Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 39
Filtrar
Filtros adicionais











Intervalo de ano
1.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170332

RESUMO

In bone, sclerostin is mainly osteocyte-derived and plays an important local role in adaptive responses to mechanical loading. Whether circulating levels of sclerostin also play a functional role is currently unclear, which we aimed to examine by two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR). A genetic instrument for circulating sclerostin, derived from a genomewide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of serum sclerostin in 10,584 European-descent individuals, was examined in relation to femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD; n = 32,744) in GEFOS and estimated bone mineral density (eBMD) by heel ultrasound (n = 426,824) and fracture risk (n = 426,795) in UK Biobank. Our GWAS identified two novel serum sclerostin loci, B4GALNT3 (standard deviation [SD]) change in sclerostin per A allele (ß = 0.20, p = 4.6 × 10-49 ) and GALNT1 (ß = 0.11 per G allele, p = 4.4 × 10-11 ). B4GALNT3 is an N-acetyl-galactosaminyltransferase, adding a terminal LacdiNAc disaccharide to target glycocoproteins, found to be predominantly expressed in kidney, whereas GALNT1 is an enzyme causing mucin-type O-linked glycosylation. Using these two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as genetic instruments, MR revealed an inverse causal relationship between serum sclerostin and femoral neck BMD (ß = -0.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.20 to -0.05) and eBMD (ß = -0.12, 95% CI -0.14 to -0.10), and a positive relationship with fracture risk (ß = 0.11, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.21). Colocalization analysis demonstrated common genetic signals within the B4GALNT3 locus for higher sclerostin, lower eBMD, and greater B4GALNT3 expression in arterial tissue (probability >99%). Our findings suggest that higher sclerostin levels are causally related to lower BMD and greater fracture risk. Hence, strategies for reducing circulating sclerostin, for example by targeting glycosylation enzymes as suggested by our GWAS results, may prove valuable in treating osteoporosis. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7319, 2019 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086200

RESUMO

Investigating cytokines in tear fluid and saliva may offer valuable information for understanding the pathogenesis of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Cytokine profiles in both tear fluid and saliva of pSS patients, non-Sjögren's syndrome (non-SS) subjects with sicca symptoms, and healthy controls without sicca complaints were analysed. Furthermore, relationships associating the severity of clinical ocular and oral manifestations with the upregulated cytokines were assessed. In tear fluid, pSS patients showed elevated levels of IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-12p70, IL-17A, IFN-γ, IP-10, MIP-1b, and Rantes compared to non-SS subjects and healthy controls. The increased cytokine levels (except IP-10) correlated significantly with reduced tear production, less stable tear film, and greater ocular surface damage. In saliva, pSS patients had a higher IP-10 level, which correlated with higher candida score; and an elevated MIP-1a level, which correlated significantly with lower unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva secretion rates. The upregulated cytokines identified in tear fluid and saliva of pSS patients show a clear interplay between innate and adaptive immune responses that may contribute to disease pathogenesis. The increase of IP-10 and MIP in both tears and saliva further emphasises the essential role of macrophages and innate immunity in pSS.

