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1.
Biochem Pharmacol ; : 114283, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069664

RESUMO

Adolescents often suffer from short and mistimed sleep. To counteract the resulting daytime sleepiness they frequently consume caffeine. However, caffeine intake may exaggerate sleep problems by disturbing sleep and circadian timing. In a 28-hour double-blind randomized crossover study, we investigated to what extent caffeine disturbs slow-wave sleep (SWS) and delays circadian timing in teenagers. Following a 6-day ambulatory phase of caffeine abstinence and fixed sleep-wake-cycles, 18 male teenagers (14-17 years old) ingested 80 mg caffeine vs. placebo in the laboratory four hours prior to an electro-encephalographically (EEG) monitored nighttime sleep episode. Data were analyzed using both frequentist and Bayesian statistics. The analyses suggest that subjective sleepiness is reduced after caffeine compared to placebo. However, we did not observe a substantial influence of the given dose neither on subjective sleep quality nor on SWS, but rather a high inter-individual variability in caffeine-induced SWS changes. Exploratory analyses suggest that particularly those individuals with a higher level of SWS during placebo reduced SWS in response to caffeine. Regarding salivary melatonin onsets, caffeine-induced delays were not evident at group level, and only observed in participants exposed to a higher caffeine dose relative to individual bodyweight (i.e., a dose >1.3mg/kg). Together, the results suggest that 80 mg caffeine are sufficient to induce alertness at a subjective level. However, particularly teenagers with a strong need for deep sleep might pay for these subjective benefits by a loss of SWS during the night. Thus, caffeine-induced sleep-disruptions might change along with the maturation of sleep need.

2.
Cell Metab ; 32(3): 457-467.e5, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738204

RESUMO

Serum acetate increases upon systemic infection. Acutely, assimilation of acetate expands the capacity of memory CD8+ T cells to produce IFN-γ. Whether acetate modulates memory CD8+ T cell metabolism and function during pathogen re-encounter remains unexplored. Here we show that at sites of infection, high acetate concentrations are being reached, yet memory CD8+ T cells shut down the acetate assimilating enzymes ACSS1 and ACSS2. Acetate, being thus largely excluded from incorporation into cellular metabolic pathways, now had different effects, namely (1) directly activating glutaminase, thereby augmenting glutaminolysis, cellular respiration, and survival, and (2) suppressing TCR-triggered calcium flux, and consequently cell activation and effector cell function. In vivo, high acetate abundance at sites of infection improved pathogen clearance while reducing immunopathology. This indicates that, during different stages of the immune response, the same metabolite-acetate-induces distinct immunometabolic programs within the same cell type.

3.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(11)2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835363

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Copeptin is a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin (AVP) release in response to hyperosmolal stimuli such as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work is to characterize kinetics of copeptin and osmolality, and their dynamic relationship during rehydration and insulin therapy in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and DKA. DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective, observational, multicenter study was conducted. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTION: Children with T1D admitted for DKA underwent serial serum copeptin and osmolality measurements from start of rehydration at 14 time points during 72 hours. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Measurements included temporal course of copeptin and osmolality (kinetics), relationship between both (dynamics), and association between-subject variability (BSV) (coefficient of variation, CV%). RESULTS: Twenty-eight children (20 newly diagnosed T1D) aged 1 to 16 years were included. Copeptin decreased from 95 pmol/L (95% CI, 55-136 pmol/L) (CV%, 158%) to 9.7 pmol/L (95% CI, 8.1-11.4 pmol/L) (CV%, 31%) with a 50% recovery time (t1/2) of 7.1 hours (range, 5.1-11.5 hours) (114%). Serum osmolality decreased from 321 mOsm/kg (range, 315-327 mOsm/kg) (4%) to 294 mOsm/kg (range, 292-296 mOsm/kg) (1%) with a t1/2 of 4.3 hours (range, 3.0-5.6 hours) (64%). Copeptin levels doubled with each osmolality increase by 15 mOsm/kg (range, 10-21 mOsm/kg) (59%), from 9.8 pmol/L (range, 7.3-12.3 pmol/L) (48%) to 280 mOsm/kg. Copeptin kinetics differed between newly diagnosed and known T1D patients (P = .001), and less between mild vs moderate-severe DKA (P = .04). CONCLUSIONS: First, this study characterized for the first time copeptin kinetics and dynamics in the high hyperosmolar range in children with DKA. Second, it revealed significant differences in copeptin kinetics between newly diagnosed and known T1D patients that may be explained by changes at the osmoreceptor and renal AVP receptor level due to longstanding osmotic diuresis and DKA.

