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1.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is a heterogeneous disease in which molecular stratification is needed to improve clinical outcomes. The identification of predictive biomarkers can have a major impact on the care of these patients, but the availability of metastatic tissue samples for research in this setting is limited. OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of immune biomarkers of potential clinical utility to immunotherapy in mCRPC and to determine their association with overall survival (OS). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: From 100 patients, mCRPC biopsies were assayed by whole exome sequencing, targeted next-generation sequencing, RNA sequencing, tumor mutational burden, T-cell-inflamed gene expression profile (TcellinfGEP) score (Nanostring), and immunohistochemistry for programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1), ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), SRY homology box 2 (SOX2), and the presence of neuroendocrine features. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The phi coefficient determined correlations between biomarkers of interest. OS was assessed using Kaplan-Meier curves and adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) from Cox regression. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: PD-L1 and SOX2 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry (combined positive score ≥1 and >5% cells, respectively) in 24 (33%) and 27 (27%) mCRPC biopsies, respectively; 23 (26%) mCRPC biopsies had high TcellinfGEP scores (>-0.318). PD-L1 protein expression and TcellinfGEP scores were positively correlated (phi 0.63 [0.45; 0.76]). PD-L1 protein expression (aHR: 1.90 [1.05; 3.45]), high TcellinfGEP score (aHR: 1.86 [1.04; 3.31]), and SOX2 expression (aHR: 2.09 [1.20; 3.64]) were associated with worse OS. CONCLUSIONS: PD-L1, TcellinfGEP score, and SOX2 are prognostic of outcome from the mCRPC setting. If validated, predictive biomarker studies incorporating survival endpoints need to take these findings into consideration. PATIENT SUMMARY: This study presents an analysis of immune biomarkers in biopsies from patients with metastatic prostate cancer. We describe tumor alterations that predict prognosis that can impact future studies.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(5)2022 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35267553

RESUMO

In the last 10 years, many new therapeutic options have been approved in advanced prostate cancer (PCa) patients, granting a more prolonged survival in patients with metastatic disease, which, nevertheless, remains incurable. The emphasis on immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has led to many trials in this setting, with disappointing results until now. Therefore, we discuss the immunobiology of PCa, presenting ongoing trials and the available clinical data, to understand if immunotherapy could represent a valid option in this disease, and which subset of patients may be more likely to benefit. Current evidence suggests that the tumor microenvironment needs a qualitative rather than quantitative evaluation, along with the genomic determinants of prostate tumor cells. The prognostic or predictive value of immunotherapy biomarkers, such as PD-L1, TMB, or dMMR/MSI-high, needs further evaluation in PCa. Monotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has been modestly effective. In contrast, combined strategies with other standard treatments (hormonal agents, chemotherapy, PARP inhibitors, radium-223, and TKIs) have shown some results. Immunotherapy should be better investigated in biomarker-selected patients, particularly with specific pathway aberrations (e.g., AR-V7 variant, HRD, CDK12 inactivated tumors, MSI-high tumors). Lastly, we present new possible targets in PCa that could potentially modulate the tumor microenvironment and improve antitumor activity with ICIs.

3.
Mediastinum ; 6: 6, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35340836

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this review is to analyze feasibility and toxicities of high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) in comparison to standard dose chemotherapy (SDCT) in patients affected by mediastinal germ cell tumors (MGCTs), discussing factors that may affect therapeutic choices, such as: management of residual disease, early response predictors for chemotherapeutic efficacy and determinants of chemotherapeutic resistance. In this review, we discuss the main clinical experiences with HDCT and SDCT in germ cell tumor (GCT) patients specifically in those affected by MGCT. Background: MGCTs represent a very small subset characterized by a poor prognosis, despite improvements in their clinical management and in understanding their biology. From early 1970s, HDCT has become an alternative to SDCT for both first-line and salvage therapeutic settings in advanced GCT patients. Several HDCT schedules-either cisplatin or carboplatin-based-have been tested so far, both in clinical randomized trial and in single-center experiences, with divergent results in terms of clinical outcomes and tolerability. Moreover, the majority of these studies included, but were not exclusively designed for, advanced MGCT patients, making difficult to infer data for this specific subset. Methods: an extended review of literature through PubMed was conducted using the keywords "mediastinal germinal cell tumors", "standard dose chemotherapy" and "high dose chemotherapy". Conclusions: HDCT regimens could not be considered to date a standard option as first-line therapy in advanced MGCT patients, whilst they could be an alternative to SDCT regimens in relapsed tumors after proper patient selection.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(21)2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771680

