radiographic lung volumes predicts accelerated spirometry decline and progression to COPD in smokers without obstruction.

2.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 153, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quantitative computed tomographic (QCT) imaging-based metrics enable to quantify smoking induced disease alterations and to identify imaging-based clusters for current smokers. We aimed to derive clinically meaningful sub-groups of former smokers using dimensional reduction and clustering methods to develop a new way of COPD phenotyping. METHODS: An imaging-based cluster analysis was performed for 406 former smokers with a comprehensive set of imaging metrics including 75 imaging-based metrics. They consisted of structural and functional variables at 10 segmental and 5 lobar locations. The structural variables included lung shape, branching angle, airway-circularity, airway-wall-thickness, airway diameter; the functional variables included regional ventilation, emphysema percentage, functional small airway disease percentage, Jacobian (volume change), anisotropic deformation index (directional preference in volume change), and tissue fractions at inspiration and expiration. RESULTS: We derived four distinct imaging-based clusters as possible phenotypes with the sizes of 100, 80, 141, and 85, respectively. Cluster 1 subjects were asymptomatic and showed relatively normal airway structure and lung function except airway wall thickening and moderate emphysema. Cluster 2 subjects populated with obese females showed an increase of tissue fraction at inspiration, minimal emphysema, and the lowest progression rate of emphysema. Cluster 3 subjects populated with older males showed small airway narrowing and a decreased tissue fraction at expiration, both indicating air-trapping. Cluster 4 subjects populated with lean males were likely to be severe COPD subjects showing the highest progression rate of emphysema. CONCLUSIONS: QCT imaging-based metrics for former smokers allow for the derivation of statistically stable clusters associated with unique clinical characteristics. This approach helps better categorization of COPD sub-populations; suggesting possible quantitative structural and functional phenotypes.

3.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 100, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cachexia is associated with increased mortality risk among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. However, low body mass index (BMI) as opposed to cachexia is often used, particularly when calculating the BODE (BMI, Obstruction, Dyspnea and Exercise) index. For this reason, we examined mortality using a consensus definition and a weight-loss definition of cachexia among COPD cases and compared two new COPD severity indices with BODE. METHODS: In the current report, the consensus definition for cachexia incorporated weight-loss > 5% in 12-months or low BMI in addition to 3/5 of decreased muscle strength, fatigue, anorexia, low FFMI and inflammation. The weight-loss definition incorporated weight-loss > 5% or weight-loss > 2% (if low BMI) in 12-months. The low BMI component in BODE was replaced with the consensus definition to create the CODE (Consensus cachexia, Obstruction, Dyspnea and Exercise) index and the weight-loss definition to create the WODE (Weight loss, Obstruction, Dyspnea and Exercise) index. Mortality was assessed using Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox Regression. Performance of models was compared using C-statistics. RESULTS: Among 1483 COPD cases, the prevalences of cachexia by the consensus and weight-loss definitions were 4.7 and 10.4%, respectively. Cachectic patients had a greater than three-fold increased mortality by either the consensus or the weight-loss definition of cachexia independent of BMI and lung function. The CODE index predicted mortality slightly more accurately than the BODE and WODE indices. CONCLUSIONS: Cachexia is associated with increased mortality among COPD patients. Monitoring cachexia using weight-loss criteria is relatively simple and predictive of mortality among COPD cases who may be missed if only low BMI is used.

4.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 494-505, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804561

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the leading cause of respiratory mortality worldwide. Genetic risk loci provide new insights into disease pathogenesis. We performed a genome-wide association study in 35,735 cases and 222,076 controls from the UK Biobank and additional studies from the International COPD Genetics Consortium. We identified 82 loci associated with P < 5 × 10-8; 47 of these were previously described in association with either COPD or population-based measures of lung function. Of the remaining 35 new loci, 13 were associated with lung function in 79,055 individuals from the SpiroMeta consortium. Using gene expression and regulation data, we identified functional enrichment of COPD risk loci in lung tissue, smooth muscle, and several lung cell types. We found 14 COPD loci shared with either asthma or pulmonary fibrosis. COPD genetic risk loci clustered into groups based on associations with quantitative imaging features and comorbidities. Our analyses provide further support for the genetic susceptibility and heterogeneity of COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fumar/genética
5.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 16(4): 439-446, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30653926

RESUMO

RATIONALE: There is an unmet need to investigate the lower airways in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to define pathogenesis and to identify potential markers to accelerate therapeutic development. Although bronchoscopy is well established to sample airways in various conditions, a comprehensive COPD research protocol has yet to be published. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and tolerability of a comprehensive research bronchoscopy procedure suitable for multicenter trials and to identify factors associated with adverse events. METHODS: We report the detailed methodology used to conduct the bronchoscopy used in SPIROMICS (the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study). The protocol entailed collection of tongue scrapings and oral rinses as well as bronchoscopy with airway inspection, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), protected brushings, and endobronchial biopsies. Visual airway characteristics were graded on a scale of 0 (normal appearance) to 3 (severe abnormality) in four domains: erythema, edema, secretions, and friability. Adverse events were defined as events requiring intervention. Logistic regression modeling assessed associations between adverse event occurrence and key variables. RESULTS: We enrolled 215 participants. They were 61 ± 9 years old, 71% were white, 53% were male, and post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second was 89 ± 19% predicted. Self-reported asthma was present in 22% of bronchoscopy participants. Oral samples were obtained in greater than or equal to 99% of participants. Airway characteristics were recorded in 99% and were most often characterized as free of edema (61.9%). Less than 50% reported secretions, friability, or erythema. BAL yielded 111 ± 57 ml (50%) of the 223 ± 65 ml of infusate, brushes were completed in 98%, and endobronchial biopsies were performed in 82% of procedures. Adverse events requiring intervention occurred in 14 (6.7%) of 208 bronchoscopies. In logistic regression models, female sex (risk ratio [RR], 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.19), self-reported asthma (RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.02-1.34), bronchodilator reversibility (RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.04-1.32), COPD (RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.02-1.20), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (RR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-0.99), and secretions (RR, 1.85; 1.08-3.16) or friability (RR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.04-2.57) observed during bronchoscopy were associated with adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: A research bronchoscopy procedure that includes oral sampling, BAL, endobronchial biopsy, and brushing can be safely performed. Airway characteristics during bronchoscopy, demographics, asthma or COPD, and lung function may convey increased risk for procedure-related events necessitating intervention.

7.
Acta Physiol (Oxf) ; : e13217, 2018 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30414317

RESUMO

AIMS: Coupling between walking and breathing in humans is well established. In healthy systems, the ability to couple and uncouple leads to energy economization. It is unknown if physiologic efficiency is susceptible to alteration particularly in individuals with airflow obstruction. The aim of this research to determine if coupling was compromised in a disease characterized by abnormal airflow and dyspnea, and if this was associated with reduced energy efficiency. METHODS: As a model of airflow obstruction, 17 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and 23 control subjects were included and walked on a treadmill for six-minutes at three speeds (preferred speed and ±20% preferred speed) while energy expenditure, breathing, and walking were recorded. Rating of perceived exertion was recorded at the end of each walking trial. The most commonly used frequency ratio (i.e. strides:breath) and cross recurrence quantification analysis were used to quantify coupling. Linear regression models were used to determine associations. RESULTS: Less complex frequency ratios, simpler ratios, (i.e. 1:1 and 3:2) accompanied with stronger coupling were moderately associated with increased energy expenditure in COPD subjects. This was found for all three speeds. CONCLUSION: The novel finding was that increased energy expenditure was associated with stronger and less complex coupling. Increased effort is needed when utilizing a frequency ratio of 1:1 or 3:2. The more stable the coupling, the more effort it takes to walk. In contrast to the complex energy efficient coupling of controls, those with airflow obstruction manifested simpler and stronger coupling associated with reduced energy efficiency. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

8.
Respir Res ; 19(1): 178, 2018 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30227877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Classification of COPD is usually based on the severity of airflow, which may not sensitively differentiate subpopulations. Using a multiscale imaging-based cluster analysis (MICA), we aim to identify subpopulations for current smokers with COPD. METHODS: Among the SPIROMICS subjects, we analyzed computed tomography images at total lung capacity (TLC) and residual volume (RV) of 284 current smokers. Functional variables were derived from registration of TLC and RV images, e.g. functional small airways disease (fSAD%). Structural variables were assessed at TLC images, e.g. emphysema and airway wall thickness and diameter. We employed an unsupervised method for clustering. RESULTS: Four clusters were identified. Cluster 1 had relatively normal airway structures; Cluster 2 had an increase of fSAD% and wall thickness; Cluster 3 exhibited a further increase of fSAD% but a decrease of wall thickness and airway diameter; Cluster 4 had a significant increase of fSAD% and emphysema. Clinically, Cluster 1 showed normal FEV1/FVC and low exacerbations. Cluster 4 showed relatively low FEV1/FVC and high exacerbations. While Cluster 2 and Cluster 3 showed similar exacerbations, Cluster 2 had the highest BMI among all clusters. CONCLUSIONS: Association of imaging-based clusters with existing clinical metrics suggests the sensitivity of MICA in differentiating subpopulations.

9.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(21): 3801-3812, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30060175

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), one of the leading causes of death worldwide, is substantially influenced by genetic factors. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency demonstrates that rare coding variants of large effect can influence COPD susceptibility. To identify additional rare coding variants in patients with severe COPD, we conducted whole exome sequencing analysis in 2543 subjects from two family-based studies (Boston Early-Onset COPD Study and International COPD Genetics Network) and one case-control study (COPDGene). Applying a gene-based segregation test in the family-based data, we identified significant segregation of rare loss of function variants in TBC1D10A and RFPL1 (P-value < 2x10-6), but were unable to find similar variants in the case-control study. In single-variant, gene-based and pathway association analyses, we were unable to find significant findings that replicated or were significant in meta-analysis. However, we found that the top results in the two datasets were in proximity to each other in the protein-protein interaction network (P-value = 0.014), suggesting enrichment of these results for similar biological processes. A network of these association results and their neighbors was significantly enriched in the transforming growth factor beta-receptor binding and cilia-related pathways. Finally, in a more detailed examination of candidate genes, we identified individuals with putative high-risk variants, including patients harboring homozygous mutations in genes associated with cutis laxa and Niemann-Pick Disease Type C. Our results likely reflect heterogeneity of genetic risk for COPD along with limitations of statistical power and functional annotation, and highlight the potential of network analysis to gain insight into genetic association studies.

10.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 198(10): 1268-1278, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29763572

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Roflumilast reduces exacerbations in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with chronic bronchitis and a history of exacerbations. Further characterization of patients most likely to benefit is warranted. OBJECTIVES: Define characteristics that most robustly identify patients who derive greatest exacerbation risk reduction with roflumilast. METHODS: Predefined, pooled analyses of REACT (Roflumilast in the Prevention of COPD Exacerbations While Taking Appropriate Combination Treatment; NCT01329029) and RE2SPOND (Roflumilast Effect on Exacerbations in Patients on Dual [LABA/ICS] Therapy; NCT01443845) multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. The primary endpoint was rate of moderate or severe exacerbations per patient per year. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In the overall intention-to-treat population (n = 4,287), roflumilast reduced moderate or severe exacerbations by 12.3% (rate ratio, 0.88, 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.97; P = 0.0086) and severe exacerbations by 16.1% (0.84; 0.71-0.99; P = 0.0409) versus placebo. The reduction in moderate or severe exacerbations with roflumilast was most pronounced in patients who had been hospitalized for an exacerbation in the prior year (0.74; 0.63-0.88; P = 0.0005); had more than two exacerbations in the prior year (0.79; 0.65-0.96; P = 0.0160); or had baseline eosinophils ≥150 cells/µl (0.81; 0.71-0.93; P = 0.0020), ≥150 to <300 cells/µl (0.84; 0.71-0.98; P = 0.0282), or ≥300 cells/µl (0.77; 0.61-0.97; P = 0.0264). Similar subgroup results were noted for severe exacerbations. In patients with prior hospitalization and higher baseline blood eosinophil concentrations, roflumilast reduced moderate or severe exacerbations by 34.5% at ≥150 cells/µl (0.65; 0.52-0.82; P = 0.0003) and 42.7% at ≥300 cells/µl (0.57; 0.37-0.88; P = 0.0111) versus placebo. CONCLUSIONS: This prespecified, pooled analysis confirms the benefit of roflumilast in decreasing exacerbations in patients with prior hospitalization for exacerbation, greater exacerbation frequency, and higher (≥150 cells/µl, ≥150 to <300 cells/µl, or ≥300 cells/µl) baseline blood eosinophil count.

11.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 13: 1009-1019, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29628759

RESUMO

Background: p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) plays a central role in the regulation and activation of pro-inflammatory mediators. COPD patients have increased levels of activated p38 MAPK, which correlate with increased lung function impairment, alveolar wall inflammation, and COPD exacerbations. Objectives: These studies aimed to assess the effect of p38 inhibition with AZD7624 in healthy volunteers and patients with COPD. The principal hypothesis was that decreasing lung inflammation via inhibition of p38α would reduce exacerbations and improve quality of life for COPD patients at high risk for acute exacerbations. Methods: The p38 isoform most relevant to lung inflammation was assessed using an in situ proximity ligation assay in severe COPD patients and donor controls. Volunteers aged 18-55 years were randomized into the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge study, which investigated the effect of a single dose of AZD7624 vs placebo on inflammatory biomarkers. The Proof of Principle study randomized patients aged 40-85 years with a diagnosis of COPD for >1 year to AZD7624 or placebo to assess the effect of p38 inhibition in decreasing the rate of exacerbations. Results: The p38 isoform most relevant to lung inflammation was p38α, and AZD7624 specifically inhibited p38α and p38ß isoforms in human alveolar macrophages. Thirty volunteers were randomized in the LPS challenge study. AZD7624 reduced the increase from baseline in sputum neutrophils and TNF-α by 56.6% and 85.4%, respectively (p<0.001). In the 213 patients randomized into the Proof of Principle study, there was no statistically significant difference between AZD7624 and placebo when comparing the number of days to the first moderate or severe exacerbation or early dropout. Conclusion: Although p38α is upregulated in the lungs of COPD patients, AZD7624, an isoform-specific inhaled p38 MAPK inhibitor, failed to show any benefit in patients with COPD.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Quinase 14 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Benzamidas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Cross-Over , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/enzimologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Alveolares/enzimologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína Quinase 14 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/enzimologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Pirazinas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
Lancet Respir Med ; 6(2): 117-126, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29331313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The peripheral blood eosinophil count might help identify those patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who will experience fewer exacerbations when taking inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Previous post-hoc analyses have proposed eosinophil cutoffs that are both arbitrary and limited in evaluating complex interactions of treatment response. We modelled eosinophil count as a continuous variable to determine the characteristics that determine both exacerbation risk and clinical response to ICS in patients with COPD. METHODS: We analysed data from three AstraZeneca randomised controlled trials of budesonide-formoterol in patients with COPD with a history of exacerbations and available blood eosinophil counts. Patients with any history of asthma were excluded. Negative binomial regression analysis was done using splines for modelling of continuous variables to study the primary outcome of annual exacerbation rate adjusted for exposure time and study design. The trials are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00206167, NCT00206154, and NCT00419744. FINDINGS: 4528 patients were studied. A non-linear increase in exacerbations occurred with increasing eosinophil count in patients who received formoterol alone. At eosinophil counts of 0·10 × 109 cells per L or more, a significant treatment effect was recorded for exacerbation reduction with budesonide-formoterol compared with formoterol alone (rate ratio 0·75, 95% CI 0·57-0·99; pinteraction=0·015). Interactions were observed between eosinophil count and the treatment effects of budesonide-formoterol over formoterol on St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (pinteraction=0·0043) and pre-bronchodilator FEV1 (linear effect p<0·0001, pinteraction=0·067). Only eosinophil count and smoking history were independent predictors of response to budesonide-formoterol in reducing exacerbations (eosinophil count, pinteraction=0·013; smoking history, pinteraction=0·015). INTERPRETATION: In patients with COPD treated with formoterol, blood eosinophil count predicts exacerbation risk and the clinical response to ICS. FUNDING: AstraZeneca.


Assuntos
Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Budesonida/uso terapêutico , Eosinófilos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Broncodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Broncodilatadores/sangue , Budesonida/efeitos adversos , Budesonida/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Terapêutica
14.
Thorax ; 73(5): 414-421, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29326298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is the strongest risk factor for COPD. Smoking burden is frequently measured in pack-years, but the relative contribution of cigarettes smoked per day versus duration towards the development of structural lung disease, airflow obstruction and functional outcomes is not known. METHODS: We analysed cross-sectional data from a large multicentre cohort (COPDGene) of current and former smokers. Primary outcome was airflow obstruction (FEV1/FVC); secondary outcomes included five additional measures of disease: FEV1, CT emphysema, CT gas trapping, functional capacity (6 min walk distance, 6MWD) and respiratory morbidity (St George's Respiratory Questionnaire, SGRQ). Generalised linear models were estimated to compare the relative contribution of each smoking variable with the outcomes, after adjustment for age, race, sex, body mass index, CT scanner, centre, age of smoking onset and current smoking status. We also estimated adjusted means of each outcome by categories of pack-years and combined groups of categorised smoking duration and cigarettes/day, and estimated linear trends of adjusted means for each outcome by categorised cigarettes/day, smoking duration and pack-years. RESULTS: 10 187 subjects were included. For FEV1/FVC, standardised beta coefficient for smoking duration was greater than for cigarettes/day and pack-years (P<0.001). After categorisation, there was a linear increase in adjusted means FEV1/FVC with increase in pack-years (regression coefficient ß=-0.023±SE0.003; P=0.003) and duration over all ranges of smoking cigarettes/day (ß=-0.041±0.004; P<0.001) but a relatively flat slope for cigarettes/day across all ranges of smoking duration (ß=-0.009±0.0.009; P=0.34). Strength of association of duration was similarly greater than pack-years for emphysema, gas trapping, FEV1, 6MWD and SGRQ. CONCLUSION: Smoking duration alone provides stronger risk estimates of COPD than the composite index of pack-years. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Post-results; NCT00608764.

15.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 32(3)2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28975688

RESUMO

The differences among individual eicosanoids in eliciting different physiological and pathological responses are largely unknown because of the lack of valid and simple analytical methods for the quantification of individual eicosanoids and their metabolites in serum, sputum and bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Therefore, a simple and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of 34 eicosanoids in human serum, sputum and BALF was developed and validated. This method is valid and sensitive with a limit of quantification ranging from 0.2 to 3 ng/mL for the various analytes, and has a large dynamic range (500 ng/mL) and a short run time (25 min). The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision values met the acceptance criteria according to US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. Using this method, detailed eicosanoid profiles were quantified in serum, sputum and BALF from a pilot human study. In summary, a reliable and simple LC-MS/MS method to quantify major eicosanoids and their metabolites was developed and applied to quantify eicosanoids in human various fluids, demonstrating its suitability to assess eicosanoid biomarkers in human clinical trials.


Assuntos
Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Eicosanoides/análise , Escarro/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Eicosanoides/sangue , Eicosanoides/metabolismo , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 197(4): 433-449, 2018 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29064260

RESUMO

Important features of both stable and acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are skeletal muscle weakness and wasting. Limb muscle dysfunction during an exacerbation has been linked to various adverse outcomes, including prolonged hospitalization, readmission, and mortality. The contributing factors leading to muscle dysfunction are similar to those seen in stable COPD: disuse, nutrition/energy balance, hypercapnia, hypoxemia, electrolyte derangements, inflammation, and drugs (i.e., glucocorticoids). These factors may be the trigger for a downstream cascade of local inflammatory changes, pathway process alterations, and structural degradation. Ultimately, the clinical effects can be wide ranging and include reduced limb muscle strength. Current therapies, such as pulmonary/physical rehabilitation, have limited impact because of low participation rates. Recently, novel drugs have been developed in similar disorders, and learnings from these studies can be used as a foundation to facilitate discovery in patients hospitalized with a COPD exacerbation. Nevertheless, investigators should approach this patient population with knowledge of the limitations of each intervention. In this Concise Clinical Review, we provide an overview of acute muscle dysfunction in patients hospitalized with acute exacerbation of COPD and a strategic approach to drug development in this setting.

19.
Eur Respir J ; 50(6)2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29242259

RESUMO

Low fat-free mass index (FFMI) is an independent risk factor for mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) not typically measured during routine care. In the present study, we aimed to derive fat-free mass from the pectoralis muscle area (FFMPMA) and assess whether low FFMIPMA is associated with all-cause mortality in COPD cases. We used data from two independent COPD cohorts, ECLIPSE and COPDGene.Two equal sized groups of COPD cases (n=759) from the ECLIPSE study were used to derive and validate an equation to calculate the FFMPMA measured using bioelectrical impedance from PMA. We then applied the equation in COPD cases (n=3121) from the COPDGene cohort, and assessed survival. Low FFMIPMA was defined, using the Schols classification (FFMI <16 in men, FFMI <15 in women) and the fifth percentile normative values of FFMI from the UK Biobank.The final regression model included PMA, weight, sex and height, and had an adjusted R2 of 0.92 with fat-free mass (FFM) as the outcome. In the test group, the correlation between FFMPMA and FFM remained high (Pearson correlation=0.97). In COPDGene, COPD cases with a low FFMIPMA had an increased risk of death (HR 1.6, p<0.001).We demonstrated COPD cases with a low FFMIPMA have an increased risk of death.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/anatomia & histologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
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