3.
J Bone Miner Res ; 34(7): 1284-1296, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888730

RESUMO

Hip geometry is an important predictor of fracture. We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS studies in adults to identify genetic variants that are associated with proximal femur geometry phenotypes. We analyzed four phenotypes: (i) femoral neck length; (ii) neck-shaft angle; (iii) femoral neck width, and (iv) femoral neck section modulus, estimated from DXA scans using algorithms of hip structure analysis. In the Discovery stage, 10 cohort studies were included in the fixed-effect meta-analysis, with up to 18,719 men and women ages 16 to 93 years. Association analyses were performed with ∼2.5 million polymorphisms under an additive model adjusted for age, body mass index, and height. Replication analyses of meta-GWAS significant loci (at adjusted genomewide significance [GWS], threshold p ≤ 2.6 × 10-8 ) were performed in seven additional cohorts in silico. We looked up SNPs associated in our analysis, for association with height, bone mineral density (BMD), and fracture. In meta-analysis (combined Discovery and Replication stages), GWS associations were found at 5p15 (IRX1 and ADAMTS16); 5q35 near FGFR4; at 12p11 (in CCDC91); 11q13 (near LRP5 and PPP6R3 (rs7102273)). Several hip geometry signals overlapped with BMD, including LRP5 (chr. 11). Chr. 11 SNP rs7102273 was associated with any-type fracture (p = 7.5 × 10-5 ). We used bone transcriptome data and discovered several significant eQTLs, including rs7102273 and PPP6R3 expression (p = 0.0007), and rs6556301 (intergenic, chr.5 near FGFR4) and PDLIM7 expression (p = 0.005). In conclusion, we found associations between several genes and hip geometry measures that explained 12% to 22% of heritability at different sites. The results provide a defined set of genes related to biological pathways relevant to BMD and etiology of bone fragility. © 2019 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

4.
Microsc Microanal ; 24(2): 147-155, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29637873

RESUMO

The advancement of human retinal pigment epithelial cell (hRPE) replacement therapy is partly dependent on optimization of cell culture, cell preservation, and storage medium. This study was undertaken to search for a suitable storage temperature and storage medium for hRPE. hRPE monolayer sheets were cultured under standard conditions at 37°C and then randomized for storage at six temperatures (4, 16, 20, 24, 28, and 37°C) for 7 days. After revealing a suitable storage temperature, hRPE sheets were subsequently stored with and without the silk protein sericin added to the storage medium. Live/dead assay, light microscopy, pH, and phenotypic expression of various proteins were used to assess cell cultures stored at different temperatures. After 7 days of storage, hRPE morphology was best preserved at 4°C. Addition of sericin to the storage medium maintained the characteristic morphology of the preserved cells, and improved pigmentation and levels of pigmentation-related proteins in the cultured hRPE sheets following a 7-day storage period at 4°C.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Preservação Biológica/métodos , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/citologia , Sobrevivência Celular , Meios de Cultura/química , Células Epiteliais/química , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Humanos , Microscopia , Proteoma/análise , Sericinas/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente
5.
BMC Med Genomics ; 11(1): 24, 2018 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29514638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Using high-dimensional penalized regression we studied genome-wide DNA-methylation in bone biopsies of 80 postmenopausal women in relation to their bone mineral density (BMD). The women showed BMD varying from severely osteoporotic to normal. Global gene expression data from the same individuals was available, and since DNA-methylation often affects gene expression, the overall aim of this paper was to include both of these omics data sets into an integrated analysis. METHODS: The classical penalized regression uses one penalty, but we incorporated individual penalties for each of the DNA-methylation sites. These individual penalties were guided by the strength of association between DNA-methylations and gene transcript levels. DNA-methylations that were highly associated to one or more transcripts got lower penalties and were therefore favored compared to DNA-methylations showing less association to expression. Because of the complex pathways and interactions among genes, we investigated both the association between DNA-methylations and their corresponding cis gene, as well as the association between DNA-methylations and trans-located genes. Two integrating penalized methods were used: first, an adaptive group-regularized ridge regression, and secondly, variable selection was performed through a modified version of the weighted lasso. RESULTS: When information from gene expressions was integrated, predictive performance was considerably improved, in terms of predictive mean square error, compared to classical penalized regression without data integration. We found a 14.7% improvement in the ridge regression case and a 17% improvement for the lasso case. Our version of the weighted lasso with data integration found a list of 22 interesting methylation sites. Several corresponded to genes that are known to be important in bone formation. Using BMD as response and these 22 methylation sites as covariates, least square regression analyses resulted in R2=0.726, comparable to an average R2=0.438 for 10000 randomly selected groups of DNA-methylations with group size 22. CONCLUSIONS: Two recent types of penalized regression methods were adapted to integrate DNA-methylation and their association to gene expression in the analysis of bone mineral density. In both cases predictions clearly benefit from including the additional information on gene expressions.