RESUMO

In recent years, the treatment landscape of urothelial carcinoma has significantly changed due to the introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), which are the standard of care for second-line treatment and first-line platinum-ineligible patients with advanced disease. Despite the overall survival improvement, only a minority of patients benefit from this immunotherapy. Therefore, there is an unmet need to identify prognostic and predictive biomarkers or models to select patients who will benefit from ICIs, especially in view of novel therapeutic agents. This review describes the prognostic and predictive role, and clinical readiness, of clinical and tumour factors, including new molecular classes, tumour mutational burden, mutational signatures, circulating tumour DNA, programmed death-ligand 1, inflammatory indices and clinical characteristics for patients with urothelial cancer treated with ICIs. A classification of these factors according to the levels of evidence and grades of recommendation currently indicates both a prognostic and predictive value for ctDNA and a prognostic relevance only for concomitant medications and patients' characteristics.

5.
Cancer Res ; 81(24): 6207-6218, 2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753775

RESUMO

It has been recognized for decades that ERBB signaling is important in prostate cancer, but targeting ERBB receptors as a therapeutic strategy for prostate cancer has been ineffective clinically. However, we show here that membranous HER3 protein is commonly highly expressed in lethal prostate cancer, associating with reduced time to castration resistance (CR) and survival. Multiplex immunofluorescence indicated that the HER3 ligand NRG1 is detectable primarily in tumor-infiltrating myelomonocytic cells in human prostate cancer; this observation was confirmed using single-cell RNA sequencing of human prostate cancer biopsies and murine transgenic prostate cancer models. In castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patient-derived xenograft organoids with high HER3 expression as well as mouse prostate cancer organoids, recombinant NRG1 enhanced proliferation and survival. Supernatant from murine bone marrow-derived macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells promoted murine prostate cancer organoid growth in vitro, which could be reversed by a neutralizing anti-NRG1 antibody and ERBB inhibition. Targeting HER3, especially with the HER3-directed antibody-drug conjugate U3-1402, exhibited antitumor activity against HER3-expressing prostate cancer. Overall, these data indicate that HER3 is commonly overexpressed in lethal prostate cancer and can be activated by NRG1 secreted by myelomonocytic cells in the tumor microenvironment, supporting HER3-targeted therapeutic strategies for treating HER3-expressing advanced CRPC. SIGNIFICANCE: HER3 is an actionable target in prostate cancer, especially with anti-HER3 immunoconjugates, and targeting HER3 warrants clinical evaluation in prospective trials.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Neuregulina-1/metabolismo , Organoides/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Receptor ErbB-3/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Camptotecina/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Neuregulina-1/genética , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Organoides/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-3/genética , Receptor ErbB-3/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Microambiente Tumoral , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
6.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(19)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638258

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) therapy has been recently revolutionized by the approval of new therapeutic agents in the metastatic setting. However, the optimal therapeutic strategy in such patients should be individualized in the light of prognostic and predictive molecular factors, which have been recently studied: androgen receptor (AR) alterations, PTEN-PI3K-AKT pathway deregulation, homologous recombination deficiency (HRD), mismatch repair deficiency (MMRd), and tumor microenvironment (TME) modifications. In this review, we highlighted the clinical impact of prognostic and predictive molecular factors in PCa patients' outcomes, identifying biologically distinct subtypes. We further analyzed the relevant methods to detect these factors, both on tissue, i.e., immunohistochemistry (IHC) and molecular tests, and blood, i.e., analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA). Moreover, we discussed the main pros and cons of such techniques, depicting their present and future roles in PCa management, throughout the precision medicine era.

