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Autoimmun Rev ; 18(4): 406-414, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772493


AIM: To analyse the clinical features, laboratory data and foetal-maternal outcomes, and follow them up on a cohort of 1000 women with obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome (OAPS). METHODS: The European Registry of OAPS became a registry within the framework of the European Forum on Antiphospholipid Antibody projects and was placed on a website in June 2010. Thirty hospitals throughout Europe have collaborated to carry out this registry. Cases with obstetric complaints related to antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) who tested positive for aPL at least twice were included prospectively and retrospectively. The seven-year survey results are reported. RESULTS: 1000 women with 3553 episodes were included of which 2553 were historical and 1000 were latest episodes. All cases fulfilled the Sydney classification criteria. According to the laboratory categories, 292 (29.2%) were in category I, 357 (35.7%) in IIa, 224 (22.4%) in IIb and 127 (12.7%) in IIc. Miscarriages were the most prevalent clinical manifestation in 386 cases (38.6%). Moreover, the presence of early preeclampsia (PE) and early foetal growth restriction (FGR) appeared in 181 (18.1%) and 161 (16.1%), respectively. In this series, 448 (44.8%) women received the recommended OAPS treatment. Patients with recommended treatment had a good live-birth rate (85%), but worse results (72.4%) were obtained in patients with any treatment (low-dose aspirin (LDA) or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) not on recommended schedule, while patients with no treatment showed a poor birth rate (49.6%). CONCLUSION: In this series, recurrent miscarriage is the most frequent poor outcome. To avoid false-negative diagnoses, all laboratory category subsets were needed. OAPS cases have very good foetal-maternal outcomes when treated. Results suggest that we were able to improve our clinical practice to offer better treatment and outcomes to OAPS patients.

Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Aborto Habitual/tratamento farmacológico , Aborto Habitual/epidemiologia , Aborto Habitual/etiologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antifosfolipídeos/imunologia , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/complicações , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/imunologia , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações na Gravidez/imunologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
Autoimmun Rev ; 17(10): 1011-1021, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30103045


BACKGROUND: Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are widely used for secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) but their clinical efficacy and safety are not established in Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) patients. There is only one randomized controlled trial published while others are still ongoing. Many non-randomized studies have been published in this field with conflicting opinions. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We conducted a systematic review using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases from 2000 until March 2018 regarding APS patients treated with DOACs. We performed a patient-level data meta-analysis to a) estimate the prevalence of recurrent thrombosis in APS patients treated with DOACs in the literature, and b) identify variables associated with recurrent thrombosis. RESULTS: We identified 47 studies corresponding to 447 APS patients treated with DOACs. Three commercially available DOACs were analyzed: rivaroxaban (n = 290), dabigatran etexilate (n = 144) and apixaban (n = 13). A total of 73 out of 447 patients (16%) experienced a recurrent thrombosis while on DOACs with a mean duration until thrombosis of 12.5 months. Rates of recurrent thromboses were 16.9% and 15% in APS patients receiving either anti-Xa inhibitors or dabigatran respectively. Triple positivity (positivity for all three antiphospholipid antibodies) was associated with a four-fold increased risk of recurrent thrombosis (56% vs 23%; OR = 4.3 [95%CI; 2.3-7.7], p < 0.0001) as well as a higher number of clinical criteria for APS classification. In patients treated with anti-Xa inhibitors, history of arterial thrombosis was associated with a higher risk of recurrent thrombosis (32% vs 14%; OR = 2.8 [95%CI; 1.4-5.7], p = 0.006). In conclusion, DOACs are not effective in all APS patients and should not be used routinely in these patients. Randomized controlled trials assessing clinical efficacy and safety as primary endpoints are underway. In the meantime, a registry of APS patients on DOACs could be proposed to establish in which APS subgroups DOACs would be a safe alternative to warfarin.

Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/induzido quimicamente , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
Thromb Haemost ; 118(4): 639-646, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29490410


The effect of additional treatments combined with conventional therapy on pregnancy outcomes was examined in high-risk primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS) patients to identify the most effective treatment strategy. The study's inclusion criteria were (1) positivity to lupus anticoagulant alone or associated with anticardiolipin and/or anti-ß2 glycoprotein I antibodies; (2) a history of severe maternal-foetal complications (Group I) or a history of one or more pregnancies refractory to conventional therapy leading to unexplained foetal deaths not associated with severe maternal-foetal complications (Group II). Two different additional treatments were considered: oral-low-dose steroids (10-20 mg prednisone daily) and/or 200 to 400 mg daily doses of hydroxychloroquine and parenteral-intravenous immunoglobulins at 2 g/kg per month and/or plasma exchange. The study's primary outcomes were live birth rates and pregnancy complications. A total of 194 pregnant PAPS patients attending 20 tertiary centres were retrospectively enrolled. Hydroxychloroquine was found to be linked to a significantly higher live birth rate with respect to the other oral treatments in the Group II patients. The high (400 mg) versus low (200 mg) doses of hydroxychloroquine (p = 0.036) and its administration before versus during pregnancy (p = 0.021) were associated with a significantly higher live birth rate. Hydroxychloroquine therapy appeared particularly efficacious in the PAPS patients without previous thrombosis. Parenteral treatments were associated with a significantly higher live birth rate with respect to the oral ones (p = 0.037), particularly in the Group I patients. In conclusion, some additional treatments were found to be safe and efficacious in high-risk PAPS pregnant women.

World J Gastroenterol ; 23(27): 4867-4878, 2017 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28785141


Nearly half of the global population are carriers of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a Gram-negative bacterium that persists in the healthy human stomach. H. pylori can be a pathogen and causes development of peptic ulcer disease in a certain state of the macroorganism. It is well established that H. pylori infection is the main cause of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease (PUD). Decontamination of the gastric mucosa with various antibiotics leads to H. pylori elimination and longer remission in this disease. However, the reasons for repeated detection of H. pylori in recurrent PUD after its successful eradication remain unclear. The reason for the redetection of H. pylori in recurrent PUD can be either reinfection or ineffective anti-Helicobacter therapy. The administration of antibacterial drugs can lead not only to the emergence of resistant strains of microorganisms, but also contribute to the conversion of H. pylori into the resting (dormant) state. The dormant forms of H. pylori have been shown to play a potential role in the development of relapses of PUD. The paper discusses morphological H. pylori forms, such as S-shaped, C-shaped, U-shaped, and coccoid ones. The authors proposes the classification of H. pylori according to its morphological forms and viability.

Mucosa Gástrica/microbiologia , Gastrite Atrófica/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , Úlcera Péptica/microbiologia , Gastrite Atrófica/epidemiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Helicobacter pylori/fisiologia , Helicobacter pylori/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica , Úlcera Péptica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Recidiva
World J Hepatol ; 7(19): 2229-36, 2015 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26380049


The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an acquired thrombophilic disorder in which autoantibodies are produced to a variety of phospholipids determinants of cell membranes or phospholipid binding proteins. There are few reports about association between antiphospholipid antibodies and development of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS). We report the case of BCS development in young Russian male with primary APS. The patient underwent orthotopic liver transplantation on August 26, 2012. At present time his state is good, the blood flow in the liver restored and its function is not impaired. We report about the first time the successful use of dabigatran etexilate for prolonged anticoagulation therapy in APS patient with BCS. In addition patient is managed with immunosuppressive drugs.

Immunol Lett ; 122(1): 12-7, 2009 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19010354


Fas/FasL system is involved in pathogenesis of a variety of autoimmune diseases. In overwhelming majority of situations alterations in Fas and FasL expression are viewed in frames of Fas-mediated apoptosis. In the present work we tested a possible involvement of Fas-ligand-mediated "reverse signaling" in pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We show that high level of sFas in RA patient blood correlates with a high activity of disease; in SLE patients with elevated sFas level there was a correlation between sFas concentration and leucopenia, and tissue and organ damage. We showed for the first time that at high concentrations in serum sFas is present in oligomeric form. Oligomeric sFas demonstrated cytotoxicity in lymphocyte primary culture and in transformed cells, while non-toxic recombinant Fas-ligand partially blocked this effect. Besides, immunohistochemical analysis of PBLs and injured synovia of RA patients revealed the high expression of Fas-ligand. All this together allow assuming the involvement of cytotoxic "reversed signaling" in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases.

Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Proteína Ligante Fas/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Receptor fas/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/fisiopatologia , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Proteína Ligante Fas/metabolismo , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Linfócitos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Multimerização Proteica , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Líquido Sinovial/imunologia , Líquido Sinovial/metabolismo , Receptor fas/metabolismo