6.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 77(3): 378-385, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29170203

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify genetic determinants of susceptibility to clinical vertebral fractures, which is an important complication of osteoporosis. METHODS: Here we conduct a genome-wide association study in 1553 postmenopausal women with clinical vertebral fractures and 4340 controls, with a two-stage replication involving 1028 cases and 3762 controls. Potentially causal variants were identified using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data from transiliac bone biopsies and bioinformatic studies. RESULTS: A locus tagged by rs10190845 was identified on chromosome 2q13, which was significantly associated with clinical vertebral fracture (P=1.04×10-9) with a large effect size (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.6). Bioinformatic analysis of this locus identified several potentially functional SNPs that are associated with expression of the positional candidate genes TTL (tubulin tyrosine ligase) and SLC20A1 (solute carrier family 20 member 1). Three other suggestive loci were identified on chromosomes 1p31, 11q12 and 15q11. All these loci were novel and had not previously been associated with bone mineral density or clinical fractures. CONCLUSION: We have identified a novel genetic variant that is associated with clinical vertebral fractures by mechanisms that are independent of BMD. Further studies are now in progress to validate this association and evaluate the underlying mechanism.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 18(12)2017 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29186852

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that post-transcriptionally regulate the translation of messenger RNAs. Given the crucial role of miRNAs in gene expression, genetic variants within miRNA-related sequences may affect miRNA function and contribute to disease risk. Osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone mass, and bone mineral density (BMD) is a major diagnostic proxy to assess osteoporosis risk. Here, we aimed to identify miRNAs that are involved in BMD using data from recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on femoral neck, lumbar spine and forearm BMD. Of 242 miRNA-variants available in the GWAS data, we found rs11614913:C > T in the precursor miR-196a-2 to be significantly associated with femoral neck-BMD (p-value = 9.9 × 10-7, ß = -0.038) and lumbar spine-BMD (p-value = 3.2 × 10-11, ß = -0.061). Furthermore, our sensitivity analyses using the Rotterdam study data showed a sex-specific association of rs11614913 with BMD only in women. Subsequently, we highlighted a number of miR-196a-2 target genes, expressed in bone and associated with BMD, that may mediate the miRNA function in BMD. Collectively, our results suggest that miR-196a-2 may contribute to variations in BMD level. Further biological investigations will give more insights into the mechanisms by which miR-196a-2 control expression of BMD-related genes.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Colo do Fêmur/patologia , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/metabolismo
8.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 8206, 2017 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28811665

RESUMO

Cultured epidermal cell sheets (CES) containing undifferentiated cells are useful for treating skin burns and have potential for regenerative treatment of other types of epithelial injuries. The undifferentiated phenotype is therefore important for success in both applications. This study aimed to optimize a method for one-week storage of CES for their widespread distribution and use in regenerative medicine. The effect of storage temperatures 4 °C, 8 °C, 12 °C, 16 °C, and 24 °C on CES was evaluated. Analyses included assessment of viability, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), membrane damage, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) integrity, morphology, phenotype and cytokine secretion into storage buffer. Lowest cell viability was seen at 4 °C. Compared to non-stored cells, ABCG2 expression increased between temperatures 8-16 °C. At 24 °C, reduced ABCG2 expression coincided with increased mitochondrial ROS, as well as increased differentiation, cell death and mtDNA damage. P63, C/EBPδ, CK10 and involucrin fluorescence combined with morphology observations supported retention of undifferentiated cell phenotype at 12 °C, transition to differentiation at 16 °C, and increased differentiation at 24 °C. Several cytokines relevant to healing were upregulated during storage. Importantly, cells stored at 12 °C showed similar viability and undifferentiated phenotype as the non-stored control suggesting that this temperature may be ideal for storage of CES.