7.
Science ; 374(6564): 216-224, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618582

RESUMO

The microbiota comprises the microorganisms that live in close contact with the host, with mutual benefit for both counterparts. The contribution of the gut microbiota to the emergence of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) has not yet been addressed. We found that androgen deprivation in mice and humans promotes the expansion of defined commensal microbiota that contributes to the onset of castration resistance in mice. Specifically, the intestinal microbial community in mice and patients with CRPC was enriched for species capable of converting androgen precursors into active androgens. Ablation of the gut microbiota by antibiotic therapy delayed the emergence of castration resistance even in immunodeficient mice. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from CRPC mice and patients rendered mice harboring prostate cancer resistant to castration. In contrast, tumor growth was controlled by FMT from hormone-sensitive prostate cancer patients and Prevotella stercorea administration. These results reveal that the commensal gut microbiota contributes to endocrine resistance in CRPC by providing an alternative source of androgens.


Assuntos
Androgênios/biossíntese , Bactérias/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/microbiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Experimentais , Prevotella/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Simbiose , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281219

RESUMO

The cure rate of germ cell tumours (GCTs) has significantly increased from the late 1970s since the introduction of cisplatin-based therapy, which to date remains the milestone for GCTs treatment. The exquisite cisplatin sensitivity has been mainly explained by the over-expression in GCTs of wild-type TP53 protein and the lack of TP53 somatic mutations; however, several other mechanisms seem to be involved, many of which remain still elusive. The findings about the role of TP53 in platinum-sensitivity and resistance, as well as the reported evidence of second cancers (SCs) in GCT patients treated only with surgery, suggesting a spectrum of cancer predisposing syndromes, highlight the need for a deepened understanding of the role of TP53 in GCTs. In the following report we explore the complex role of TP53 in GCTs cisplatin-sensitivity and resistance mechanisms, passing through several recent genomic studies, as well as its role in GCT patients with SCs, going through our experience of Center of reference for both GCTs and cancer predisposing syndromes.


Assuntos
Genes p53 , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/genética , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/secundário , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
9.
Eur Urol ; 80(2): 243-253, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Better blood tests to elucidate the behaviour of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) are urgently needed to drive therapeutic decisions. Plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) comprises normal and circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA). Low-pass whole-genome sequencing (lpWGS) of ctDNA can provide information on mCRPC behaviour. OBJECTIVE: To validate and clinically qualify plasma lpWGS for mCRPC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Plasma lpWGS data were obtained for mCRPC patients consenting to optional substudies of two prospective phase 3 trials (FIRSTANA and PROSELICA). In FIRSTANA, chemotherapy-naïve patients were randomised to treatment with docetaxel (75 mg/m2) or cabazitaxel (20 or 25 mg/m2). In PROSELICA, patients previously treated with docetaxel were randomised to 20 or 25 mg/m2 cabazitaxel. lpWGS data were generated from 540 samples from 188 mCRPC patients acquired at four different time points (screening, cycle 1, cycle 4, and end of study). OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: lpWGS data for ctDNA were evaluated for prognostic, response, and tumour genomic measures. Associations with response and survival data were determined for tumour fraction. Genomic biomarkers including large-scale transition (LST) scores were explored in the context of prior treatments. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Plasma tumour fraction was prognostic for overall survival in univariable and stratified multivariable analyses (hazard ratio 1.75, 95% confidence interval 1.08-2.85; p = 0.024) and offered added value compared to existing biomarkers (C index 0.722 vs 0.709; p = 0.021). Longitudinal changes were associated with drug response. PROSELICA samples were enriched for LSTs (p = 0.029) indicating genomic instability, and this enrichment was associated with prior abiraterone and enzalutamide treatment but not taxane or radiation therapy. Higher LSTs were correlated with losses of RB1/RNASEH2B, independent of BRCA2 loss. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma lpWGS of ctDNA describes CRPC behaviour, providing prognostic and response data of clinical relevance. The added prognostic value of the ctDNA fraction over established biomarkers should be studied further. PATIENT SUMMARY: We studied tumour DNA in blood samples from patients with prostate cancer. We found that levels of tumour DNA in blood were indicative of disease prognosis, and that changes after treatment could be detected. We also observed a "genetic scar" in the results that was associated with certain previous treatments. This test allows an assessment of tumour activity that can complement existing tests, offer insights into drug response, and detect clinically relevant genetic changes.


