Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 182
Filtrar
1.
Cancer Res ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472890

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death globally. An improved risk stratification strategy can increase efficiency of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening. Here we assessed whether individual's genetic background has clinical utility for risk stratification in the context of LDCT screening. Based on 13,119 lung cancer patients and 10,008 controls with European ancestry in the International Lung Cancer Consortium, we constructed a polygenic risk score (PRS) via 10-fold cross-validation with regularized penalized regression. The performance of risk model integrating PRS, including calibration and ability to discriminate, was assessed using UK biobank data (N=335,931). Absolute risk was estimated based on age-specific lung cancer incidence and all-cause mortality as competing risk. To evaluate its potential clinical utility, the PRS distribution was simulated in the National Lung Screening Trial, N=50,772 participants). The lung cancer odds ratio (ORs) for individuals at the top decile of the PRS distribution versus those at bottom 10% was 2.39 (95%CI=1.92-3.00, P=1.80x10-14) in the validation set (trend p-value of 5.26 x 10-20). The OR per standard deviation of PRS increase was 1.26 (95%CI=1.20-1.32, P=9.69x10-23) for overall lung cancer risk in the validation set. When considering absolute risks, individuals at different PRS deciles showed differential trajectories of 5-year and cumulative absolute risk. The age reaching the LDCT screening recommendation threshold can vary by 4 to 8 years, depending on the individual's genetic background, smoking status and family history. Collectively, these results suggest that Individual's genetic background may inform the optimal lung cancer LDCT screening strategy.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence for aspirin's chemopreventative properties on colorectal cancer (CRC) is substantial, but its mechanism of action is not well-understood. We combined a proteomic approach with Mendelian randomization (MR) to identify possible new aspirin targets that decrease CRC risk. METHODS: Human colorectal adenoma cells (RG/C2) were treated with aspirin (24 hours) and a stable isotope labelling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) based proteomics approach identified altered protein expression. Protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs) from INTERVAL (N=3,301) and expression QTLs (eQTLs) from the eQTLGen Consortium (N=31,684) were used as genetic proxies for protein and mRNA expression levels. Two-sample MR of mRNA/protein expression on CRC risk was performed using eQTL/pQTL data combined with CRC genetic summary data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), Colorectal Transdisciplinary (CORECT), Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (GECCO) consortia and UK Biobank (55,168 cases and 65,160 controls). RESULTS: Altered expression was detected for 125/5886 proteins. Of these, aspirin decreased MCM6, RRM2 and ARFIP2 expression and MR analysis showed that a standard deviation increase in mRNA/protein expression was associated with increased CRC risk (OR:1.08, 95% CI:1.03-1.13, OR:3.33, 95% CI:2.46-4.50 and OR:1.15, 95% CI:1.02-1.29, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: MCM6 and RRM2 are involved in DNA repair whereby reduced expression may lead to increased DNA aberrations and ultimately cancer cell death, whereas ARFIP2 is involved in actin cytoskeletal regulation indicating a possible role in aspirin's reduction of metastasis. IMPACT: Our approach has shown how laboratory experiments and population-based approaches can combine to identify aspirin-targeted proteins possibly affecting CRC risk.