9.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 121, 2017 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28743860

RESUMO

Bone mineral density is known to be a heritable, polygenic trait whereas genetic variants contributing to lean mass variation remain largely unknown. We estimated the shared SNP heritability and performed a bivariate GWAS meta-analysis of total-body lean mass (TB-LM) and total-body less head bone mineral density (TBLH-BMD) regions in 10,414 children. The estimated SNP heritability is 43% (95% CI: 34-52%) for TBLH-BMD, and 39% (95% CI: 30-48%) for TB-LM, with a shared genetic component of 43% (95% CI: 29-56%). We identify variants with pleiotropic effects in eight loci, including seven established bone mineral density loci: WNT4, GALNT3, MEPE, CPED1/WNT16, TNFSF11, RIN3, and PPP6R3/LRP5. Variants in the TOM1L2/SREBF1 locus exert opposing effects TB-LM and TBLH-BMD, and have a stronger association with the former trait. We show that SREBF1 is expressed in murine and human osteoblasts, as well as in human muscle tissue. This is the first bivariate GWAS meta-analysis to demonstrate genetic factors with pleiotropic effects on bone mineral density and lean mass.Bone mineral density and lean skeletal mass are heritable traits. Here, Medina-Gomez and colleagues perform bivariate GWAS analyses of total body lean mass and bone mass density in children, and show genetic loci with pleiotropic effects on both traits.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Pleiotropia Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Metanálise como Assunto , Desenvolvimento Musculoesquelético/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Peso Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Criança , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
10.
Epigenetics ; 12(8): 674-687, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28650214

RESUMO

DNA methylation affects expression of associated genes and may contribute to the missing genetic effects from genome-wide association studies of osteoporosis. To improve insight into the mechanisms of postmenopausal osteoporosis, we combined transcript profiling with DNA methylation analyses in bone. RNA and DNA were isolated from 84 bone biopsies of postmenopausal donors varying markedly in bone mineral density (BMD). In all, 2529 CpGs in the top 100 genes most significantly associated with BMD were analyzed. The methylation levels at 63 CpGs differed significantly between healthy and osteoporotic women at 10% false discovery rate (FDR). Five of these CpGs at 5% FDR could explain 14% of BMD variation. To test whether blood DNA methylation reflect the situation in bone (as shown for other tissues), an independent cohort was selected and BMD association was demonstrated in blood for 13 of the 63 CpGs. Four transcripts representing inhibitors of bone metabolism-MEPE, SOST, WIF1, and DKK1-showed correlation to a high number of methylated CpGs, at 5% FDR. Our results link DNA methylation to the genetic influence modifying the skeleton, and the data suggest a complex interaction between CpG methylation and gene regulation. This is the first study in the hitherto largest number of postmenopausal women to demonstrate a strong association among bone CpG methylation, transcript levels, and BMD/fracture. This new insight may have implications for evaluation of osteoporosis stage and susceptibility.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Células Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Densidade Óssea/genética , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/genética , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ilhas de CpG , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo
11.
Bone ; 101: 88-95, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28450214