Assuntos
DNA Tumoral Circulante , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração , DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , DNA de Neoplasias , Docetaxel , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética
10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(10)2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066080

RESUMO

Circulating tumor cell (CTC) enumeration and changes following treatment have been demonstrated to be superior to PSA response in determining mCRPC outcome in patients receiving AR signaling inhibitors but not taxanes. We carried out a pooled analysis of two prospective studies in mCRPC patients treated with docetaxel. CTCs were measured at baseline and 3-6 weeks post treatment initiation. Cox regression models were constructed to compare 6-month radiographical progression-free survival (rPFS), CTCs and PSA changes predicting outcome. Among the subjects, 80 and 52 patients had evaluable baseline and post-treatment CTC counts, respectively. A significant association of higher baseline CTC count with worse overall survival (OS), PFS and time to PSA progression (TTPP) was observed. While CTC response at 3-6 weeks (CTC conversion (from ≥5 to <5 CTCs), CTC30 (≥30% decline in CTC) or CTC0 (decline to 0 CTC)) and 6-month rPFS were significantly associated with OS (all p < 0.005), the association was not significant for PSA30 or PSA50 response. CTC and PSA response were discordant in over 50% of cases, with outcome driven by CTC response in these patients. The c-index values for OS were superior for early CTC changes compared to PSA response endpoints, and similar to 6-month rPFS. Early CTC declines were good predictors of improved outcomes in mCRPC patients treated with docetaxel in this small study, offering a superior and/or earlier estimation of docetaxel benefit in comparison to PSA or rPFS that merits further confirmation in larger studies.

13.
J Ultrasound ; 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031862

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the use of the new Focal-One® HIFU platform in salvage setting to evaluate the occurrence of postoperative complications. METHODS: Patients who underwent salvage HIFU (sHIFU) with Focal-One® platform were enrolled prospectively (Candiolo cancer institute-FPO IRCCS; registry number: 258/2018). Perioperative and postoperative outcomes (in terms of oncological and functional ones) were recorded during the first year of follow-up. In particular postoperative complications were classified according to Clavien-Dindo system. RESULTS: 20 patients were enrolled. No grade 3 complications were recorded. Referring to grade 2 complications, eight patients reported urgency after 3 months of follow-up, and in 4 cases, a low urinary tract infection occurred. Evaluating the impact of sHIFU on patients' sexual potency, micturition and quality of life, no significant deterioration was recorded during the follow-up as proven using the ANOVA analysis for repeated measurements. Only two patient had a biochemical failure after 12 months of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The real-time intraoperative guidance with Focal-One® platform, allows a continuous monitoring and tailoring of the treatment, with a minimization of the adverse events even in a salvage setting.

