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1.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227920, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945119

RESUMO

Focused-ion beam lift-out and annular milling is the most common method used for obtaining site specific specimens for atom probe tomography (APT) experiments and transmission electron microscopy. However, one of the main limitations of this technique comes from the structural damage as well as chemical degradation caused by the beam of high-energy ions. These aspects are especially critical in highly-sensitive specimens. In this regard, ion beam milling under cryogenic conditions has been an established technique for damage mitigation. Here, we implement a cryo-focused ion beam approach to prepare specimens for APT measurements from a quadruple cation perovskite-based solar cell device with 19.7% efficiency. As opposed to room temperature FIB milling we found that cryo-milling considerably improved APT results in terms of yield and composition measurement, i.e. halide loss, both related to less defects within the APT specimen. Based on our approach we discuss the prospects of reliable atom probe measurements of perovskite based solar cell materials. An insight into the field evaporation behavior of the organic-inorganic molecules that compose the perovskite material is also given with the aim of expanding the applicability of APT experiments towards nano-characterization of complex organo-metal materials.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cálcio/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Óxidos/química , Energia Solar , Titânio/química , Tomografia , Humanos , Íons/química , Fenômenos Físicos
2.
Langmuir ; 35(51): 16679-16692, 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614087

RESUMO

The molecular-scale structure and dynamics of confined liquids has increasingly gained relevance for applications in nanotechnology. Thus, a detailed knowledge of the structure of confined liquids on molecular length scales is of great interest for fundamental and applied sciences. To study confined structures under dynamic conditions, we constructed an in situ X-ray surface forces apparatus (X-SFA). This novel device can create a precisely controlled slit-pore confinement down to dimensions on the 10 nm scale by using a cylinder-on-flat geometry for the first time. Complementary structural information can be obtained by simultaneous force measurements and X-ray scattering experiments. The in-plane structure of liquids parallel to the slit pore and density profiles perpendicular to the confining interfaces are studied by X-ray scattering and reflectivity. The normal load between the opposing interfaces can be modulated to study the structural dynamics of confined liquids. The confinement gap distance is tracked simultaneously with nanometer precision by analyzing optical interference fringes of equal chromatic order. Relaxation processes can be studied by driving the system out of equilibrium by shear stress or compression/decompression cycles of the slit pore. The capability of the new device is demonstrated on the liquid crystal 4'-octyl-4-cyano-biphenyl (8CB) in its smectic A (SmA) mesophase. Its molecular-scale structure and orientation confined in 100 nm to 1.7 µm slit pores was studied under static and dynamic nonequilibrium conditions.

3.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 6(16): 1900190, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453057

RESUMO

The interfacial decomposition products forming the so-called solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) significantly determine the destiny of a Li-ion battery. Ultimate knowledge of its detailed behavior and better control are required for higher rates, longer life-time, and increased safety. Employing an electrochemical surface force apparatus, it is possible to control the growth and to investigate the mechanical properties of an SEI in a lithium-ion battery environment. This new approach is here introduced on a gold model system and reveals a compressible film at all stages of SEI growth. The demonstrated methodology provides a unique tool for analyzing electrochemical battery interfaces, in particular in view of alternative electrolyte formulations and artificial interfaces.

4.
Biomimetics (Basel) ; 4(1)2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105194

RESUMO

Lipid bilayers represent the interface between the cell and its environment, serving as model systems for the study of various biological processes. For instance, the addition of small molecules such as alcohols is a well-known process that modulates lipid bilayer properties, being considered as a reference for general anesthetic molecules. A plethora of experimental and simulation studies have focused on alcohol's effect on lipid bilayers. Nevertheless, most studies have focused on lipid membranes formed in the presence of alcohols, while the effect of n-alcohols on preformed lipid membranes has received much less research interest. Here, we monitor the real-time interaction of short-chain alcohols with solid-supported vesicles of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) as a label-free method. Results indicate that the addition of ethanol at different concentrations induces changes in the bilayer organization but preserves the stability of the supported vesicle layer. In turn, the addition of 1-pentanol induces not only changes in the bilayer organization, but also promotes vesicle rupture and inhomogeneous lipid layers at very high concentrations.

5.
Biointerphases ; 13(1): 011002, 2018 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29304551

RESUMO

Nanoporous gold (np-Au) is a nanostructured metal with many desirable attributes. Despite the growing number of applications of nanoporous materials, there are still open questions regarding their fabrication and subsequent surface functionalization. For example, the hydrophobic nature of gold surfaces makes the formation of planar supported lipid layers challenging. Here, the authors engineer the interface between np-Au and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine lipid layers using well-differentiated approaches based on vesicle adsorption and solvent exchange methods. The results reveal that the nanotopography of the np-Au surface plays a clear role in the vesicle adsorption process. Compared to vesicle adsorption, the solvent exchange method proves successful in the formation of planar supported lipid bilayers in both np-Au and planar Au surfaces, being less sensitive to the surface morphological features. The influence of nanostructured surfaces on lipid layer formation is determined by the driving mechanisms behind each process, i.e., the balance of adhesion and cohesion forces in vesicle adsorption and lyotropic lipid phase transitions in solvent exchange, respectively. A better understanding of such interactions will contribute to the development of a variety of applications, from electrochemical biosensors to drug screening and delivery systems, using nanoporous gold coated with stimuli-responsive lipid layers.


Assuntos
Ouro/química , Ouro/metabolismo , Membranas/metabolismo , Nanoestruturas/química , Fosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo , Porosidade , Bioengenharia/métodos , Fenômenos Químicos , Técnicas de Microbalança de Cristal de Quartzo
6.
Chemphyschem ; 18(21): 3056-3065, 2017 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28872763

RESUMO

The molecular structure at charged solid/liquid interfaces is vital for many chemical or electrochemical processes, such as adhesion, catalysis, or the stability of colloidal dispersions. How cations influence structural hydration forces and interactions across negatively charged surfaces has been studied in great detail. However, how anions influence structural hydration forces on positively charged surfaces is much less understood. Herein we report force versus distance profiles on freshly cleaved mica using atomic force microscopy with silicon tips. We characterize steric anion hydration forces for a set of common anions (Cl- , ClO4- , NO3- , SO42- and PO43- ) in pure acids at pH ≈1, where protons are the co-ions. Solutions containing anions with low hydration energies exhibit repulsive structural hydration forces, indicating significant ion and/or water structuring within the first 1-2 nm on a positively charged surface. We attribute this to specific adsorption effects within the Stern layer. In contrast, ions with high hydration energies show exponentially repulsive hydration forces, indicating a lower degree of structuring within the Stern layer. The presented data demonstrates that anion hydration forces in the inner double layer are comparable to cation hydration forces, and that they qualitatively correlate with hydration free energies. This work contributes to understanding interaction processes in which positive charge is screened by anions within an electrolyte.

7.
PLoS One ; 11(9): e0163518, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27684947

RESUMO

Despite the environmentally friendly reputation of ionic liquids (ILs), their safety has been recently questioned given their potential as cytotoxic agents. The fundamental mechanisms underlying the interactions between ILs and cells are less studied and by far not completely understood. Biomimetic films are here important biophysical model systems to elucidate fundamental aspects and mechanisms relevant for a large range of biological interaction ranging from signaling to drug reception or toxicity. Here we use dissipative quartz crystal microbalance QCM-D to examine the effect of aqueous imidazolium-based ionic liquid mixtures on solid-supported biomimetic membranes. Specifically, we assess in real time the effect of the cation chain length and the anion nature on a supported vesicle layer of the model phospholipid DMPC. Results indicate that interactions are mainly driven by the hydrophobic components of the IL, which significantly distort the layer and promote vesicle rupture. Our analyses evidence the gradual decrease of the main phase transition temperature upon increasing IL concentration, reflecting increased disorder by weakening of lipid chain interactions. The degree of rupture is significant for ILs with long hydrophobic cation chains and large hydrophobic anions whose behavior is reminiscent of that of antimicrobial peptides.

8.
Nat Commun ; 7: 12693, 2016 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27562148

RESUMO

Interfaces are essential in electrochemical processes, providing a critical nanoscopic design feature for composite electrodes used in Li-ion batteries. Understanding the structure, wetting and mobility at nano-confined interfaces is important for improving the efficiency and lifetime of electrochemical devices. Here we use a Surface Forces Apparatus to quantify the initial wetting of nanometre-confined graphene, gold and mica surfaces by Li-ion battery electrolytes. Our results indicate preferential wetting of confined graphene in comparison with gold or mica surfaces because of specific interactions of the electrolyte with the graphene surface. In addition, wetting of a confined pore proceeds via a profoundly different mechanism compared with wetting of a macroscopic surface. We further reveal the existence of molecularly layered structures of the confined electrolyte. Nanoscopic confinement of less than 4-5 nm and the presence of water decrease the mobility of the electrolyte. These results suggest a lower limit for the pore diameter in nanostructured electrodes.

9.
Biointerphases ; 11(1): 019006, 2016 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26746165

RESUMO

The authors report on the effect of ionic strength on the formation of supported vesicle layers of anionic phospholipids 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-glycerol (DMPG) and dimyristoylphosphatidylserine (DMPS) onto gold. Using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring the authors show that vesicle adsorption is mainly governed by NaCl concentration, reflecting the importance of electrostatic interactions in anionic lipids, as compared to zwitterionic 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. At low ionic strength, low or no adsorption is observed as a result of vesicle-vesicle electrostatic repulsion. At medium ionic strength, the negative charges of DMPG and DMPS are screened resulting in larger adsorption and a highly dissipative intact vesicle layer. In addition, DMPS exhibits a peculiar behavior at high ionic strength that depends on the temperature of the process.


Assuntos
Adsorção , Ouro/química , Concentração Osmolar , Fosfatidilgliceróis/química , Fosfatidilserinas/química , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Eletricidade Estática
10.
Adv Mater ; 27(33): 4947, 2015 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26332115

RESUMO

On page 4877, F. U. Renner, A. Bashir, M. Valtiner, and co-workers describe a star-like dealloying corrosion morphology that appears during the localized attack of smooth well-prepared Cu-Au surfaces. The surfaces are initially protected by thiol or selenol inhibitior films. Localized dealloying of Cu-Au produces nanoporous gold under stress and crystallographic cracks - thereby opening a new approach combining surface science with nanoscale mechanical testing.


Assuntos
Nanoporos , Cristalografia
11.
Adv Mater ; 27(33): 4877-82, 2015 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26192203

RESUMO

On self-assembled monolayer-covered Cu-Au substrates, localized volume shrinkage at initial dealloying sites leads to cracks within the attacked regions. It is started from well-controlled surface structures to gain fundamental insights in the driving mechanisms of localized corrosion and crack formation. Both the crack density and the crack morphology are critically dependent on surface orientation, crystallography, and inhibitor molecule species.

12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 133(45): 18264-71, 2011 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21951232

RESUMO

Dealloying is widely utilized but is a dangerous corrosion process as well. Here we report an atomistic picture of the initial stages of electrochemical dealloying of the model system Cu(3)Au (111). We illuminate the structural and chemical changes during the early stages of dissolution up to the critical potential, using a unique combination of advanced surface-analytical tools. Scanning tunneling microscopy images indicate an interlayer exchange of topmost surface atoms during initial dealloying, while scanning Auger-electron microscopy data clearly reveal that the surface is fully covered by a continuous Au-rich layer at an early stage. Initiating below this first layer a transformation from stacking-reversed toward substrate-oriented Au surface structures is observed close to the critical potential. We further use the observed structural transitions as a reference process to evaluate the mechanistic changes induced by a thiol-based model-inhibition layer applied to suppress surface diffusion. The initial ultrathin Au layer is stabilized with the intermediate island morphology completely suppressed, along an anodic shift of the breakdown potential. Thiol-modification induces a peculiar surface microstructure in the form of microcracks exhibiting a nanoporous core. On the basis of the presented atomic-scale observations, an interlayer exchange mechanism next to pure surface diffusion becomes obvious which may be controlling the layer thickness and its later change in orientation.

13.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 82(2): 023703, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21361597

RESUMO

We report the design of an improved electrochemical cell for atomic force microscope measurements in corrosive electrochemical environments. Our design improvements are guided by experimental requirements for studying corrosive reactions such as selective dissolution, dealloying, pitting corrosion, and∕or surface and interface forces at electrified interfaces. Our aim is to examine some of the limitations of typical electrochemical scanning probe microscopy (SPM) experiments and in particular to outline precautions and cell-design elements, which must necessarily be taken into account in order to obtain reliable experimental results. In particular, we discuss electrochemical requirements for typical electrochemical SPM experiments and introduce novel design features to avoid common issues such as crevice formations; we discuss the choice of electrodes and contaminations from ions of reference electrodes. We optimize the cell geometry and introduce standard samples for electrochemical AFM experiments. We have tested the novel design by performing force-distance spectroscopy as a function of the applied electrochemical potential between a bare gold electrode surface and a SAM-coated AFM tip. Topography imaging was tested by studying the well-known dealloying process of a Cu(3)Au(111) surface up to the critical potential. Our design improvements should be equally applicable to in situ electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope cells.

14.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 12(9): 2059-62, 2010 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20165752

RESUMO

In this communication, electrodeposition of Zn from 60-40 mol% ZnCl(2)-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIC) ionic liquid on Au substrates has been investigated. For the first time, initial stages of Zn electrocrystallization from BMIC has been studied by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) employing synchrotron radiation, which showed an initial epitaxial deposition of Zn and hexagonal Au(1.2)Zn(8.8) phases on Au(111) single crystal substrates. In the later stages of electrodeposition, phase analysis showed a formation of several Zn-Au intermetallics, namely AuZn, AuZn(3), and Au(1.2)Zn(8.8), along with the Zn phase.

15.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 78(3): 033903, 2007 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17411191

RESUMO

We report on a new electrochemical cell setup, combined with a portable UHV chamber, for in situ x-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. In contrast to more traditional electrochemical sample preparation schemes, atomically clean and well-ordered surfaces are routinely prepared by UHV methods, even in the case of reactive elements or alloys. Samples can be transferred from larger UHV systems into the portable chamber without exposure to ambient air. They can then be studied successively in UHV, in controlled gas atmospheres, and in contact with electrolyte solutions under applied electrochemical potential. The electrochemical setup employs a droplet geometry, which guarantees good electrochemical conditions during in situ x-ray measurements combined with voltammetry. We present first experimental results of Cu deposition on GaAs(001) and on freshly produced nanometric Pd(001) islands on Cu(0.83)Pd(0.17)(001), respectively.

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