RESUMO

The skeleton is a metabolically active organ throughout life where specific bone cell activity and paracrine/endocrine factors regulate its morphogenesis and remodeling. In recent years, an increasing number of reports have used multi-omics technologies to characterize subsets of bone biological molecular networks. The skeleton is affected by primary and secondary disease, lifestyle and many drugs. Therefore, to obtain relevant and reliable data from well characterized patient and control cohorts are vital. Here we provide a brief overview of omics studies performed on human bone, of which our own studies performed on trans-iliacal bone biopsies from postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (OP) and healthy controls are among the first and largest. Most other studies have been performed on smaller groups of patients, undergoing hip replacement for osteoarthritis (OA) or fracture, and without healthy controls. The major findings emerging from the combined studies are: 1. Unstressed and stressed bone show profoundly different gene expression reflecting differences in bone turnover and remodeling and 2. Omics analyses comparing healthy/OP and control/OA cohorts reveal characteristic changes in transcriptomics, epigenomics (DNA methylation), proteomics and metabolomics. These studies, together with genome-wide association studies, in vitro observations and transgenic animal models have identified a number of genes and gene products that act via Wnt and other signaling systems and are highly associated to bone density and fracture. Future challenge is to understand the functional interactions between bone-related molecular networks and their significance in OP and OA pathogenesis, and also how the genomic architecture is affected in health and disease.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Osteoartrite/genética , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Osteoporose/genética , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Transcriptoma/fisiologia
12.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 17(1): 344, 2016 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27590269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is useful to incorporate biological knowledge on the role of genetic determinants in predicting an outcome. It is, however, not always feasible to fully elicit this information when the number of determinants is large. We present an approach to overcome this difficulty. First, using half of the available data, a shortlist of potentially interesting determinants are generated. Second, binary indications of biological importance are elicited for this much smaller number of determinants. Third, an analysis is carried out on this shortlist using the second half of the data. RESULTS: We show through simulations that, compared with adaptive lasso, this approach leads to models containing more biologically relevant variables, while the prediction mean squared error (PMSE) is comparable or even reduced. We also apply our approach to bone mineral density data, and again final models contain more biologically relevant variables and have reduced PMSEs. CONCLUSION: Our method leads to comparable or improved predictive performance, and models with greater face validity and interpretability with feasible incorporation of biological knowledge into predictive models.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Conhecimento , Densidade Óssea/genética , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
J Bone Miner Res ; 31(12): 2085-2097, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27476799

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed numerous loci for areal bone mineral density (aBMD). We completed the first GWAS meta-analysis (n = 15,275) of lumbar spine volumetric BMD (vBMD) measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT), allowing for examination of the trabecular bone compartment. SNPs that were significantly associated with vBMD were also examined in two GWAS meta-analyses to determine associations with morphometric vertebral fracture (n = 21,701) and clinical vertebral fracture (n = 5893). Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses of iliac crest biopsies were performed in 84 postmenopausal women, and murine osteoblast expression of genes implicated by eQTL or by proximity to vBMD-associated SNPs was examined. We identified significant vBMD associations with five loci, including: 1p36.12, containing WNT4 and ZBTB40; 8q24, containing TNFRSF11B; and 13q14, containing AKAP11 and TNFSF11. Two loci (5p13 and 1p36.12) also contained associations with radiographic and clinical vertebral fracture, respectively. In 5p13, rs2468531 (minor allele frequency [MAF] = 3%) was associated with higher vBMD (ß = 0.22, p = 1.9 × 10-8 ) and decreased risk of radiographic vertebral fracture (odds ratio [OR] = 0.75; false discovery rate [FDR] p = 0.01). In 1p36.12, rs12742784 (MAF = 21%) was associated with higher vBMD (ß = 0.09, p = 1.2 × 10-10 ) and decreased risk of clinical vertebral fracture (OR = 0.82; FDR p = 7.4 × 10-4 ). Both SNPs are noncoding and were associated with increased mRNA expression levels in human bone biopsies: rs2468531 with SLC1A3 (ß = 0.28, FDR p = 0.01, involved in glutamate signaling and osteogenic response to mechanical loading) and rs12742784 with EPHB2 (ß = 0.12, FDR p = 1.7 × 10-3 , functions in bone-related ephrin signaling). Both genes are expressed in murine osteoblasts. This is the first study to link SLC1A3 and EPHB2 to clinically relevant vertebral osteoporosis phenotypes. These results may help elucidate vertebral bone biology and novel approaches to reducing vertebral fracture incidence. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Transportador 1 de Aminoácido Excitatório/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptor EphB2/genética , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/genética , Coluna Vertebral/patologia , Animais , Biópsia , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Esponjoso/patologia , Osso Esponjoso/fisiopatologia , Transportador 1 de Aminoácido Excitatório/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares/patologia , Vértebras Lombares/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Tamanho do Órgão , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Receptor EphB2/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/patologia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/fisiopatologia , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem
14.
Microsc Microanal ; 22(3): 612-20, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27329312