14.
Cancer Discov ; 11(11): 2812-2827, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34045297

RESUMO

PARP inhibitors are approved for treating advanced prostate cancers (APC) with various defective DNA repair genes; however, further studies to clinically qualify predictive biomarkers are warranted. Herein we analyzed TOPARP-B phase II clinical trial samples, evaluating whole-exome and low-pass whole-genome sequencing and IHC and IF assays evaluating ATM and RAD51 foci (testing homologous recombination repair function). BRCA1/2 germline and somatic pathogenic mutations associated with similar benefit from olaparib; greater benefit was observed with homozygous BRCA2 deletion. Biallelic, but not monoallelic, PALB2 deleterious alterations were associated with clinical benefit. In the ATM cohort, loss of ATM protein by IHC was associated with a better outcome. RAD51 foci loss identified tumors with biallelic BRCA and PALB2 alterations while most ATM- and CDK12-altered APCs had higher RAD51 foci levels. Overall, APCs with homozygous BRCA2 deletion are exceptional responders; PALB2 biallelic loss and loss of ATM IHC expression associated with clinical benefit. SIGNIFICANCE: Not all APCs with DNA repair defects derive similar benefit from PARP inhibition. Most benefit was seen among patients with BRCA2 homozygous deletions, biallelic loss of PALB2, and loss of ATM protein. Loss of RAD51 foci, evaluating homologous recombination repair function, was found primarily in tumors with biallelic BRCA1/2 and PALB2 alterations.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 2659.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias da Próstata , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Reparo do DNA , Humanos , Masculino , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética
15.
Eur J Cancer ; 149: 134-152, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-inhibitors (PARPis) showed antitumour activity in BRCA1/2-mutated cancers, with more heterogeneous outcomes in tumours harbouring mutations that impair other genes involved in the DNA homologous recombination repair (HRR) or wild-type (wt). METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to better assess the role of PARPis in the treatment of metastatic solid tumours, with and without BRCA1/2 mutations. The primary end-point was progression-free survival (PFS). The secondary end-points were overall response rate (ORR) and overall survival (OS). A random-effects model was applied. RESULTS: Twenty-nine studies (8,839 patients) were included. PFS was significantly improved (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.51-0.68, p < 0.001), without being affected by BRCA mutational status (p = 0.65). Significant subgroup differences were observed with regard to the tumour site (p = 0.001), line of therapy (p = 0.002), control arm (p < 0.001), type of PARPi (p < 0.001) and trials' phase (p = 0.006). PARPis were associated with ORR (relative risk: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.16-1.56, p < 0.001), with significant subgroup differences observed with regard to treatment line (p = 0.03), control arm (p = 0.04) and PARPis (p < 0.001) and independent of mutational status (p = 0.44), tumour site (p = 0.86) and trials' phase (p = 0.09). OS was significantly improved by PARPis (HR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.80-0.92, p < 0.001), regardless of mutational status (p = 0.57), tumour site (p = 0.82), treatment line (p = 0.22), control arm (p = 0.21), PARPis (p = 0.30) and trials' phase (p = 0.26). Finally, an exploratory subgroup analysis showed a significant PFS improvement (HR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.43-0.60, p < 0.001) with PARPis in BRCA-wt/HRR-deficient tumours. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm the efficacy of already approved PARPi-based treatments in BRCA1/2-mutant solid tumours, support their role also in BRCA-independent HRR-deficient tumours and suggest a potentially broader efficacy in some wt tumours, perhaps with appropriate therapeutic partners. Prospective studies are warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Humanos , Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/patologia , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Cells ; 10(1)2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478015

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in men and is a common cause of cancer-related death. Despite significant progress in the diagnosis and treatment of this tumor, patients who relapse after radical treatments inevitably develop metastatic disease. Patient stratification is therefore key in this type of cancer, and there is an urgent need for prognostic biomarkers that can define patients' risk of cancer-related death. In the last 10 years, multiple prognostic factors have been identified and studied. Here, we review the literature available and discuss the most common aberrant genomic pathways in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer shown to have a prognostic relevance in this setting.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia
17.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(2): 566-574, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988971