4.
J Infect Dis ; 222(8): 1270-1279, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in China as the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 in December 2019 and reached Europe by late January 2020, when community-acquired respiratory viruses (CARVs) are at their annual peak. We validated the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended SARS-CoV-2 assay and analyzed the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 and CARVs. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs (NOPS) from 7663 patients were prospectively tested by the Basel S-gene and WHO-based E-gene (Roche) assays in parallel using the Basel N-gene assay for confirmation. CARVs were prospectively tested in 2394 NOPS by multiplex nucleic acid testing, including 1816 (75%) simultaneously for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: The Basel S-gene and Roche E-gene assays were concordant in 7475 cases (97.5%) including 825 (11%) SARS-CoV-2 positives. In 188 (2.5%) discordant cases, SARS-CoV-2 loads were significantly lower than in concordant positive ones and confirmed in 105 (1.4%). Adults were more frequently SARS-CoV-2 positive, whereas children tested more frequently CARV positive. CARV coinfections with SARS-CoV-2 occurred in 1.8%. SARS-CoV-2 replaced CARVs within 3 weeks, reaching 48% of all detected respiratory viruses followed by rhinovirus/enterovirus (13%), influenza virus (12%), coronavirus (9%), respiratory syncytial virus (6%), and metapneumovirus (6%). CONCLUSIONS: Winter CARVs were dominant during the early SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, impacting infection control and treatment decisions, but were rapidly replaced, suggesting competitive infection. We hypothesize that preexisting immune memory and innate immune interference contribute to the different SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology among adults and children.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Coinfecção/imunologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Proteínas do Envelope Viral , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
6.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 150: w20271, 2020 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-176517

RESUMO

The reproductive number in Switzerland was between 1.5 and 2 during the first third of March, and has consistently decreased to around 1. After the announcement of the latest strict measure on 20 March 2020, namely that gatherings of more than five people in public spaces are prohibited, the reproductive number dropped significantly below 1; the authors of this study estimate the reproductive number to be between 0.6 and 0.8 in the first third of April.


Assuntos
Número Básico de Reprodução , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Suíça/epidemiologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451223

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Release kinetics of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) T and I in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are incompletely understood. We aimed to assess whether hs-cTnT/I release in early AMI is near linear. METHODS: In a prospective diagnostic multicenter study the acute release of hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI within 1 and 2hours from presentation to the emergency department was quantified using 3 hs-cTnT/I assays in patients with suspected AMI. The primary endpoint was correlation between hs-cTn changes from presentation to 1 hour vs changes from presentation to 2hours, among all AMI patients and different prespecified subgroups. The final diagnosis was adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists, based on serial hs-cTnT from the serial study blood samples and additional locally measured hs-cTn values. RESULTS: Among 2437 patients with complete hs-cTnT data, AMI was the adjudicated diagnosis in 376 patients (15%). For hs-cTnT, the correlation coefficient between 0- to 1-hour change and 0- to 2 hour change was 0.931 (95%CI, 0.916-0.944), P <.001. Similar findings were obtained with hs-cTnI (Architect) with correlation coefficients between 0- to 1-hour change and 0- to 2 hour change of 0.969 and hs-cTnI (Centaur) of 0.934 (P <.001 for both). Findings were consistent among type 1 and type 2 AMI and in the subgroup of patients presenting very early after chest pain onset. CONCLUSIONS: Patients presenting with early AMI showed a near linear release of hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI. This near linearity provides the pathophysiological basis for rapid diagnostic algorithms using 0- to 1-hour changes as surrogates for 0- to 2 hour or 0- to 3 hour changes. Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT00470587).

8.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 150: w20271, 2020 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365217

RESUMO

The reproductive number in Switzerland was between 1.5 and 2 during the first third of March, and has consistently decreased to around 1. After the announcement of the latest strict measure on 20 March 2020, namely that gatherings of more than five people in public spaces are prohibited, the reproductive number dropped significantly below 1; the authors of this study estimate the reproductive number to be between 0.6 and 0.8 in the first third of April.


Assuntos
Número Básico de Reprodução , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Suíça/epidemiologia
9.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 186: 113289, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428767

RESUMO

A high performance hydrophilic interaction chromatography method combined with tandem-mass spectrometry for the quantification of cefepime, meropenem and imipenem in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid is presented. A solution of 0.5 M 3-Morpholinopropanesulfonic acid and ethylene glycol (1:1) was added to the samples before analysis to ensure stability of analytes during work up and storage. Deuterated forms of cefepime and meropenem were used as internal standards. Protein precipitation prior to injection into the LC-MS/MS system provided a fast and easy sample preparation. For online extraction, a Turboflow Cyclone-MCX column was used and the chromatographic separation was carried out on a Hypersil GOLD HILIC column. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range of 0.4-40 mg/l, 0.6-60 mg/l and 1-100 mg/l for meropenem, imipenem and cefepime, respectively. The intra- and interday imprecision and inaccuracy values were below 10 % for plasma and 13 % for cerebrospinal fluid using a calibration in plasma. The method was employed for therapeutic drug measurements in a university hospital.