RESUMO

Phenotype of cultured ocular epithelial transplants has been shown to affect clinical success rates following transplantation to the cornea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cell nucleus morphometry and phenotype in three types of cultured epithelial cells. This study provides knowledge for the development of a non-invasive method of determining the phenotype of cultured epithelium before transplantation. Cultured human conjunctival epithelial cells (HCjE), human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK), and human retinal pigment epithelial cells (HRPE) were analyzed by quantitative immunofluorescence. Assessments of nucleus morphometry and nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio (N/C ratio) were performed using ImageJ. Spearman's correlation coefficient was employed for statistical analysis. Levels of the proliferation marker PCNA in HCjE, HEK, and HRPE correlated positively with nuclear area. Nuclear area correlated significantly with levels of the undifferentiated cell marker ABCG2 in HCjE. Bmi1 levels, but not p63α levels, correlated significantly with nuclear area in HEK. The N/C ratio did not correlate significantly with any of the immunomarkers in HCjE (ABCG2, CK7, and PCNA) and HRPE (PCNA). In HEK, however, the N/C ratio was negatively correlated with levels of the undifferentiated cell marker CK14 and positively correlated with Bmi1 expression. The size of the nuclear area correlated positively with proliferation markers in all three epithelia. Morphometric indicators of phenotype in cultured epithelia can be identified using ImageJ. Conversely, the N/C ratio did not show a uniform relationship with phenotype in HCjE, HEK, or HRPE. N/C ratio therefore, may not be a useful morphometric marker for in vitro assessment of phenotype in these three epithelia.


Assuntos
Forma do Núcleo Celular/fisiologia , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Fenótipo , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Túnica Conjuntiva/citologia , Humanos , Queratinócitos/citologia
15.
Circ Res ; 118(1): 83-94, 2016 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26487741

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a critical determinant of morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have identified several cardiovascular disease risk factors, which may partly arise from a shared genetic basis with CAD, and thus be useful for discovery of CAD genes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to improve discovery of CAD genes and inform the pathogenic relationship between CAD and several cardiovascular disease risk factors using a shared polygenic signal-informed statistical framework. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using genome-wide association studies summary statistics and shared polygenic pleiotropy-informed conditional and conjunctional false discovery rate methodology, we systematically investigated genetic overlap between CAD and 8 traits related to cardiovascular disease risk factors: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, type 2 diabetes mellitus, C-reactive protein, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and type 1 diabetes mellitus. We found significant enrichment of single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with CAD as a function of their association with low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, type 2 diabetes mellitus, C-reactive protein, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Applying the conditional false discovery rate method to the enriched phenotypes, we identified 67 novel loci associated with CAD (overall conditional false discovery rate <0.01). Furthermore, we identified 53 loci with significant effects in both CAD and at least 1 of low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, type 2 diabetes mellitus, C-reactive protein, systolic blood pressure, and type 1 diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSIONS: The observed polygenic overlap between CAD and cardiometabolic risk factors indicates a pathogenic relation that warrants further investigation. The new gene loci identified implicate novel genetic mechanisms related to CAD.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Curr Eye Res ; 41(6): 757-68, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26398483