3.
Transl Oncol ; 14(1): 100934, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186889

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A substantial fraction of all non-small cell lung cancers(NSCLC) carry a mutation in the EGFR gene for which an effective treatment with anti-tyrosine kinases(TKIs) is available. We studied the long term survival of these patients following the introduction of TKIs. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: All consecutive cases of NSCLC newly diagnosed with advanced disease were referred for free tumor EGFR mutation testing at Clalit's national personalized medicine laboratory. Mutations and deletions in target codons 18-21 of EGFR were sought using RT-PCR and fragment analysis. Comprehensive EMRs were used to collect full data on treatments and clinical status. RESULTS: A cohort of 3,062 advanced NSCLC cases, included 481(15.7%) somatic EGFR mutation carriers (17.5% of all adenocarcinomas, 26.7% of females with adenocarcinomas). TKIs treatment to EGFR mutation carriers was provided to 85% of all eligible. After a median follow up period of 15.9 months for EGFR mutated cases the hazard ratio for overall survival of EGFR-mutated NSCLC treated with TKIs was 0.55(0.49-0.63, p<0.0001) when compared with EGFR wild-type(WT) tumors under usual care. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, smoking history and tumor histology, all of which had an independently significant effect on survival, the HR for TKI-treated, EGFR-mutated tumors, was 0.63 (0.55-0.71, p<0.0001). Treating EGFR-WT cases with TKIs yielded a high HR=1.32 (1.19-1.48). CONCLUSIONS: TKIs given to EGFR mutated advanced NSCLC demonstrated a substantial survival benefit for at least five years. Squamous histology, smoking, male sex and Arab ethnicity were associated with higher NSCLC mortality hazard. Treating non-EGFR-mutated NSCLC with TKIs seems detrimental. Statement of Significance: • TKIs given to EGFR mutated advanced NSCLC demonstrated a substantial survival benefit for at least five years but not much longer. • Treating non-EGFR-mutated NSCLC with TKIs seems detrimental and should probably be avoided. • Squamous histology of non-small cell lung cancer, smoking history, male sex and Arab ethnicity were associated with altogether higher NSCLC mortality hazard.

4.
J Thorac Oncol ; 15(12): 1871-1879, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866655

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the world, and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is its most prevalent subtype. Symptoms are often found in advanced disease in which treatment options are limited. Identifying genetic risk factors will enable better identification of high-risk individuals. METHODS: To identify LUAD risk genes, we performed a case-control association study for gene-level burden of rare, deleterious variants (RDVs) in germline whole-exome sequencing data of 1083 patients with LUAD and 7650 controls, split into discovery and validation cohorts. Of these, we performed whole-exome sequencing on 97 patients and acquired the rest from multiple public databases. We annotated all rare variants for pathogenicity conservatively, using the guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and ClinVar curation, and investigated gene-level RDV burden using penalized logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We discovered and replicated the finding that the burden of germline ATM RDVs was significantly higher in patients with LUAD versus controls (combined cohort OR = 4.6; p = 1.7e-04; 95% confidence interval = 2.2-9.5; 1.21% of cases; 0.24% of controls). Germline ATM RDVs were also enriched in an independent clinical cohort of 1594 patients from the MSK-IMPACT study (0.63%). In addition, we observed that an Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) founder ATM variant, rs56009889, was statistically significantly more frequent in AJ cases versus AJ controls in our cohort (combined AJ cohort OR = 2.7, p = 6.9e-03, 95% confidence interval = 1.3-5.3). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that ATM is a moderate-penetrance LUAD risk gene and that LUAD may be a part of the ATM-related cancer syndrome spectrum. Individuals with ATM RDVs are at an elevated LUAD risk and can benefit from increased surveillance (particularly computed tomography scanning), early detection, and chemoprevention programs, improving prognosis.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914876

RESUMO

At the time of cancer diagnosis, body mass index (BMI) is inversely correlated with lung cancer risk, which may reflect reverse causality and confounding due to smoking behavior. We used two-sample univariable and multivariable Mendelian randomization (MR) to estimate causal relationships of BMI and smoking behaviors on lung cancer and histological subtypes based on an aggregated genome-wide association studies (GWASs) analysis of lung cancer in 29 266 cases and 56 450 controls. We observed a positive causal effect for high BMI on occurrence of small-cell lung cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24-2.06, P = 2.70 × 10-4 ). After adjustment of smoking behaviors using multivariable Mendelian randomization (MVMR), a direct causal effect on small cell lung cancer (ORMVMR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.06-1.55, PMVMR = .011), and an inverse effect on lung adenocarcinoma (ORMVMR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77-0.96, PMVMR = .008) were observed. A weak increased risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma was observed for higher BMI in univariable Mendelian randomization (UVMR) analysis (ORUVMR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.01-1.40, PUVMR = .036), but this effect disappeared after adjustment of smoking (ORMVMR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.90-1.16, PMVMR = .746). These results highlight the histology-specific impact of BMI on lung carcinogenesis and imply mediator role of smoking behaviors in the association between BMI and lung cancer.

6.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003292, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying stage II patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) at higher risk of progression is a clinical priority in order to optimize the advantages of adjuvant chemotherapy while avoiding unnecessary toxicity. Recently, the intensity and the quality of the host immune response in the tumor microenvironment have been reported to have an important role in tumorigenesis and an inverse association with tumor progression. This association is well established in microsatellite instable CRC. In this work, we aim to assess the usefulness of measures of T-cell infiltration as prognostic biomarkers in 640 stage II, CRC tumors, 582 of them confirmed microsatellite stable. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We measured both the quantity and clonality index of T cells by means of T-cell receptor (TCR) immunosequencing in a discovery dataset (95 patients with colon cancer diagnosed at stage II and microsatellite stable, median age 67, 30% women) and replicated the results in 3 additional series of stage II patients from 2 countries. Series 1 and 2 were recruited in Barcelona, Spain and included 112 fresh frozen (FF, median age 69, 44% women) and 163 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE, median age 67, 39% women) samples, respectively. Series 3 included 270 FFPE samples from patients recruited in Haifa, Northern Israel, as part of a large case-control study of CRC (median age 73, 46% women). Median follow-up time was 81.1 months. Cox regression models were fitted to evaluate the prognostic value of T-cell abundance and Simpson clonality of TCR variants adjusting by sex, age, tumor location, and stage (IIA and IIB). In the discovery dataset, higher TCR abundance was associated with better prognosis (hazard ratio [HR] for ≥Q1 = 0.25, 95% CI 0.10-0.63, P = 0.003). A functional analysis of gene expression on these tumors revealed enrichment in pathways related to immune response. Higher values of clonality index (lower diversity) were not associated with worse disease-free survival, though the HR for ≥Q3 was 2.32 (95% CI 0.90-5.97, P = 0.08). These results were replicated in an independent FF dataset (TCR abundance: HR = 0.30, 95% CI 0.12-0.72, P = 0.007; clonality: HR = 3.32, 95% CI 1.38-7.94, P = 0.007). Also, the association with prognosis was tested in 2 independent FFPE datasets. The same association was observed with TCR abundance (HR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.18-0.93, P = 0.03 and HR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.31-1, P = 0.042, respectively, for each FFPE dataset). However, the clonality index was associated with prognosis only in the FFPE dataset from Israel (HR = 2.45, 95% CI 1.39-4.32, P = 0.002). Finally, a combined analysis combining all microsatellite stable (MSS) samples demonstrated a clear prognosis value both for TCR abundance (HR = 0.39, 95% CI 0.26-0.57, P = 1.3e-06) and the clonality index (HR = 2.13, 95% CI 1.44-3.15, P = 0.0002). These associations were also observed when variables were considered continuous in the models (HR per log2 of TCR abundance = 0.85, 95% CI 0.78-0.93, P = 0.0002; HR per log2 or clonality index = 1.16, 95% CI 1.03-1.31, P = 0.016). LIMITATIONS: This is a retrospective study, and samples had been preserved with different methods. Validation series lack complete information about microsatellite instability (MSI) status and pathology assessment. The Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (MECC) study had information about overall survival instead of progression-free survival. CONCLUSION: Results from this study demonstrate that tumor lymphocytes, assessed by TCR repertoire quantification based on a sequencing method, are an independent prognostic factor in microsatellite stable stage II CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Repetições de Microssatélites/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1800-1808, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) is associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer. Genome-wide interaction analysis on single variants (G × E) has identified several SNPs that may interact with NSAIDs to confer colorectal cancer risk, but variations in gene expression levels may also modify the effect of NSAID use. Therefore, we tested interactions between NSAID use and predicted gene expression levels in relation to colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: Genetically predicted gene expressions were tested for interaction with NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk among 19,258 colorectal cancer cases and 18,597 controls from 21 observational studies. A Mixed Score Test for Interactions (MiSTi) approach was used to jointly assess G × E effects which are modeled via fixed interaction effects of the weighted burden within each gene set (burden) and residual G × E effects (variance). A false discovery rate (FDR) at 0.2 was applied to correct for multiple testing. RESULTS: Among the 4,840 genes tested, genetically predicted expression levels of four genes modified the effect of any NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk, including DPP10 (PG×E = 1.96 × 10-4), KRT16 (PG×E = 2.3 × 10-4), CD14 (PG×E = 9.38 × 10-4), and CYP27A1 (PG×E = 1.44 × 10-3). There was a significant interaction between expression level of RP11-89N17 and regular use of aspirin only on colorectal cancer risk (PG×E = 3.23 × 10-5). No interactions were observed between predicted gene expression and nonaspirin NSAID use at FDR < 0.2. CONCLUSIONS: By incorporating functional information, we discovered several novel genes that interacted with NSAID use. IMPACT: These findings provide preliminary support that could help understand the chemopreventive mechanisms of NSAIDs on colorectal cancer.

