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1.
Can J Vet Res ; 83(4): 313-316, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571732

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of late-gestation vaccination of beef heifers with 2 doses of a killed-virus (KV) vaccine containing bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), and bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2) on the serum concentrations of antibody against BoHV-1, BVDV-1, and BVDV-2 in heifers and their calves and on the IgG concentration in the calves. Of the 47 pregnant beef heifers selected, 26 received 2 doses of the vaccine at 6.5 to 8 mo of gestation (at pregnancy check), and 21 received 2 doses of saline. The mean log2 serum titers of neutralizing antibody against BoHV-1, BVDV-1, and BVDV-2 before vaccination did not differ significantly between the treatment groups; however, at calving all 3 mean titers were significantly greater (P < 0.05) in the vaccinated heifers than in the control heifers. At 24 h after birth the mean serum IgG levels in the calves did not differ significantly between the 2 groups, at 30.18 and 32.28 g/L, respectively (P < 0.05); however, the mean log2 serum titers of antibody to all 3 viruses were greater in the calves nursing colostrum from the vaccinated heifers than in the calves nursing colostrum from the nonvaccinated heifers and significantly so for BoHV-1 and BVDV-1 (P < 0.001 and P = 0.009, respectively). Thus, late-gestation vaccination of beef heifers could result in a greater and more consistent deposition of specific antibodies in colostrum, reducing the variability of initial titers in calves and increasing the duration of maternal immunity.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/imunologia , Herpesvirus Bovino 1/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Feminino , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Gravidez , Vacinação/veterinária
2.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 42(5): 572-579, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353535

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) synthesis inhibiting effects of intravenous (IV) and transdermal (TD) flunixin meglumine in eight, adult, female, Huacaya alpacas. A dose of 2.2 mg/kg administered IV and 3.3 mg/kg administered TD using a cross-over design. Plasma flunixin concentrations were measured by LC-MS/MS. Prostaglandin E2 concentrations were determined using a commercially available ELISA. Pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis was performed using noncompartmental methods. Plasma PGE2 concentrations decreased after IV flunixin meglumine administration but there was minimal change after TD application. Mean t1/2 λz after IV administration was 4.531 hr (range 3.355 to 5.571 hr) resulting from a mean Vz of 570.6 ml/kg (range, 387.3 to 1,142 ml/kg) and plasma clearance of 87.26 ml kg-1  hr-1 (range, 55.45-179.3 ml kg-1  hr-1 ). The mean Cmax, Tmax and t1/2 λz for flunixin following TD administration were 106.4 ng/ml (range, 56.98 to 168.6 ng/ml), 13.57 hr (range, 6.000-34.00 hr) and 24.06 hr (18.63 to 39.5 hr), respectively. The mean bioavailability for TD flunixin was calculated as 25.05%. The mean 80% inhibitory concentration (IC80 ) of PGE2 by flunixin meglumine was 0.23 µg/ml (range, 0.01 to 1.38 µg/ml). Poor bioavailability and poor suppression of PGE2 identified in this study indicate that TD flunixin meglumine administered at 3.3 mg/kg is not recommended for use in alpacas.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos/sangue , Clonixina/análogos & derivados , Administração Cutânea , Administração Intravenosa , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/sangue , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacocinética , Área Sob a Curva , Clonixina/administração & dosagem , Clonixina/sangue , Clonixina/metabolismo , Clonixina/farmacocinética , Dinoprostona/sangue , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Feminino , Meia-Vida
3.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 42(3): 309-317, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30802981