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cultured epidermal cell sheets (CECS) are used in the treatment of large area burns to the body and have potential to treat limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) as shown in animal studies. Despite widespread use, storage options for CECS are limited. Short-term storage allows flexibility in scheduling surgery, quality control and improved transportation to clinics worldwide. Recent evidence points to the phenotype of cultured epithelial cells as a critical predictor of post-operative success following transplantation of CECS in burns and in transplantation of cultured epithelial cells in patients with LSCD. This study, therefore assessed the effect of a range of temperatures, spanning 4-37 °C, on the phenotype of CECS stored over a 2-week period in a xenobiotic-free system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Progenitor cell (p63, ΔNp63α and ABCG2) and differentiation (C/EBPδ and CK10) associated marker expression was assessed using immunocytochemistry. Immunohistochemistry staining of normal skin for the markers p63, ABCG2 and C/EBPδ was also carried out. Assessment of progenitor cell side population (SP) was performed using JC1 dye by flow cytometry. RESULTS: P63 expression remained relatively constant throughout the temperature range but was significantly lower compared to control between 20 and 28 °C (p < 0.05). High C/EBPδ together with low p63 suggested more differentiation beginning at 20 °C and above. Lower CK10 and C/EBPδ expression most similar to control was seen at 12 °C. The percentage of ABCG2 positive cells was most similar to control between 8 and 24 °C. Between 4 and 24 °C, the SP fluctuated, but was not significantly different compared to control. Results were supported by staining patterns indicating differentiation status associated with markers in normal skin sections. CONCLUSIONS: Lower storage temperatures, and in particular 12 °C, merit further investigation as optimal storage temperature for maintenance of undifferentiated phenotype in CECS.


Assuntos
Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Queratinócitos/citologia , Temperatura Ambiente , Preservação de Tecido/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Fenótipo , Células-Tronco/citologia , Xenobióticos
17.
PLoS One ; 10(12): e0144531, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26695485

RESUMO

Bone Mineral Density (BMD) is a highly heritable trait, but genome-wide association studies have identified few genetic risk factors. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between BMD and several traits and diseases, but the nature of the suggestive comorbidity is still unknown. We used a novel genetic pleiotropy-informed conditional False Discovery Rate (FDR) method to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BMD by leveraging cardiovascular disease (CVD) associated disorders and metabolic traits. By conditioning on SNPs associated with the CVD-related phenotypes, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, triglycerides and waist hip ratio, we identified 65 novel independent BMD loci (26 with femoral neck BMD and 47 with lumbar spine BMD) at conditional FDR < 0.01. Many of the loci were confirmed in genetic expression studies. Genes validated at the mRNA levels were characteristic for the osteoblast/osteocyte lineage, Wnt signaling pathway and bone metabolism. The results provide new insight into genetic mechanisms of variability in BMD, and a better understanding of the genetic underpinnings of clinical comorbidity.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Loci Gênicos , Pleiotropia Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Relação Cintura-Quadril
18.
J Bone Miner Res ; 30(2): 249-56, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25155887

RESUMO

Inhibition of sclerostin, a glycoprotein secreted by osteocytes, offers a new therapeutic paradigm for treatment of osteoporosis (OP) through its critical role as Wnt/catenin signaling regulator. This study describes the epigenetic regulation of SOST expression in bone biopsies of postmenopausal women. We correlated serum sclerostin to bone mineral density (BMD), fractures, and bone remodeling parameters, and related these findings to epigenetic and genetic disease mechanisms. Serum sclerostin and bone remodeling biomarkers were measured in two postmenopausal groups: healthy (BMD T-score > -1) and established OP (BMD T-score < -2.5, with at least one low-energy fracture). Bone specimens were used to analyze SOST mRNAs, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and DNA methylation changes. The SOST gene promoter region showed increased CpG methylation in OP patients (n = 4) compared to age and body mass index (BMI) balanced controls (n = 4) (80.5% versus 63.2%, p = 0.0001) with replication in independent cohorts (n = 27 and n = 36, respectively). Serum sclerostin and bone SOST mRNA expression correlated positively with age-adjusted and BMI-adjusted total hip BMD (r = 0.47 and r = 0.43, respectively; both p < 0.0005), and inversely to serum bone turnover markers. Five SNPs, one of which replicates in an independent population-based genomewide association study (GWAS), showed association with serum sclerostin or SOST mRNA levels under an additive model (p = 0.0016 to 0.0079). Genetic and epigenetic changes in SOST influence its bone mRNA expression and serum sclerostin levels in postmenopausal women. The observations suggest that increased SOST promoter methylation seen in OP is a compensatory counteracting mechanism, which lowers serum sclerostin concentrations and reduces inhibition of Wnt signaling in an attempt to promote bone formation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/sangue , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/genética , Fraturas Ósseas/sangue , Fraturas Ósseas/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Densidade Óssea/genética , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Demografia , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/urina , Humanos , Metilação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/urina , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Pós-Menopausa/genética , Pós-Menopausa/urina , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
19.
Curr Genomics ; 16(6): 384-92, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27019613

RESUMO

DNA methylation in eukaryotes invokes heritable alterations of the of the cytosine base in DNA without changing the underlying genomic DNA sequence. DNA methylation may be modified by environmental exposures as well as gene polymorphisms and may be a mechanistic link between environmental risk factors and the development of disease. In this review, we consider the role of DNA methylation in bone cells (osteoclasts/osteoblasts/osteocytes) and their progenitors with special focus on in vitro and ex vivo analyses. The number of studies on DNA methylation in bone cells is still somewhat limited, nevertheless it is getting increasingly clear that this type of the epigenetic changes is a critical regulator of gene expression. DNA methylation is necessary for proper development and function of bone cells and is accompanied by disease characteristic functional alterations as presently reviewed including postmenopausal osteoporosis and mechanical strain.

20.
PLoS Genet ; 10(6): e1004423, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24945404

RESUMO

Heritability of bone mineral density (BMD) varies across skeletal sites, reflecting different relative contributions of genetic and environmental influences. To quantify the degree to which common genetic variants tag and environmental factors influence BMD, at different sites, we estimated the genetic (rg) and residual (re) correlations between BMD measured at the upper limbs (UL-BMD), lower limbs (LL-BMD) and skull (SK-BMD), using total-body DXA scans of ∼ 4,890 participants recruited by the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and their Children (ALSPAC). Point estimates of rg indicated that appendicular sites have a greater proportion of shared genetic architecture (LL-/UL-BMD rg = 0.78) between them, than with the skull (UL-/SK-BMD rg = 0.58 and LL-/SK-BMD rg = 0.43). Likewise, the residual correlation between BMD at appendicular sites (r(e) = 0.55) was higher than the residual correlation between SK-BMD and BMD at appendicular sites (r(e) = 0.20-0.24). To explore the basis for the observed differences in rg and re, genome-wide association meta-analyses were performed (n ∼ 9,395), combining data from ALSPAC and the Generation R Study identifying 15 independent signals from 13 loci associated at genome-wide significant level across different skeletal regions. Results suggested that previously identified BMD-associated variants may exert site-specific effects (i.e. differ in the strength of their association and magnitude of effect across different skeletal sites). In particular, variants at CPED1 exerted a larger influence on SK-BMD and UL-BMD when compared to LL-BMD (P = 2.01 × 10(-37)), whilst variants at WNT16 influenced UL-BMD to a greater degree when compared to SK- and LL-BMD (P = 2.31 × 10(-14)). In addition, we report a novel association between RIN3 (previously associated with Paget's disease) and LL-BMD (rs754388: ß = 0.13, SE = 0.02, P = 1.4 × 10(-10)). Our results suggest that BMD at different skeletal sites is under a mixture of shared and specific genetic and environmental influences. Allowing for these differences by performing genome-wide association at different skeletal sites may help uncover new genetic influences on BMD.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Adulto , Desenvolvimento Ósseo , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Extremidade Inferior/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Masculino , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Crânio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Crânio/fisiologia , Extremidade Superior/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA