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2.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(5): 935-942, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platelets are a critical element in coagulation and inflammation, and activated platelets are linked to cancer risk through diverse mechanisms. However, a causal relationship between platelets and risk of lung cancer remains unclear. METHODS: We performed single and combined multiple instrumental variable Mendelian randomization analysis by an inverse-weighted method, in addition to a series of sensitivity analyses. Summary data for associations between SNPs and platelet count are from a recent publication that included 48,666 Caucasian Europeans, and the International Lung Cancer Consortium and Transdisciplinary Research in Cancer of the Lung data consisting of 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls to analyze associations between candidate SNPs and lung cancer risk. RESULTS: Multiple instrumental variable analysis incorporating six SNPs showed a 62% increased risk of overall non-small cell lung cancer [NSCLC; OR, 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-2.27; P = 0.005] and a 200% increased risk for small-cell lung cancer (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.27-7.06; P = 0.01). Results showed only a trending association with NSCLC histologic subtypes, which may be due to insufficient sample size and/or weak effect size. A series of sensitivity analysis retained these findings. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a causal relationship between elevated platelet count and increased risk of lung cancer and provide evidence of possible antiplatelet interventions for lung cancer prevention. IMPACT: These findings provide a better understanding of lung cancer etiology and potential evidence for antiplatelet interventions for lung cancer prevention.

3.
Diabetes Care ; 42(4): 682-688, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728223

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of diabetes and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) with the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in a large population-based cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The computerized database of the largest health care provider in Israel was used to identify adult members aged 40 years or older and alive at 1 January 2010 (297,486 with diabetes and 1,167,585 without diabetes). The cohort was followed until 31 December 2017 for incidence of ICH. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusted for baseline disease risk score, were applied to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of ICH. RESULTS: Overall 4,170 ICH cases occurred during 10,730,915 person-years of follow-up. Diabetes was independently associated with increased ICH risk, with hazard ratio (HR) 1.36 (95% CI 1.27-1.45), and increased with longer diabetes duration: 1.23 (1.12-1.35) and 1.44 (1.34-1.56) for diabetes duration ≤5 years and >5 years, respectively. The increased ICH risk associated with diabetes was more pronounced in patients ≤60 years old (P interaction <0.001). Among patients with diabetes, HbA1c had a nonlinear J-shaped relationship with ICH (P for nonlinearity = 0.0186). Compared to the fourth HbA1c decile, 6.5-6.7% (48-50 mmol/mol), the HR for ICH was 1.27 (1.01-1.59) and 2.19 (1.75-2.73) in the lowest HbA1c decile, ≤6.0% (≤42 mmol/mol), and highest HbA1c decile, >9.3% (>78 mmol/mol), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes is associated with increased risk of ICH that is directly associated with diabetes duration. ICH and HbA1c appear to have a J-shaped relationship, suggesting that both poor control as well as extreme intensive diabetes control might be associated with increased risk.

4.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 7(1): e9351, 2019 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Text message (short message service, SMS) interrogative reminders were adopted in population screening for the early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine responses to text message (SMS) reminders and associate responses with senders' characteristics, message type (interrogative/declarative), and subsequent screening uptake. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort intervention. Text message (SMS) reminders to undergo CRC screening, randomized into interrogative and declarative phrasing, were sent to nonadherent 40,000 women and men (age 50-74 years) at CRC average risk. We analyzed recipient responses by message phrasing, recipient characteristics, and for content, the latter predicting subsequent CRC screening per program database. RESULTS: While interrogative text message (SMS) reminders elicited 7.67% (1475/19,227) responses, declarative ones elicited 0.76% (146/19,262) responses. Text message (SMS) responses were content analyzed and grouped into attitudes toward CRC screening (1237/1512, 81.8% positive) and intention to screen (1004/1512, 62.6%). Text message (SMS) respondents screened significantly more than nonrespondents after 6 months (415/1621, 25.6% vs 3322/36,868, 9.0%; χ12=487.5, P<.001); 1 year (340/1621, 21.0% vs 4711/36,868; χ12=91.5, P<.001); and 2 years (225/1621, 13.9% vs 3924/36,868; χ12=16.9, P<.001) following the reminders. In a multivariable logistic regression among text message (SMS) respondents, screening after 6 months was significantly predicted by older age, past sporadic screening, attitudes, and intentions. CONCLUSIONS: Interrogative text message (SMS) reminders reached previously uninvolved sectors in the CRC target population-men, sporadic-screenees, and the "never-tested" before. This novel application resulted in a population-level, incrementally enhanced screening. Asking patients about their future health behavior may be relevant for enhancing other health behaviors in preventive medicine and clinical settings.

6.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 28(4): 287-293, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640205

RESUMO

To examine the association between red meat subtypes intake and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) among Jewish and Arabs populations in a unique Mediterranean environment. The Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer study (n=10 026) is a prospective population-based case-control study in northern Israel. Participants were interviewed in-person about their dietary intake and lifestyle using a questionnaire that included a food-frequency questionnaire. Red meat consumption in Israel was found to be especially low in the Jewish population (1.29±1.45 servings/week), but higher in Arabs (3.0±1.98 servings/week) (P<0.001). Beef was the most commonly consumed red meat by Jews (1.15/1.29 servings/week, 89%) and proportionally less so by Arabs (2.00/3.00, 67%). Processed meat consumption (mostly pork free) was lower among Arabs (0.9±1.56 servings/week) compared with Jews (1.97±2.97 servings/week) (P<0.001). The adjusted odds of CRC per one serving/week of red meat were 1.05 (95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.08) in Jews and 0.94 (0.88-1.01) in Arabs. Compared with no consumption, beef consumption was associated with odds ratio (OR)=0.96 (0.86-1.07) in Jews and 0.94 (0.61-1.45) in Arabs, lamb consumption with OR=1.28 (1.10-1.5) and 1.01 (0.75-1.37), pork consumption with OR=1.44 (1.24-1.67) and 1.07 (0.73-1.56), and processed meat consumption with OR=1.22 (1.10-1.35) and 1.04 (0.82-1.33) in Jews and Arabs, respectively. Overall red meat consumption was associated weakly with CRC risk, significant only for lamb and pork, but not for beef, irrespective of tumor location. Processed meat was associated with mild CRC risk.

7.
Gastroenterology ; 156(5): 1455-1466, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have associated approximately 50 loci with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC)-nearly one third of these loci were initially associated with CRC in studies conducted in East Asian populations. We conducted a GWAS of East Asians to identify CRC risk loci and evaluate the generalizability of findings from GWASs of European populations to Asian populations. METHODS: We analyzed genetic data from 22,775 patients with CRC (cases) and 47,731 individuals without cancer (controls) from 14 studies in the Asia Colorectal Cancer Consortium. First, we performed a meta-analysis of 7 GWASs (10,625 cases and 34,595 controls) and identified 46,554 promising risk variants for replication by adding them to the Multi-Ethnic Global Array (MEGA) for genotype analysis in 6445 cases and 7175 controls. These data were analyzed, along with data from an additional 5705 cases and 5961 controls genotyped using the OncoArray. We also obtained data from 57,976 cases and 67,242 controls of European descent. Variants at identified risk loci were functionally annotated and evaluated in correlation with gene expression levels. RESULTS: A meta-analyses of all samples from people of Asian descent identified 13 loci and 1 new variant at a known locus (10q24.2) associated with risk of CRC at the genome-wide significance level of P < 5 × 10-8. We did not perform experiments to replicate these associations in additional individuals of Asian ancestry. However, the lead risk variant in 6 of these loci was also significantly associated with risk of CRC in European descendants. A strong association (44%-75% increase in risk per allele) was found for 2 low-frequency variants: rs201395236 at 1q44 (minor allele frequency, 1.34%) and rs77969132 at 12p11.21 (minor allele frequency, 1.53%). For 8 of the 13 associated loci, the variants with the highest levels of significant association were located inside or near the protein-coding genes L1TD1, EFCAB2, PPP1R21, SLCO2A1, HLA-G, NOTCH4, DENND5B, and GNAS. For other intergenic loci, we provided evidence for the possible involvement of the genes ALDH7A1, PRICKLE1, KLF5, WWOX, and GLP2R. We replicated findings for 41 of 52 previously reported risk loci. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that most of the risk loci previously associated with CRC risk in individuals of European descent were also associated with CRC risk in East Asians. Furthermore, we identified 13 loci significantly associated with risk for CRC in Asians. Many of these loci contained genes that regulate the immune response, Wnt signaling to ß-catenin, prostaglandin E2 catabolism, and cell pluripotency and proliferation. Further analyses of these genes and their variants is warranted, particularly for the 8 loci for which the lead CRC risk variants were not replicated in persons of European descent.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Loci Gênicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ásia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
8.
Carcinogenesis ; 40(3): 432-440, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590402

RESUMO

DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHS) are abundant in regulatory elements, such as promoter, enhancer and transcription factor binding sites. Many studies have revealed that disease-associated variants were concentrated in DHS-related regions. However, limited studies are available on the roles of DHS-related variants in lung cancer. In this study, we performed a large-scale case-control study with 20 871 lung cancer cases and 15 971 controls to evaluate the associations between regulatory genetic variants in DHS and lung cancer susceptibility. The expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis and pathway-enrichment analysis were performed to identify the possible target genes and pathways. In addition, we performed motif-based analysis to explore the lung-cancer-related motifs using sequence kernel association test. Two novel variants, rs186332 in 20q13.3 (C>T, odds ratio [OR] = 1.17, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.10-1.24, P = 8.45 × 10-7) and rs4839323 in 1p13.2 (T>C, OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89-0.95, P = 1.02 × 10-6) showed significant association with lung cancer risk. The eQTL analysis suggested that these two SNPs might regulate the expression of MRGBP and SLC16A1, respectively. What's more, the expression of both MRGBP and SLC16A1 was aberrantly elevated in lung tumor tissues. The motif-based analysis identified 10 motifs related to the risk of lung cancer (P < 1.71 × 10-4). Our findings suggested that variants in DHS might modify lung cancer susceptibility through regulating the expression of surrounding genes. This study provided us a deeper insight into the roles of DHS-related genetic variants for lung cancer.

9.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476131

RESUMO

Background: Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) is also moderately associated with CRC risk. However, observational studies are susceptible to unmeasured confounding or reverse causality. Using genetic risk variants as instrumental variables, we investigated the causal relationship between genetically elevated CRP concentration and CRC risk, using a Mendelian randomization approach. Methods: Individual-level data from 30 480 CRC cases and 22 844 controls from 33 participating studies in three international consortia were used: the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), the Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study (CORECT) and the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR). As instrumental variables, we included 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with CRP concentration. The SNP-CRC associations were estimated using a logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, principal components and genotyping phases. An inverse-variance weighted method was applied to estimate the causal effect of CRP on CRC risk. Results: Among the 19 CRP-associated SNPs, rs1260326 and rs6734238 were significantly associated with CRC risk (P = 7.5 × 10-4, and P = 0.003, respectively). A genetically predicted one-unit increase in the log-transformed CRP concentrations (mg/l) was not associated with increased risk of CRC [odds ratio (OR) = 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97, 1.12; P = 0.256). No evidence of association was observed in subgroup analyses stratified by other risk factors. Conclusions: In spite of adequate statistical power to detect moderate association, we found genetically elevated CRP concentration was not associated with increased risk of CRC among individuals of European ancestry. Our findings suggested that circulating CRP is unlikely to be a causal factor in CRC development.

10.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 58: 25-32, 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is inadequate evidence to determine whether there is an effect of alcohol consumption on lung cancer risk. We conducted a pooled analysis of data from the International Lung Cancer Consortium and the SYNERGY study to investigate this possible association by type of beverage with adjustment for other potential confounders. METHODS: Twenty one case-control studies and one cohort study with alcohol-intake data obtained from questionnaires were included in this pooled analysis (19,149 cases and 362,340 controls). Adjusted odds ratios (OR) or hazard ratios (HR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for each measure of alcohol consumption. Effect estimates were combined using random or fixed-effects models where appropriate. Associations were examined for overall lung cancer and by histological type. RESULTS: We observed an inverse association between overall risk of lung cancer and consumption of alcoholic beverages compared to non-drinkers, but the association was not monotonic. The lowest risk was observed for persons who consumed 10-19.9 g/day ethanol (OR vs. non-drinkers = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.91), where 1 drink is approximately 12-15 g. This J-shaped association was most prominent for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The association with all lung cancer varied little by type of alcoholic beverage, but there were notable differences for SCC. We observed an association with beer intake (OR for ≥20 g/day vs nondrinker = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.90). CONCLUSIONS: Whether the non-monotonic associations we observed or the positive association between beer drinking and squamous cell carcinoma reflect real effects await future analyses and insights about possible biological mechanisms.

11.
Mov Disord ; 33(9): 1465-1471, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ß2-adrenoreceptors have recently been identified as regulators of the α-synuclein gene, which is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to assess the association between use of ß2-agonists and ß-antagonists and the risk of developing PD. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study in a cohort of 1,762,164 adults without a diagnosis of PD. They were identified on January, 1, 2004, from the electronic medical records of the largest health care provider in Israel. Participants were followed up until June 30, 2017, for the occurrence of PD. Ten randomly selected controls were matched to each case of PD on age, sex, ethnic group, and duration of follow-up. RESULTS: During follow-up 11,314 patients were newly diagnosed with PD and were matched with 113,140 controls. An increased risk of PD was seen with the use of nonselective ß-antagonists (RR, 2.04 [1.90-2.20]) but not with the use of selective ß1-antagonists (RR, 1.00 [0.95-1.05]). Use of ß2-agonists was associated with reduced risk of PD (RR, 0.89 [0.82-0.96] for short-acting; RR, 0.84 [0.76-0.93] for long-acting; and RR, 0.49 [0.25-0.92] for ultra-long-acting ß2-agonists). In an analysis of individual drugs, propranolol and salbutamol were significantly associated with PD risk, even when these drugs were ascertained 5 years prior to the index date, compared with nonusers (RR, 1.31 [1.08-1.58] and 1.89 {1.53-2.33]) in patients who filled <6 and ≥6 propranolol prescriptions, respectively; the corresponding RRs for salbutamol were 0.95 (0.83-1.08) and 0.65 (0.45-0.94), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Use of propranolol appears to be associated with an increased risk of PD, whereas use of ß2-agonists is associated with a decreased risk of PD. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

12.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3221, 2018 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104567

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified the chromosome 15q25.1 locus as a leading susceptibility region for lung cancer. However, the pathogenic pathways, through which susceptibility SNPs within chromosome 15q25.1 affects lung cancer risk, have not been explored. We analyzed three cohorts with GWAS data consisting 42,901 individuals and lung expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data on 409 individuals to identify and validate the underlying pathways and to investigate the combined effect of genes from the identified susceptibility pathways. The KEGG neuroactive ligand receptor interaction pathway, two Reactome pathways, and 22 Gene Ontology terms were identified and replicated to be significantly associated with lung cancer risk, with P values less than 0.05 and FDR less than 0.1. Functional annotation of eQTL analysis results showed that the neuroactive ligand receptor interaction pathway and gated channel activity were involved in lung cancer risk. These pathways provide important insights for the etiology of lung cancer.

13.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 91(8): 937-950, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971594

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Radon is a risk factor for lung cancer and uranium miners are more exposed than the general population. A genome-wide interaction analysis was carried out to identify genomic loci, genes or gene sets that modify the susceptibility to lung cancer given occupational exposure to the radioactive gas radon. METHODS: Samples from 28 studies provided by the International Lung Cancer Consortium were pooled with samples of former uranium miners collected by the German Federal Office of Radiation Protection. In total, 15,077 cases and 13,522 controls, all of European ancestries, comprising 463 uranium miners were compared. The DNA of all participants was genotyped with the OncoArray. We fitted single-marker and in multi-marker models and performed an exploratory gene-set analysis to detect cumulative enrichment of significance in sets of genes. RESULTS: We discovered a genome-wide significant interaction of the marker rs12440014 within the gene CHRNB4 (OR = 0.26, 95% CI 0.11-0.60, p = 0.0386 corrected for multiple testing). At least suggestive significant interaction of linkage disequilibrium blocks was observed at the chromosomal regions 18q21.23 (p = 1.2 × 10-6), 5q23.2 (p = 2.5 × 10-6), 1q21.3 (p = 3.2 × 10-6), 10p13 (p = 1.3 × 10-5) and 12p12.1 (p = 7.1 × 10-5). Genes belonging to the Gene Ontology term "DNA dealkylation involved in DNA repair" (GO:0006307; p = 0.0139) or the gene family HGNC:476 "microRNAs" (p = 0.0159) were enriched with LD-blockwise significance. CONCLUSION: The well-established association of the genomic region 15q25 to lung cancer might be influenced by exposure to radon among uranium miners. Furthermore, lung cancer susceptibility is related to the functional capability of DNA damage signaling via ubiquitination processes and repair of radiation-induced double-strand breaks by the single-strand annealing mechanism.

14.
Neurology ; 91(5): e400-e409, 2018 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29970405

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between statin exposure in a dose-dependent manner and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in a large nationwide study. METHODS: The computerized database of the largest health care provider in Israel was used to identify diagnosed ICH among new users of statins, who started statin treatment between 2005 and 2010. We assessed a dose-response relationship between ICH and statins, using the average atorvastatin equivalent daily dose (AAEDD). Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models, adjusted for baseline disease risk score, were applied to estimate the hazard ratio of ICH. RESULTS: Of the 345,531 included patients, 1,304 were diagnosed with ICH during a median follow-up of 9.5 years (interquartile range 7.6-11.0). Overall, 75.3% of patients had AAEDD <10 mg/d, 19.0% had AAEDD 0-19.9 mg/d, and 5.7% had AAEDD ≥20 mg/d. The corresponding proportions were 81.0%, 15.0%, 4.0% among ICH cases, and 75.3%, 19.0%, 5.7% among non-ICH cases. Compared to those with AAEDD <10 mg/d (reference), the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for ICH was 0.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.58-0.79) in those with AAEDD 10-19.9 mg/d, and 0.62 (0.47-0.81) in those with AAEDD ≥20 mg/d. Compared to the lowest baseline total cholesterol quartile, the adjusted HR for ICH was 0.71 (95% CI 0.62-0.82), 0.55 (0.47-0.64), and 0.57 (0.49-0.67) in those in the second, third, and highest quartiles, respectively. The results were similar and robust among highly persistent statin users and after controlling for the change in cholesterol level. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that the risk of ICH decreases with increasing cholesterol levels, but suggests that statin use might be associated with decreased risk of ICH.

15.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2018 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059977

RESUMO

Background: Evidence from observational studies of telomere length (TL) has been conflicting regarding its direction of association with cancer risk. We investigated the causal relevance of TL for lung and head and neck cancers using Mendelian Randomization (MR) and mediation analyses. Methods: We developed a novel genetic instrument for TL in chromosome 5p15.33, using variants identified through deep-sequencing, that were genotyped in 2051 cancer-free subjects. Next, we conducted an MR analysis of lung (16 396 cases, 13 013 controls) and head and neck cancer (4415 cases, 5013 controls) using eight genetic instruments for TL. Lastly, the 5p15.33 instrument and distinct 5p15.33 lung cancer risk loci were evaluated using two-sample mediation analysis, to quantify their direct and indirect, telomere-mediated, effects. Results: The multi-allelic 5p15.33 instrument explained 1.49-2.00% of TL variation in our data (p = 2.6 × 10-9). The MR analysis estimated that a 1000 base-pair increase in TL increases risk of lung cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-1.65] and lung adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.51-2.22), but not squamous lung carcinoma (OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.83-1.29) or head and neck cancers (OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.70-1.05). Mediation analysis of the 5p15.33 instrument indicated an absence of direct effects on lung cancer risk (OR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.95-1.04). Analysis of distinct 5p15.33 susceptibility variants estimated that TL mediates up to 40% of the observed associations with lung cancer risk. Conclusions: Our findings support a causal role for long telomeres in lung cancer aetiology, particularly for adenocarcinoma, and demonstrate that telomere maintenance partially mediates the lung cancer susceptibility conferred by 5p15.33 loci.

16.
Thromb Res ; 168: 14-19, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29879569

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Factor V (FV) deficiency is a rare inherited coagulation disorder associated with bleeding tendency. As a result, it has been postulated that decreased FV activity may confer protection against venous thromboembolism and atherothrombotic cardiovascular events. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the electronic database of the largest health care provider in Israel, we identified all adult individuals who were tested for FV activity between January 2004 and June 2017. Subjects with liver cirrhosis or FV Leiden mutation were excluded. FV activity was classified into three predefined categories; FV activity >50%, FV activity 30-50%, and FV activity ≤30%. Patients were followed from January 2004 to June 2017 for new atherothrombotic cardiovascular events (composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, and TIA) and venous thromboembolism (VTE). RESULTS: Overall 2021 individuals were included; 83.2% had FV activity >50%, 9.6% FV activity 30-50%, and 7.2% had FV activity ≤30%. Compared to individuals with FV activity >50% the adjusted HR for atherothrombotic cardiovascular events was 1.10 (95% CI, 0.63-1.90) in those with FV activity 30-50%, and 0.95 (0.49-1.8) in those with FV activity ≤30%. None of the patients with FV activity 30-50% had VTE during follow-up; therefore those with FV activity ≤50% were classified into one group. VTE incidence was lower in those with FV activity ≤50% compared to those with FV >50% activity; adjusted HR = 0.28 (0.09-0.91). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that decreased FV activity might be associated with decreased incidence of VTE. No significant association appears to exist between FV activity and atherothrombotic cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Arteriosclerose/sangue , Fator V/metabolismo , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangue , Adulto , Arteriosclerose/epidemiologia , Arteriosclerose/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/genética
17.
Br J Cancer ; 118(12): 1639-1647, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substantial evidence supports an association between use of menopausal hormone therapy and decreased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, indicating a role of exogenous sex hormones in CRC development. However, findings on endogenous oestrogen exposure and CRC are inconsistent. METHODS: We used a Mendelian randomisation approach to test for a causal effect of age at menarche and age at menopause as surrogates for endogenous oestrogen exposure on CRC risk. Weighted genetic risk scores based on 358 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with age at menarche and 51 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with age at menopause were used to estimate the association with CRC risk using logistic regression in 12,944 women diagnosed with CRC and 10,741 women without CRC from three consortia. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to address pleiotropy and possible confounding by body mass index. RESULTS: Genetic risk scores for age at menarche (odds ratio per year 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.95-1.02) and age at menopause (odds ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.94-1.01) were not significantly associated with CRC risk. The sensitivity analyses yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Our study does not support a causal relationship between genetic risk scores for age at menarche and age at menopause and CRC risk.

18.
Gastroenterology ; 154(8): 2152-2164.e19, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29458155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Guidelines for initiating colorectal cancer (CRC) screening are based on family history but do not consider lifestyle, environmental, or genetic risk factors. We developed models to determine risk of CRC, based on lifestyle and environmental factors and genetic variants, and to identify an optimal age to begin screening. METHODS: We collected data from 9748 CRC cases and 10,590 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and the Colorectal Transdisciplinary study, from 1992 through 2005. Half of the participants were used to develop the risk determination model and the other half were used to evaluate the discriminatory accuracy (validation set). Models of CRC risk were created based on family history, 19 lifestyle and environmental factors (E-score), and 63 CRC-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies (G-score). We evaluated the discriminatory accuracy of the models by calculating area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values, adjusting for study, age, and endoscopy history for the validation set. We used the models to project the 10-year absolute risk of CRC for a given risk profile and recommend ages to begin screening in comparison to CRC risk for an average individual at 50 years of age, using external population incidence rates for non-Hispanic whites from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program registry. RESULTS: In our models, E-score and G-score each determined risk of CRC with greater accuracy than family history. A model that combined both scores and family history estimated CRC risk with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value of 0.63 (95% confidence interval, 0.62-0.64) for men and 0.62 (95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.63) for women; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values based on only family history ranged from 0.53 to 0.54 and those based only E-score or G-score ranged from 0.59 to 0.60. Although screening is recommended to begin at age 50 years for individuals with no family history of CRC, starting ages calculated based on combined E-score and G-score differed by 12 years for men and 14 for women, for individuals with the highest vs the lowest 10% of risk. CONCLUSIONS: We used data from 2 large international consortia to develop CRC risk calculation models that included genetic and environmental factors along with family history. These determine risk of CRC and starting ages for screening with greater accuracy than the family history only model, which is based on the current screening guideline. These scoring systems might serve as a first step toward developing individualized CRC prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/normas , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Modelos Biológicos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Curva ROC , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores Sexuais
19.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0190324, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29324747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An association between atrial fibrillation (AF) and risk of cancer has been suggested in several studies, including prospective cohort studies. However, the magnitude and the temporal nature of this association remain unclear. METHODS: Data from two large prospective population-based case-control studies, the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (MECC, n = 8,383) and the Breast Cancer in Northern Israel Study (BCINIS, n = 11,608), were used to better understand the nature and temporality of a possible association between cancer diagnosis and AF events before and after cancer diagnosis. A case-control study approach was employed to study prior AF as a risk factor for cancer, and a cohort study approach was employed to study incident cancer as a risk factor for AF. RESULTS: AF was associated with a significant reduced odds of cancer as reflected in the case-control approach, with an adjusted OR = 0.77 (95% CI, 0.65-0.91), while cancer was not found to be significantly associated with elevated risk of AF in the cohort approach, with an adjusted HR = 1.10 (0.98-1.23). The immediate period (90 days) after an AF event was associated with a 1.85 times increased risk of cancer, and the immediate period after the diagnosis of cancer was associated with a 3.4 fold increased risk of AF. These findings probably reflect both the effect of acute transient conditions associated with new cancer diagnosis and detection bias. Similar results were identified with colorectal and breast cancer cases. CONCLUSIONS: Atrial fibrillation of longer than 90 days duration is associated with reduced odds of new cancer diagnosis. The results of this study suggest that an association observed in prior research may be due to instances related to cancer diagnosis and detection bias rather than a causal relationship. However, there may be bias in the sampling and residual confounding that distort the associations.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Neoplasias/complicações , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Nat Genet ; 49(7): 1126-1132, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28604730

RESUMO

Although several lung cancer susceptibility loci have been identified, much of the heritability for lung cancer remains unexplained. Here 14,803 cases and 12,262 controls of European descent were genotyped on the OncoArray and combined with existing data for an aggregated genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis of lung cancer in 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls. We identified 18 susceptibility loci achieving genome-wide significance, including 10 new loci. The new loci highlight the striking heterogeneity in genetic susceptibility across the histological subtypes of lung cancer, with four loci associated with lung cancer overall and six loci associated with lung adenocarcinoma. Gene expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis in 1,425 normal lung tissue samples highlights RNASET2, SECISBP2L and NRG1 as candidate genes. Other loci include genes such as a cholinergic nicotinic receptor, CHRNA2, and the telomere-related genes OFBC1 and RTEL1. Further exploration of the target genes will continue to provide new insights into the etiology of lung cancer.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Adulto , Idoso , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fumar/epidemiologia , Homeostase do Telômero/genética
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