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) synthesis inhibiting effects of intravenous (IV) and transdermal (TD) flunixin meglumine in eight adult female Boer goats. A dose of 2.2 mg/kg was administered intravenously (IV) and 3.3 mg/kg administered TD using a cross-over design. Plasma flunixin concentrations were measured by LC-MS/MS. Prostaglandin E2 concentrations were determined using a commercially available ELISA. Pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis was performed using noncompartmental methods. Plasma PGE2 concentrations decreased after flunixin meglumine for both routes of administration. Mean λz -HL after IV administration was 6.032 hr (range 4.735-9.244 hr) resulting from a mean Vz of 584.1 ml/kg (range, 357.1-1,092 ml/kg) and plasma clearance of 67.11 ml kg-1  hr-1 (range, 45.57-82.35 ml kg-1  hr-1 ). The mean Cmax , Tmax, and λz -HL for flunixin following TD administration was 0.134 µg/ml (range, 0.050-0.188 µg/ml), 11.41 hr (range, 6.00-36.00 hr), and 43.12 hr (15.98-62.49 hr), respectively. The mean bioavailability for TD flunixin was calculated as 24.76%. The mean 80% inhibitory concentration (IC80 ) of PGE2 by flunixin meglumine was 0.28 µg/ml (range, 0.08-0.69 µg/ml) and was only achieved with IV formulation of flunixin in this study. The PK results support clinical studies to examine the efficacy of TD flunixin in goats. Determining the systemic effects of flunixin-mediated PGE2 suppression in goats is also warranted.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacocinética , Clonixina/análogos & derivados , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/sangue , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Clonixina/sangue , Clonixina/farmacocinética , Clonixina/farmacologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Dinoprostona/sangue , Feminino , Cabras/sangue , Injeções Intravenosas/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória
4.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(1): 292-296, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obstructive urolithiasis commonly affects male goats. Perineal urethrostomy (PU) can be a permanent treatment option but is generally considered undesirable because of the risk of stricture of the urethral stoma. Limited information exists regarding long-term outcome and complications in goats undergoing PU for treatment of obstructive urolithiasis. OBJECTIVES: To determine short-term and long-term outcome and complications in goats undergoing PU for treatment of obstructive urolithiasis. ANIMALS: Twenty-five client-owned goats. METHODS: Multi-institutional retrospective case series. RESULTS: Of the 25 goats, 13 (52%) were alive at the time of follow-up. Mean time from surgery to follow-up was 34 months (range, 4-65). Nine goats (36%) died between discharge and follow-up with a mean survival time of 46 days (range, 5-120). Cause of death in 7 of 9 (78%) goats was related to urolithiasis. Goats treated by use of a modified proximal perineal urethrostomy (MPPU) were significantly more likely to survive at least 150 days postoperatively (P < .01). The most common postoperative complications were hemorrhage (10/25 [40%]) and surgical site infection (3/25 [12%]). Hemorrhage was significantly associated with MPPU (P < .0001). Stricture of the surgical stoma occurred in 7 of 22 (32%) discharged goats. Mean time to stricture was 65 days (range, 10-240). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Perineal urethrostomy can provide effective long-term resolution of obstructive urolithiasis in goats. Re-obstruction or stricture seems most likely within the 1st 2 months after surgery. MPPU may provide better long-term results but should be approached cautiously because it can be associated with life-threatening hemorrhage.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/cirurgia , Uretra/cirurgia , Obstrução Uretral/veterinária , Urolitíase/veterinária , Animais , Cabras/cirurgia , Masculino , Períneo/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Obstrução Uretral/cirurgia , Urolitíase/cirurgia
5.
J Anim Sci ; 2019 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31889177

RESUMO

Bovine anaplasmosis is the most prevalent tick-transmitted disease of cattle worldwide and a major obstacle to profitable beef production. Use of chlortetracycline-medicated feed to control active anaplasmosis infections during the vector season has raised concerns about the potential emergence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria that may pose a risk to human health. Furthermore, the absence of effectiveness data for a commercially available, conditionally licensed anaplasmosis vaccine is a major impediment to implementing anaplasmosis control programs. The primary objective of this study was to develop a single-dose vaccine delivery platform to produce long-lasting protective immunity against anaplasmosis infections. Twelve Holstein steers, aged 11-12 weeks, were administered a novel 3-stage, single-dose vaccine against Anaplasma marginale (Am) major surface protein 1a. The vaccine consisted of a soluble vaccine administered subcutaneously (s.c.) for immune priming, a vaccine depot of a biodegradable polyanhydride rod with intermediate slow release of the vaccine for boosting immune response, and an immune-isolated vaccine platform for extended antigen release (VPEAR implant) deposited s.c. in the ear. Six calves were randomly assigned to two vaccine constructs (n=3) that featured rods and implants containing a combination of two different adjuvants, diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-Dextran and Quil-A (Group A). The remaining 6 calves were randomly assigned to two vaccine constructs (n=3) that featured rods and implants containing the same adjuvant (either DEAE-Dextran or Quil A) (Group B). Twenty one months post-implantation, calves were challenged intravenously with Am stabilate and were monitored weekly for signs of fever, decreased packed cell volume (PCV) and bacteremia. Data were analyzed using a mixed effects model and chi-squared tests (SAS v9.04.01, SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Calves in Group A had higher PCV than calves in Group B (P = 0.006) at day 35 post-infection. Calves in Group A were less likely to require antibiotic intervention compared with calves in Group B (P = 0.014). Results indicate that calves exhibited diminished clinical signs of anaplasmosis when antigen was delivered with a combination of adjuvants as opposed to a single adjuvant. This demonstrates the feasibility of providing long lasting protection against clinical bovine anaplasmosis infections using a subcutaneous ear implant vaccine construct.

6.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 33(3): 513-523, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28743473

RESUMO

Eating habits in cattle are less discriminant than other ruminants, and they more often accidentally ingest strange objects while feeding. Penetrating foreign bodies may cause mild to severe peritonitis, penetrate the diaphragm to cause pleuritis or pericarditis, or cause localized abscesses in the thorax or abdomen. Because these objects are most often metal, a common term for this problem is hardware disease. An accurate history and thorough physical examination often yields a diagnosis; however, ancillary diagnostics can enhance accuracy and disease magnitude before exploratory surgery. Treatment encompasses controlling infection and inflammation and foreign body removal; preventive measures are emphasized.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Corpos Estranhos/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/cirurgia , Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico , Corpos Estranhos/cirurgia
7.
Am J Vet Res ; 77(11): 1295-1299, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27805451

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To identify and evaluate 3 types of angiographic catheters for retrograde urinary bladder catheterization in healthy male goats. ANIMALS 12 sexually intact yearling Alpine-cross bucks. PROCEDURES Three 5F angiographic catheters of the same length (100 cm) and diameter (0.17 cm) but differing in curvature at the tip were labeled A (straight tip), B (tip bent in 1 place), and C (tip bent in 2 places). During a single anesthetic episode, attempts were made to blindly pass each catheter into the urinary bladder of each goat. Order of catheters used was randomized, and the veterinarian passing the catheter was blinded as to catheter identity. The total number of attempts at catheter passage and the total number of successful attempts were recorded. RESULTS Catheter A was unsuccessfully passed in all 12 goats, catheter B was successfully passed in 8 goats, and catheter C was successfully passed in 4 goats. The success rate for catheter B was significantly greater than that for catheter A; however, no significant difference was identified between catheters B and C or catheters A and C. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE 2 angiographic catheters were identified that could be successfully, blindly advanced in a retrograde direction into the urinary bladder of healthy sexually intact male goats. Such catheters may be useful for determining urethral patency, emptying the urinary bladder, and instilling chemolysing agents in goats with clinical obstructive urolithiasis.


Assuntos
Cabras , Cateterismo Urinário/veterinária , Animais , Masculino , Uretra , Bexiga Urinária , Cateterismo Urinário/instrumentação
8.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 31(1): 139-49, vii, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25578388

RESUMO

Metritis is a cause of postparturient uterine disease in dairy cattle and is most commonly associated with watery fetid red-brown uterine discharge occurring in the first 21 days postpartum. The most severe form of metritis (puerperal metritis) often warrants antibiotic therapy. This article analyzes the current literature to determine the efficacy of ceftiofur in the treatment of metritis. Evidence-based review of the current literature suggests that there is evidence for the use of ceftiofur in the treatment of metritis. However, review of the literature also reveals the need for more studies with negative control groups.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Endometrite/veterinária , Transtornos Puerperais/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Endometrite/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Transtornos Puerperais/tratamento farmacológico
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