10.
Ther Drug Monit ; 42(2): 255-263, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068668

RESUMO

The number of newborns exposed to therapeutic drugs during pregnancy is growing because of the increased use of drugs during pregnancy. In recent years, advances in our understanding of drug placental transfer have augmented the likelihood of a healthy baby in mothers with chronic diseases needing drug therapy. Globally, for example, more than 1.4 million pregnancies in 2015 have been burdened with antiretroviral drugs due to an increasing number of HIV-positive women treated with these drugs, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. In most cases, the fetus is exposed to much higher drug doses in utero than the newborn nursed by the mother. Drug transfer through the placenta takes place by passive diffusion, active transport, or facilitated transport, and drug concentrations in the fetal circulation may be comparable to that in the mother's blood concentration. The excretion of drugs into breastmilk predominantly occurs by passive diffusion, allowing only the non-protein-bound fraction of the blood drug concentration to penetrate. Drug agencies in the United States and Europe highly recommend performing clinical trials in pregnant or breastfeeding women. However, only a few drugs have reported statistically sound data in these patient groups. Most available results concerning pregnancy are obtained from observational studies after birth, assessing outcomes in the newborn or by measuring drug concentrations in the mother and umbilical cord blood. In the case of the lactation period, some studies have evaluated drug concentrations in breastmilk and blood of the mother and/or infant. In this review, exposure to antiretrovirals, immunosuppressants used after solid organ transplantation, and antiepileptics during pregnancy and lactation has been discussed in detail.

11.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(3): 715-725, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900530

RESUMO

An analytical method using 2D high-performance liquid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry for the quantification of the beta-lactam antibiotics amoxicillin, flucloxacillin, piperacillin, benzylpenicillin, the beta-lactamase inhibitors clavulanic acid, and tazobactam, as well as the macrolide antibiotic clindamycin, is presented. All analytes were measured in human plasma, while amoxicillin, clavulanic acid, flucloxacillin, and clindamycin were also analyzed in human tissue samples. Because of its high-protein binding, additionally, the free fraction of flucloxacillin was measured after ultrafiltration. As internal standards, deuterated forms of the beta-lactams were used. Sample preparation for all matrices was protein precipitation followed by online extraction on a TurboFlow MAX column, while sample separation was performed on an Accucore XL C18 column. Calibration curves were linear over 0.2-25 mg/kg for the tissue samples and 0.05-20 mg/l for the free fraction of flucloxacillin. In plasma, the calibration curves for amoxicillin and piperacillin were linear over 3.125-125 mg/l, for clavulanic acid and tazobactam over 1-40 mg/l, for benzylpenicillin 0.25-40 mg/l, and for flucloxacillin and clindamycin over 1.5-60 mg/l and 0.05-8 mg/l respectively. In plasma and plasma ultrafiltrate, inaccuracy and imprecision for any analyte were always less than 15%. In tissue, the accuracy and precision varied up to 16%, respectively, 20%, when various tissues were analyzed using a calibration in water. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Antibacterianos/sangue , Antibacterianos/normas , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Humanos , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circadian and sleep-homeostatic mechanisms regulate timing and quality of wakefulness. To enhance wakefulness, daily consumption of caffeine in the morning and afternoon is highly common. However, the effects of such a regular intake pattern on circadian sleep-wake regulation are unknown. Thus, we investigated if daily daytime caffeine intake and caffeine withdrawal affect circadian rhythms and wake-promotion in habitual consumers. METHODS: Twenty male young volunteers participated in a randomised, double-blind, within-subject study with three conditions: i) caffeine (150 mg 3 x daily for 10 days), ii) placebo (3 x daily for 10 days) and iii) withdrawal (150 mg caffeine 3 x daily for eight days, followed by a switch to placebo for two days). Starting on day nine of treatment, salivary melatonin and cortisol, evening nap sleep as well as sleepiness and vigilance performance throughout day and night were quantified during 43 h in an in-laboratory, light and posture-controlled protocol. RESULTS: Neither the time course of melatonin (i.e. onset, amplitude or area under the curve) nor the time course of cortisol was significantly affected by caffeine or withdrawal. During withdrawal, however, volunteers reported increased sleepiness, showed more attentional lapses as well as polysomnography-derived markers of elevated sleep propensity in the late evening compared to both the placebo and caffeine condition. CONCLUSIONS: The typical pattern of caffeine intake with consumption in both the morning and afternoon hours may not necessarily result in a circadian phase shift in the evening nor lead to clear-cut benefits in alertness. The time-of-day independent effects of caffeine withdrawal on evening nap sleep, sleepiness and performance suggest an adaptation to the substance, presumably in the homeostatic aspect of sleep-wake regulation.

13.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 6: 221, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681778

RESUMO

Background: Artemisia annua is a Chinese medicinal herb. Artemisinin-derivatives are recommended as part of a combination treatment for uncomplicated malaria. Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are increasingly used worldwide and HDS-induced liver injury is becoming a growing concern. Case Report: We present the first case of severe acute cholestatic hepatitis due to the intake of Artemisia annua tea as chemoprophylaxis for malaria in a patient returning from Ethiopia. The patients presented with jaundice, elevated transaminases, and parameters of cholestasis (total bilirubin 186.6 µmol/L, conjugated bilirubin 168.5 µmol/L). A liver biopsy showed a portal hepatitis with lymphocytic infiltration of the bile ducts and diffuse intra-canalicular and intra-cytoplasmic bilirubinostasis. The toxicologic analysis of the Artemisia tea revealed the ingredients arteannuin b, deoxyartemisin, campher, and scopoletin. There were no other identifiable etiologies of liver disease. The Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) score assessed a "probably" causal relationship. Sequencing of genes encoding for hepatic transporters for bile acid homeostasis (BSEP, MDR3, and FIC1) found no genetic variants typically associated with hereditary cholestasis syndromes. Normalization of bilirubin occurred 3 months after the onset of disease. Conclusion: The use of artemisinin-derivatives for malaria prevention is ineffective and potentially harmful and should thus be discouraged. Moreover, the case demonstrates our as yet inadequate understanding of the pathophysiology and susceptibility to HDS induced liver injury.

15.
Int J Cardiol ; 286: 104-110, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30853296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relative hypochromia of erythrocytes defined as a reduced mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) is a surrogate of iron deficiency. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and prognostic impact of relative hypochromia in acute heart failure (AHF). METHODS: We prospectively characterized 1574 patients presenting with an adjudicated diagnosis of AHF to the emergency department. Relative hypochromia was defined as a MCHC ≤330 g/l and determined at presentation. The presence of AHF was adjudicated by two independent cardiologists. All-cause mortality and AHF-rehospitalization were the primary prognostic end-points. RESULTS: Overall, 455 (29%) AHF patients had relative hypochromia. Patients with relative hypochromia had higher hemodynamic cardiac stress as quantified by NT-proBNP concentrations (p < 0.001), more extensive cardiomyocyte injury as quantified by high-sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) concentrations (p < 0.001), and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; p < 0.001) as compared to AHF patients without hypochromia. Cumulative incidences for all-cause mortality and AHF-rehospitalization at 720-days were 50% and 55% in patients with relative hypochromia as compared to 33% and 39% in patients without hypochromia, respectively (both p < 0.0001). The association between relative hypochromia and increased mortality (HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2-0) persisted after adjusting for anemia (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.8), and after adjusting for hemodynamic cardiac stress (HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.21-1.76) and eGFR (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.8, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Relative hypochromia is common and a strong and independent predictor of increased mortality in AHF. Given the direct link to diagnostic (endoscopy) and therapeutic interventions to treat functional iron deficiency, relative hypochromia deserves increased attention as an inexpensive and universally available biomarker.


Assuntos
Anemia Hipocrômica/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Ferro/sangue , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anemia Hipocrômica/sangue , Anemia Hipocrômica/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Suíça/epidemiologia
16.
Heart ; 105(11): 826-833, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541757

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recently, daytime variation in perioperative myocardial injury (PMI) has been observed in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. We aim at investigating whether daytime variation also occurs in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. METHODS: In a prospective diagnostic study, we evaluated the presence of daytime variation in PMI in patients at increased cardiovascular risk undergoing non-cardiac surgery, as well as its possible impact on the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and death during 1-year follow-up in a propensity score-matched cohort. PMI was defined as an absolute increase in high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) concentration of ≥14 ng/L from preoperative to postoperative measurements. RESULTS: Of 1641 patients, propensity score matching defined 630 with similar baseline characteristics, half undergoing non-cardiac surgery in the morning (starting from 8:00 to 11:00) and half in the afternoon (starting from 14:00 to 17:00). There was no difference in PMI incidence between both groups (morning: 50, 15.8% (95% CI 12.3 to 20.3); afternoon: 52, 16.4% (95% CI 12.7 to 20.9), p=0.94), nor if analysing hs-cTnT release as a quantitative variable (median morning group: 3 ng/L (95% CI 1 to 7 ng/L); median afternoon group: 2 ng/L (95% CI 0 to 7 ng/L; p=0.16). During 1-year follow-up, the incidence of AMI was 1.2% (95% CI 0.4% to 3.2%) among morning surgeries versus 4.1% (95% CI 2.3% to 6.9%) among the afternoon surgeries (corrected HR for afternoon surgery 3.44, bootstrapped 95% CI 1.33 to 10.49, p log-rank=0.03), whereas no difference in mortality emerged (p=0.70). CONCLUSIONS: Although there is no daytime variation in PMI in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery, the incidence of AMI during follow-up is increased in afternoon surgeries and requires further study. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02573532;Results.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Pontuação de Propensão , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Período Pré-Operatório , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Suíça/epidemiologia
17.
Clin Chem ; 65(2): 302-312, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The early diagnosis of urgent abdominal pain (UAP) is challenging. Most causes of UAP are associated with extensive inflammation. Therefore, we hypothesized that quantifying inflammation using interleukin-6 and/or procalcitonin would provide incremental value in the emergency diagnosis of UAP. METHODS: This was an investigator-initiated prospective, multicenter diagnostic study enrolling patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute abdominal pain. Clinical judgment of the treating physician regarding the presence of UAP was quantified using a visual analog scale after initial clinical and physician-directed laboratory assessment, and again after imaging. Two independent specialists adjudicated the final diagnosis and the classification as UAP (life-threatening, needing urgent surgery and/or hospitalization for acute medical reasons) using all information including histology and follow-up. Interleukin-6 and procalcitonin were measured blinded in a central laboratory. RESULTS: UAP was adjudicated in 376 of 1038 (36%) patients. Diagnostic accuracy for UAP was higher for interleukin-6 [area under the ROC curve (AUC), 0.80; 95% CI, 0.77-0.82] vs procalcitonin (AUC, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.62-0.68) and clinical judgment (AUC, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.65-0.72; both P < 0.001). Combined assessment of interleukin-6 and clinical judgment increased the AUC at presentation to 0.83 (95% CI, 0.80-0.85) and after imaging to 0.87 (95% CI, 0.84-0.89) and improved the correct identification of patients with and without UAP (net improvement in mean predicted probability: presentation, +19%; after imaging, +15%; P < 0.001). Decision curve analysis documented incremental value across the full range of pretest probabilities. A clinical judgment/interleukin-6 algorithm ruled out UAP with a sensitivity of 97% and ruled in UAP with a specificity of 93%. CONCLUSIONS: Interleukin-6 significantly improves the early diagnosis of UAP in the ED.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Área Sob a Curva , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Julgamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pró-Calcitonina/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
18.
Int J Cardiol ; 275: 20-25, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: We hypothesized, that quantifying inflammation by measuring circulating interleukin-6 concentrations help in the diagnosis and/or prediction of functionally relevant CAD. Among consecutive patients with symptoms suggestive of CAD, functionally relevant CAD was adjudicated in two domains: first, diagnosis according to myocardial perfusion single photon emission tomography (MPI-SPECT) and coronary angiography; second, cardiovascular death and all-cause death during 2-years follow-up. Adjudication was done blinded to the interleukin-6 concentrations. RESULTS: Among 1553 patients, symptoms were adjudicated to be causally related to CAD in 43% (665/1553). Interleukin-6 concentrations were higher in patients with functionally relevant CAD as compared to those without (1.56 pg/mL versus 1.30 pg/mL, p < 0.001), but overall had only low-to-modest diagnostic accuracy (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.57, 95%CI 0.55-0.61) and were no independent predictor of functionally relevant CAD after multivariable adjustment (p = 0.068). Interleukin-6 concentrations had moderate-to-high accuracy in the prediction of cardiovascular death (AUC 0.75, 95%CI 0.69-0.82) and all-cause death (AUC 0.72, 95%CI 0.66-0.78) at 2-years, and remained a significant predictor after multivariable adjustment (p < 0.001). Compared to patients with interleukin-6 concentrations below the median (1.41 pg/mL), patients with concentrations above the median had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of cardiovascular death (1% vs. 4%, log-rank p < 0.001) and all-cause death (2% vs. 8%, log-rank p < 0.001) at 2 years. CONCLUSION: Interleukin-6 concentrations are strong and independent predictors of cardiovascular death and all-cause death.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Precoce , Interleucina-6/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Causas de Morte/tendências , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Suíça/epidemiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único/métodos
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