8.
Acta Paediatr ; 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649794

RESUMO

AIM: We investigated the prevalence of elevated liver aminotransferases (ALT) and additional comorbidities in a large cohort of Israeli children and adolescents with overweight and obesity. METHODS: This study included data from medical records of 2- to 18-year-old children and adolescents, with body mass index (BMI) in the overweight or obesity range (WHO definitions), for whom ALT testing was performed. RESULTS: Overweight was present in 50 418 (10.7%) and obesity in 70 515 (15.0%). Elevated ALT, above 30 IU/L (0.51 µkat/L), was reported in 2245 (7.2%) of children with overweight and 5475 (16.8%) of children with obesity (P < .0001). Compared to children with overweight and obesity and ALT within normal range, children with elevated ALT were older (11.9 ± 4.2 vs 10.9 ± 4.2, P < .001), mostly male (68.0% vs 49.4%, P < .001) and had higher BMI (27.3 ± 6.1vs 24.0 ± 4.8, P < .001). They also had a more unfavourable cardiometabolic profile with significantly higher either systolic or diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and triglycerides, and had more than three criteria defining metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION: In this large cohort, abnormally elevated ALT was present in a high number of individuals with overweight or obesity. The children and adolescents with abnormal ALT had higher BMI, were older, male and had more cardiometabolic risk factors.

9.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 108(6): 1265-1273, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558928

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to assess the association between reduced apixaban dose and two outcomes: ischemic stroke/systemic embolism (SE) and major bleeding. We performed a retrospective cohort study within the database of the largest healthcare provider in Israel. We identified all patients diagnosed with atrial fibrillation, who started apixaban treatment between 2013 and 2017. Apixaban users were classified into three dosing regimen groups based on their renal function, age, and weight: standard dose (5 mg b.i.d.), adjusted reduced dose (2.5 mg b.i.d.), and underdosing (2.5 mg b.i.d.). Patients were followed through 2018 for the occurrence of stroke/SE and major bleeding. Of the 27,765 included patients, 13,141 (47%) adequately received standard apixaban dose, 4,739 patients (17%) received adjusted reduced dose, and 9,885 patients (36%) were classified as underdosed. The CHA2DS2-VASc score adjusted hazard ratio for ischemic stroke/SE was 1.1 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.83-1.43) in the adjusted reduced dose group, and 1.04 (95% CI, 0.83-1.35) in the underdosing group, compared with the standard apixaban dose group. The HAS-BLED score adjusted hazard ratio for any major bleeding was 1.66 (95% CI, 1.32-2.09) in the adjusted reduced dose group, and 1.51 (95% CI, 1.24-1.83) in the underdosing group, compared with apixaban in the standard dose group. Results were similar for major gastrointestinal bleeding and intracranial hemorrhage separately. We conclude that underdosing with apixaban is very common, and may not disproportionately elevate the risk of ischemic stroke. However, albeit halving the dose, patients treated with reduced apixaban dose (adjusted or underdosing) seem to be at higher risk for major bleeding.