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cyclin-dependent kinase 12 (CDK12) aberrations have been reported as a biomarker of response to immunotherapy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Herein, we characterize CDK12-mutated mCRPC, presenting clinical, genomic, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) data. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients with mCRPC consented to the molecular analyses of diagnostic and mCRPC biopsies. Genomic analyses involved targeted next-generation (MiSeq; Illumina) and exome sequencing (NovaSeq; Illumina). TILs were assessed by validated immunocytochemistry coupled with deep learning-based artificial intelligence analyses including multiplex immunofluorescence assays for CD4, CD8, and FOXP3 evaluating TIL subsets. The control group comprised a randomly selected mCRPC cohort with sequencing and clinical data available. RESULTS: Biopsies from 913 patients underwent targeted sequencing between February 2015 and October 2019. Forty-three patients (4.7%) had tumors with CDK12 alterations. CDK12-altered cancers had distinctive features, with some revealing high chromosomal break numbers in exome sequencing. Biallelic CDK12-aberrant mCRPCs had shorter overall survival from diagnosis than controls [5.1 years (95% confidence interval (CI), 4.0-7.9) vs. 6.4 years (95% CI, 5.7-7.8); hazard ratio (HR), 1.65 (95% CI, 1.07-2.53); P = 0.02]. Median intratumoral CD3+ cell density was higher in CDK12 cancers, although this was not statistically significant (203.7 vs. 86.7 cells/mm2; P = 0.07). This infiltrate primarily comprised of CD4+FOXP3- cells (50.5 vs. 6.2 cells/mm2; P < 0.0001), where high counts tended to be associated with worse survival from diagnosis (HR, 1.64; 95% CI, 0.95-2.84; P = 0.077) in the overall population. CONCLUSIONS: CDK12-altered mCRPCs have worse prognosis, with these tumors surprisingly being primarily enriched for CD4+FOXP3- cells that seem to associate with worse outcome and may be immunosuppressive.See related commentary by Lotan and Antonarakis, p. 380.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Neoplasias da Próstata , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes , Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Microambiente Tumoral
18.
Oncologist ; 26(2): e350, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350011
19.
Eur Urol ; 79(2): 200-211, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deleterious ATM alterations are found in metastatic prostate cancer (PC); PARP inhibition has antitumour activity against this subset, but only some ATM loss PCs respond. OBJECTIVE: To characterise ATM-deficient lethal PC and to study synthetic lethal therapeutic strategies for this subset. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We studied advanced PC biopsies using validated immunohistochemical (IHC) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) assays. In vitro cell line models modified using CRISPR-Cas9 to impair ATM function were generated and used in drug-sensitivity and functional assays, with validation in a patient-derived model. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: ATM expression by IHC was correlated with clinical outcome using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank test; sensitivity to different drug combinations was assessed in the preclinical models. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Overall, we detected ATM IHC loss in 68/631 (11%) PC patients in at least one biopsy, with synchronous and metachronous intrapatient heterogeneity; 46/71 (65%) biopsies with ATM loss had ATM mutations or deletions by NGS. ATM IHC loss was not associated with worse outcome from advanced disease, but ATM loss was associated with increased genomic instability (NtAI:number of subchromosomal regions with allelic imbalance extending to the telomere, p = 0.005; large-scale transitions, p = 0.05). In vitro, ATM loss PC models were sensitive to ATR inhibition, but had variable sensitivity to PARP inhibition; superior antitumour activity was seen with combined PARP and ATR inhibition in these models. CONCLUSIONS: ATM loss in PC is not always detected by targeted NGS, associates with genomic instability, and is most sensitive to combined ATR and PARP inhibition. PATIENT SUMMARY: Of aggressive prostate cancers, 10% lose the DNA repair gene ATM; this loss may identify a distinct prostate cancer subtype that is most sensitive to the combination of oral drugs targeting PARP and ATR.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
20.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has overwhelmed the health systems worldwide. Data regarding the impact of COVID-19 on cancer patients (CPs) undergoing or candidate for immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are lacking. We depicted the practice and adaptations in the management of patients with solid tumors eligible or receiving ICIs during the COVID-19 pandemic, with a special focus on Campania region. METHODS: This survey (25 questions), promoted by the young section of SCITO (Società Campana di ImmunoTerapia Oncologica) Group, was circulated among Italian young oncologists practicing in regions variously affected by the pandemic: high (group 1), medium (group 2) and low (group 3) prevalence of SARS-CoV-2-positive patients. For Campania region, the physician responders were split into those working in cancer centers (CC), university hospitals (UH) and general hospitals (GH). Percentages of agreement, among High (H) versus Medium (M) and versus Low (L) group for Italy and among CC, UH and GH for Campania region, were compared by using Fisher's exact tests for dichotomous answers and χ2 test for trends relative to the questions with 3 or more options. RESULTS: This is the first Italian study to investigate the COVID-19 impact on cancer immunotherapy, unique in its type and very clear in the results. The COVID-19 pandemic seemed not to affect the standard practice in the prescription and delivery of ICIs in Italy. Telemedicine was widely used. There was high consensus to interrupt immunotherapy in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients and to adopt ICIs with longer schedule interval. The majority of the responders tended not to delay the start of ICIs; there were no changes in supportive treatments, but some of the physicians opted for delaying surgeries (if part of patients' planned treatment approach). The results from responders in Campania did not differ significantly from the national ones. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the efforts of Italian oncologists to maintain high standards of care for CPs treated with ICIs, regardless the regional prevalence of COVID-19, suggesting the adoption of similar solutions. Research on patients treated with ICIs and experiencing COVID-19 will clarify the safety profile to continue the treatments, thus informing on the most appropriate clinical conducts.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Oncologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , COVID-19 , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Oncologia/normas , Neoplasias/imunologia , Oncologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo para o Tratamento
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