10.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 165: 108232, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes has been associated with increased risk of cancer, including breast cancer and colorectal cancer. Metformin, an oral hypoglycemic drug, but not other anti-diabetic drugs, has been associated with reduced risk of breast and of colon cancers in some, but not in other, studies. METHODS: Data from two large-scale, population-based, case-control studies of breast and colorectal cancers etiology, conducted in Northern Israel since 1998 were analyzed to evaluate the association between regular use (>3 times) of metformin prior to diagnosis and risk of developing cancer. The multivariate analyses for both cancer sites included age, family history of breast/colorectal cancer, history of diabetes, sports participation, fruits/vegetables consumption, aspirin and statins use, and for breast cancer, also included use of oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormones and number of pregnancies. Use of metformin and diabetes status were determined based on valid electronic medical records of the participants. RESULTS: Metformin use prior to diagnosis of cancer was associated with a decrease in risk of both breast cancer (OR = 0.821, 0.726-0.928, p = 0.002) and colorectal cancer (OR = 0.754, 0.623-0.912, p = 0.004). An inverse association was not identified with use of other anti-diabetic medications. Diabetes was found to be associated with risk of colorectal cancer (OR = 1.204, 1.014-1.431, p = 0.034) but not of breast cancer. No dose response by years of use of metformin was found. CONCLUSION: These analyses of large population-based studies provide evidence of a strong inverse association of metformin with breast and, even more so, with colorectal cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2220, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393777

RESUMO

Few germline mutations are known to affect lung cancer risk. We performed analyses of rare variants from 39,146 individuals of European ancestry and investigated gene expression levels in 7,773 samples. We find a large-effect association with an ATM L2307F (rs56009889) mutation in adenocarcinoma for discovery (adjusted Odds Ratio = 8.82, P = 1.18 × 10-15) and replication (adjusted OR = 2.93, P = 2.22 × 10-3) that is more pronounced in females (adjusted OR = 6.81 and 3.19 and for discovery and replication). We observe an excess loss of heterozygosity in lung tumors among ATM L2307F allele carriers. L2307F is more frequent (4%) among Ashkenazi Jewish populations. We also observe an association in discovery (adjusted OR = 2.61, P = 7.98 × 10-22) and replication datasets (adjusted OR = 1.55, P = 0.06) with a loss-of-function mutation, Q4X (rs150665432) of an uncharacterized gene, KIAA0930. Our findings implicate germline genetic variants in ATM with lung cancer susceptibility and suggest KIAA0930 as a novel candidate gene for lung cancer risk.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Idoso , Alelos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Judeus/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Razão de Chances , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Linhagem , RNA-Seq , Fatores de Risco
12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(7): 1423-1429, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of cancer driver genes (CDG) are also cancer predisposition genes. However, the associations between genetic variants in lung CDGs and the susceptibility to lung cancer have rarely been investigated. METHODS: We selected expression-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (eSNP) and nonsynonymous variants of lung CDGs, and tested their associations with lung cancer risk in two large-scale genome-wide association studies (20,871 cases and 15,971 controls of European descent). Conditional and joint association analysis was performed to identify independent risk variants. The associations of independent risk variants with somatic alterations in lung CDGs or recurrently altered pathways were investigated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. RESULTS: We identified seven independent SNPs in five lung CDGs that were consistently associated with lung cancer risk in discovery (P < 0.001) and validation (P < 0.05) stages. Among these loci, rs78062588 in TPM3 (1q21.3) was a new lung cancer susceptibility locus (OR = 0.86, P = 1.65 × 10-6). Subgroup analysis by histologic types further identified nine lung CDGs. Analysis of somatic alterations found that in lung adenocarcinomas, rs78062588[C] allele (TPM3 in 1q21.3) was associated with elevated somatic copy number of TPM3 (OR = 1.16, P = 0.02). In lung adenocarcinomas, rs1611182 (HLA-A in 6p22.1) was associated with truncation mutations of the transcriptional misregulation in cancer pathway (OR = 0.66, P = 1.76 × 10-3). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variants can regulate functions of lung CDGs and influence lung cancer susceptibility. IMPACT: Our findings might help unravel biological mechanisms underlying lung cancer susceptibility.

13.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) is a complex phenotype that may interact with genetic variants to influence colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: We tested multiplicative statistical interactions between BMI (per 5 kg·m2) and approximately 2.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with colorectal cancer risk among 14,059 colorectal cancer case (53.2% women) and 14,416 control (53.8% women) participants. All analyses were stratified by sex a priori. Statistical methods included two-step (i.e., Cocktail method) and single-step (i.e., case-control logistic regression and a joint 2-degree of freedom test) procedures. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Each 5 kg·m2 increase in BMI was associated with higher risks of colorectal cancer, less so for women (odds ratio [OR]: 1.14; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.11-1.18; p-value: 9.75 x 10-17) than for men (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.20-1.32; p-value: 2.13 x 10-24). The two-step Cocktail method identified an interaction for women, but not men, between BMI and a SMAD7 intronic variant at 18q21.1 (rs4939827; p-observed: 0.0009; p-threshold: 0.005). A joint 2-degree of freedom test was consistent with this finding for women (joint p-value: 2.43 x 10-10). Each 5 kg·m2 increase in BMI was more strongly associated with colorectal cancer risk for women with the rs4939827-CC genotype (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.16-1.32; p-value: 2.60 x 10-10) than for women with the CT (OR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.09-1.19; p-value: 1.04 x 10-8) or TT (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.14; p-value: 0.02) genotypes. CONCLUSION: These results provide novel insights on a potential mechanism through which a SMAD7 variant, previously identified as a susceptibility locus for colorectal cancer, and BMI may influence colorectal cancer risk for women.

14.
Cancer Med ; 9(10): 3563-3573, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) and diabetes are established risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC), likely through perturbations in metabolic traits (e.g. insulin resistance and glucose homeostasis). Identification of interactions between variation in genes and these metabolic risk factors may identify novel biologic insights into CRC etiology. METHODS: To improve statistical power and interpretation for gene-environment interaction (G × E) testing, we tested genetic variants that regulate expression of a gene together for interaction with BMI (kg/m2 ) and diabetes on CRC risk among 26 017 cases and 20 692 controls. Each variant was weighted based on PrediXcan analysis of gene expression data from colon tissue generated in the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project for all genes with heritability ≥1%. We used a mixed-effects model to jointly measure the G × E interaction in a gene by partitioning the interactions into the predicted gene expression levels (fixed effects), and residual G × E effects (random effects). G × BMI analyses were stratified by sex as BMI-CRC associations differ by sex. We used false discovery rates to account for multiple comparisons and reported all results with FDR <0.2. RESULTS: Among 4839 genes tested, genetically predicted expressions of FOXA1 (P = 3.15 × 10-5 ), PSMC5 (P = 4.51 × 10-4 ) and CD33 (P = 2.71 × 10-4 ) modified the association of BMI on CRC risk for men; KIAA0753 (P = 2.29 × 10-5 ) and SCN1B (P = 2.76 × 10-4 ) modified the association of BMI on CRC risk for women; and PTPN2 modified the association between diabetes and CRC risk in both sexes (P = 2.31 × 10-5 ). CONCLUSIONS: Aggregating G × E interactions and incorporating functional information, we discovered novel genes that may interact with BMI and diabetes on CRC risk.

15.
Thromb Res ; 189: 48-54, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169750

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hip fracture is common among the elderly and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, particularly when surgery is delayed. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) use might increase bleeding and postpone hip repair surgery. We aimed to assess the association between preoperative DOACs use and adverse outcomes in elderly patients with hip fracture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included all elderly patients (≥65 years), from the district of Haifa and Western Galilee, Israel, who underwent hip repair surgery for hip fracture between 2014 and 2018. Regression models with adjustment for propensity score were used to assess the association with all-cause mortality and other adverse outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 3418 patients with hip fracture were included of whom 163 (4.8%) were vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) users and 247 (7.2%) were DOCAs users. Propensity score adjusted models revealed that, compared to no anticoagulants use, DOACs use were independently associated with decreased risk of 30-day and 90-day mortality; HR 0.38 (95% CI, 0.17-0.88) and 0.47 (0.27-0.82), respectively. No significant associations were detected between VKAs use and all-cause mortality, compared to no anticoagulants use. DOACs and VKAs had significantly longer waiting time for hip repair surgery, and longer stay in hospital. DOACs and VKAs users had a non-significant higher estimated intraoperative bleeding. However, only VKAs users required a significantly higher number of blood transfusions. CONCLUSIONS: Albeit being associated with longer waiting time for surgery and longer hospitalization, DOACs use appears to be associated with reduced risk of mortality among elderly patients with hip fracture.

16.
Ann Hematol ; 99(5): 1007-1016, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157418

RESUMO

Controversy regarding the risk of non-hematologic malignancies in myelofibrosis patients still exists. We aimed to examine the association between myelofibrosis and non-hematologic malignancies. A cohort of 1,469,790 adults without a diagnosis of myelofibrosis was identified on 1 January 2007, from the electronic medical records of the largest healthcare provider in Israel. Participants were followed up until 31 December 2015, for the occurrence of myelofibrosis. All cases of myelofibrosis were adjudicated by reviewing patients' electronic medical files. Using risk set sampling, four randomly selected controls (without myelofibrosis) were matched to each case of myelofibrosis on age, sex, ethnicity, and index date. Patients with and without myelofibrosis were followed from the index date until 31 December 2016 for the occurrence of non-hematologic malignancies based on the data from the Israel National Cancer Registry. The study included 550 patients with myelofibrosis and 2200 matched controls. Non-hematologic cancers occurred in 35 patients with myelofibrosis and 138 patients without myelofibrosis, reflecting a crude incidence rate of 27.9 and 15.3 per 1000 person-years, respectively. Myelofibrosis was independently associated with increased risk of non-hematologic malignancies with propensity score adjusted HR of 1.85 (95% CI, 1.09-3.15). No significant association was detected between myelofibrosis and the specific sites of non-hematologic malignancies. Treatment with ruxolitinib was not significantly associated with non-hematologic malignancies HR 1.36 (0.60-3.11). In conclusion, myelofibrosis appears to be associated with increased risk of non-hematologic malignancies. However, this study raises concerns about surveillance bias, suggesting that the association might be attributed to earlier detection rather than real increased risk.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Mielofibrose Primária/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(4): 860-870, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results from epidemiologic studies examining polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and colorectal cancer risk are inconsistent. Mendelian randomization may strengthen causal inference from observational studies. Given their shared metabolic pathway, examining the combined effects of aspirin/NSAID use with PUFAs could help elucidate an association between PUFAs and colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: Information was leveraged from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) regarding PUFA-associated SNPs to create weighted genetic scores (wGS) representing genetically predicted circulating blood PUFAs for 11,016 non-Hispanic white colorectal cancer cases and 13,732 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Associations per SD increase in the wGS were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Interactions between PUFA wGSs and aspirin/NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk were also examined. RESULTS: Modest colorectal cancer risk reductions were observed per SD increase in circulating linoleic acid [ORLA = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.93-0.98; P = 5.2 × 10-4] and α-linolenic acid (ORALA = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.92-0.97; P = 5.4 × 10-5), whereas modest increased risks were observed for arachidonic (ORAA = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.03-1.08; P = 3.3 × 10-5), eicosapentaenoic (OREPA = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.01-1.07; P = 2.5 × 10-3), and docosapentaenoic acids (ORDPA = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.01-1.06; P = 1.2 × 10-2). Each of these effects was stronger among aspirin/NSAID nonusers in the stratified analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that higher circulating shorter-chain PUFAs (i.e., LA and ALA) were associated with reduced colorectal cancer risk, whereas longer-chain PUFAs (i.e., AA, EPA, and DPA) were associated with an increased colorectal cancer risk. IMPACT: The interaction of PUFAs with aspirin/NSAID use indicates a shared colorectal cancer inflammatory pathway. Future research should continue to improve PUFA genetic instruments to elucidate the independent effects of PUFAs on colorectal cancer.

18.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(4): 916-925, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of thromboembolism in myelofibrosis remains incompletely understood. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between myelofibrosis and each of venous and arterial thromboembolism. METHODS: A cohort of 1 469 790 adults without a diagnosis of myelofibrosis was identified on 1 January 2007, from the electronic medical records of the largest health-care provider in Israel. Participants were followed until 31 December 2016 for the occurrence of myelofibrosis. Four randomly selected controls (without myelofibrosis) were matched to each case of myelofibrosis on age, sex, religious identification, and index date. The two groups were followed from the index date until 31 December 2017 for the occurrence of venous and arterial thromboembolism. RESULTS: The study included 642 patients with myelofibrosis and 2568 matched controls. Myelofibrosis was independently associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism but not with arterial thromboembolism. The propensity score adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 6.88 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.02-23.45) for venous thromboembolism, and 0.94 (0.49-1.77) for arterial thromboembolism. Atypical sites of venous thromboembolism occurred almost exclusively in patients with myelofibrosis (four events of Budd Chiari versus none, and two mesenteric vein thrombosis events versus one) and were more likely to occur around the time of myelofibrosis diagnosis. No significant association was found between JAK2 inhibitor treatment (ruxolitinib) and the risk of venous HR 0.97 (0.30-3.12) or arterial thromboembolism 1.68 (0.78-3.62). CONCLUSIONS: Myelofibrosis is associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism but not of arterial thromboembolism. Atypical sites of venous thromboembolism are more frequent in myelofibrosis and are more likely to occur shortly after diagnosis.

19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 27, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911640

RESUMO

Impaired lung function is often caused by cigarette smoking, making it challenging to disentangle its role in lung cancer susceptibility. Investigation of the shared genetic basis of these phenotypes in the UK Biobank and International Lung Cancer Consortium (29,266 cases, 56,450 controls) shows that lung cancer is genetically correlated with reduced forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1: rg = 0.098, p = 2.3 × 10-8) and the ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC: rg = 0.137, p = 2.0 × 10-12). Mendelian randomization analyses demonstrate that reduced FEV1 increases squamous cell carcinoma risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% confidence intervals: 1.21-1.88), while reduced FEV1/FVC increases the risk of adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.17, 1.01-1.35) and lung cancer in never smokers (OR = 1.56, 1.05-2.30). These findings support a causal role of pulmonary impairment in lung cancer etiology. Integrative analyses reveal that pulmonary function instruments, including 73 novel variants, influence lung tissue gene expression and implicate immune-related pathways in mediating the observed effects on lung carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Testes de Função Respiratória , Capacidade Vital
20.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 29(3): 229-237, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714342

RESUMO

Females differ from males in incidence and clinical characteristics of colorectal cancer. Understanding the differences can lead to development of preventive approaches. To identify reproductive factors currently associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. Consecutively diagnosed female colorectal cancer cases and randomly chosen colorectal cancer-free controls matched on age/ethnicity/primary care clinic within the molecular epidemiology of colorectal cancer study, a population-based case-control study in Northern Israel, were included. A total of 2867 female cases and 2333 controls participated in this analysis. Participants were interviewed on reproductive history: ages at menarche, menopause, first birth, terminations of pregnancies, miscarriages, births, use of oral contraceptives. Among 5200 women, spontaneous miscarriages (odds ratio = 0.71, 0.61-0.83 for ever/never in Jews; odds ratio = 0.76, 0.53-1.08 in Arabs) and number of miscarriages, but not termination of pregnancies, as well as use, and duration of use, of oral contraceptives (Jews: odds ratio = 0.49, 0.39-0.62 for ever/never; Arabs: odds ratio = 0.14, 0.04-0.47) were strongly inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. Up to 5 pregnancies were associated with increased risk while ages at menarche, at menopause and at first birth were not associated with colorectal cancer risk. Miscarriages but not terminations of pregnancy or full-term pregnancies, and use of oral contraceptives, were strongly associated with reduced odds of developing colorectal cancer suggesting unique hormonal influences on colorectal cancer.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA