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1.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411981

RESUMO

Multiple randomized trials have shown a survival benefit to long durations of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in patients with Gleason grade group (GG) 4-5 (ie, Gleason score 8-10) prostate cancer (PCa) undergoing definitive external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). We conducted a population-based retrospective study utilizing the complete Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare-linked database from 2008 to 2011, extracting PCa patients of non-Hispanic white (NHW) and African-American (AA) race diagnosed with GG 4-5PCa who received EBRT with or without concomitant ADT. Of 961 patients receiving definitive EBRT, 225 (23.4%) received no ADT, 297 (30.9%) received 1-6mo of ADT, 313 (32.6) received 7-23mo of ADT, and 126 (13.1%) received ≥24mo of ADT. On multinomial logistic regression after inverse probability treatment weighting to balance for differences in other covariates, AA men still had significantly lower odds of receiving 1-6mo of ADT versus no ADT compared with NHW men (odds ratios 0.519 [95% confidence interval, 0.384-0.700]). In conclusion, long-duration ADT is underutilized, with nearly 90% of patients with GG 4-5PCa receiving <24mo of concomitant ADT, and AA men are less likely to receive ADT than NHW men. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this report, we examined the utilization of concomitant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) among men with high-grade prostate cancer undergoing definitive external beam radiotherapy. We found that long-duration ADT was underutilized overall; moreover, African-American men were less likely to receive concomitant ADT than non-Hispanic white men.

2.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(9): 1286-1294, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines consider 18F-fluciclovine PET-CT for prostate cancer biochemical recurrence localisation after radical prostatectomy, whereas European Association of Urology guidelines recommend prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET-CT. To the best of our knowledge, no prospective head-to-head comparison between these tests has been done so far. The aim of this study was to compare prospectively paired 18F-fluciclovine and PSMA PET-CT scans for localising biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy in patients with low prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations (<2·0 ng/mL). METHODS: This was a prospective, single-centre, open-label, single-arm comparative study done at University of California Los Angeles (Los Angeles, CA, USA). Patients older than 18 years of age with prostate cancer biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy and PSA levels ranging from 0·2 to 2·0 ng/mL without any prior salvage therapy and with a Karnofsky performance status of at least 50 were eligible. Patients underwent 18F-fluciclovine (reference test) and PSMA (index test) PET-CT scans within 15 days. Detection rate of biochemical recurrence at the patient level and by anatomical region was the primary endpoint. A statistical power analysis demonstrated that a sample size of 50 patients was needed to show a 22% difference in detection rates in favour of PSMA (test for superiority). Each PET scan was interpreted by three independent masked readers and a consensus majority interpretation was generated (two vs one) to determine positive findings. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02940262, and is complete. FINDINGS: Between Feb 26, 2018, and Sept 20, 2018, 143 patients were screened for eligibility, of whom 50 patients were enrolled into the study. Median follow-up was 8 months (IQR 7-9). The primary endpoint was met; detection rates were significantly lower with 18F-fluciclovine PET-CT (13 [26%; 95% CI 15-40] of 50) than with PSMA PET-CT (28 [56%; 41-70] of 50), with an odds ratio (OR) of 4·8 (95% CI 1·6-19·2; p=0·0026) at the patient level; in the subanalysis of the pelvic nodes region (four [8%; 2-19] with 18F-fluciclovine vs 15 [30%; 18-45] with PSMA PET-CT; OR 12·0 [1·8-513·0], p=0·0034); and in the subanalysis of any extrapelvic lesions (none [0%; 0-6] vs eight [16%; 7-29]; OR non-estimable [95% CI non-estimable], p=0·0078). INTERPRETATION: With higher detection rates, PSMA should be the PET tracer of choice when PET-CT imaging is considered for subsequent treatment management decisions in patients with prostate cancer and biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy and low PSA concentrations (≤2·0 ng/mL). Further research is needed to investigate whether higher detection rates translate into improved oncological outcomes. FUNDING: None.

3.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 17(4): 275-282.e1, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline genetic testing increasingly identifies advanced prostate cancer (PCa) patients who are candidates for precision therapies. The Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Consortium (PCCTC) established the Germline Genetics Working Group to provide guidance and resources to expand effective use of germline genetic testing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 14-item questionnaire was e-mailed to academic oncologists at 43 PCCTC sites to collect information on germline genetic testing patterns, including patients considered, choice of assays, barriers slowing adoption, and actions to overcome barriers. RESULTS: Twenty-six genitourinary oncologists from 19 institutions responded. Less than 40% (10 of 26) reported referring patients to a genetics department, whereas the remainder take personal responsibility for genetic testing and counseling; 16 (62%) consider testing all metastatic PCa patients, whereas 3 (12%) consider testing all patients with high-risk local disease; and 7 (27%) use multigene comprehensive pan-cancer panels, and 14 (54%) use smaller or targeted cancer gene panels. Barriers to widespread use are: (1) delayed or limited access to genetic counseling; (2) no insurance coverage; (3) lack of effective workflows; (4) insufficient educational materials; and (5) time and space constraints in busy clinics. The primary limitation was the <50% (19 of 43) response from PCCTC sites and no coverage of nonacademic cancer treatment facilities. CONCLUSION: Joint efforts by urologists, oncologists, genetics counselors, insurers, and cancer centers can accelerate implementation of integrated germline genetic services for personalized treatment and clinical trial eligibility for PCa patients.

4.
Org Lett ; 21(11): 4039-4043, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081633

RESUMO

The Mannich reaction has been used for decades to prepare many pharmaceutically important molecules. Here, using a "double-Mannich-ß-elimination" synthetic sequence, we report the synthesis and the characterization details of a novel class of ß-amino diaryldienones with prominent antiprostate cancer activity. Through these studies, we correct an erroneous structure in the current literature, present a discussion of the stereochemical outcome of a new reaction, and probe the mechanism(s) of byproduct formation through isotopic studies.

5.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 291, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The treatment paradigm for metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC) patients is evolving. PET/CT now offers improved sensitivity and accuracy in staging. Recent randomized trial data supports escalated hormone therapy, local primary tumor therapy, and metastasis-directed therapy. The impact of combining such therapies into a multimodal approach is unknown. This Phase II single-arm clinical trial sponsored and funded by Veterans Affairs combines local, metastasis-directed, and systemic therapies to durably render patients free of detectable disease off active therapy. METHODS: Patients with newly-diagnosed M1a/b prostate cancer (PSMA PET/CT staging is permitted) and 1-5 radiographically visible metastases (excluding pelvic lymph nodes) are undergoing local treatment with radical prostatectomy, limited duration systemic therapy for a total of six months (leuprolide, abiraterone acetate with prednisone, and apalutamide), metastasis-directed stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), and post-operative fractionated radiotherapy if pT ≥ 3a, N1, or positive margins are present. The primary endpoint is the percent of patients achieving a serum PSA of < 0.05 ng/mL six months after recovery of serum testosterone ≥150 ng/dL. Secondary endpoints include time to biochemical progression, time to radiographic progression, time to initiation of alternative antineoplastic therapy, prostate cancer specific survival, health related quality-of-life, safety and tolerability. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, this is the first trial that tests a comprehensive systemic and tumor directed therapeutic strategy for patients with newly diagnosed oligometastatic prostate cancer. This trial, and others like it, represent the critical first step towards curative intent therapy for a patient population where palliation has been the norm. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT03298087 (registration date: September 29, 2017).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Micrometástase de Neoplasia/terapia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Radiocirurgia , Acetato de Abiraterona/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Leuprolida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micrometástase de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Micrometástase de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Micrometástase de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Tioidantoínas/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Veteranos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Cancer Res ; 79(10): 2580-2592, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952632

RESUMO

Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) that has developed resistance to the new-generation androgen receptor (AR) antagonist enzalutamide is a lethal disease. Transcriptome analysis of multiple prostate cancer models identified CXCR7, an atypical chemokine receptor, as one of the most upregulated genes in enzalutamide-resistant cells. AR directly repressed CXCR7 by binding to an enhancer 110 kb downstream of the gene and expression was restored upon androgen deprivation. We demonstrate that CXCR7 is a critical regulator of prostate cancer sensitivity to enzalutamide and is required for CRPC growth in vitro and in vivo. Elevated CXCR7 activated MAPK/ERK signaling through ligand-independent, but ß-arrestin 2-dependent mechanisms. Examination of patient specimens showed that CXCR7 and pERK levels increased significantly from localized prostate cancer to CRPC and further upon enzalutamide resistance. Preclinical studies revealed remarkable efficacies of MAPK/ERK inhibitors in suppressing enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancer. Overall, these results indicate that CXCR7 may serve as a biomarker of resistant disease in patients with prostate cancer and that disruption of CXCR7 signaling may be an effective strategy to overcome resistance. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings identify CXCR7-mediated MAPK activation as a mechanism of resistance to second-generation antiandrogen therapy, highlighting the therapeutic potential of MAPK/ERK inhibitors in CRPC.

7.
Mol Cancer Res ; 17(6): 1235-1240, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918106

RESUMO

Therapeutic resistance in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) can be accompanied by treatment-emergent small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (t-SCNC), a morphologically distinct subtype. We performed integrative whole-genome and -transcriptome analysis of mCRPC tumor biopsies including paired biopsies after progression, and multiple samples from the same individual. t-SCNC was significantly less likely to have amplification of AR or an intergenic AR-enhancer locus, and demonstrated lower expression of AR and its downstream transcriptional targets. Genomic and transcriptional hallmarks of t-SCNC included biallelic loss of RB1, elevated expression levels of CDKN2A and E2F1, and loss of expression of the AR and AR-responsive genes including TMPRSS2 and NKX3-1. We identified three tumors that converted from adenocarcinoma to t-SCNC and demonstrate spatial and temporal intrapatient heterogeneity of metastatic tumors harboring adenocarcinoma, t-SCNC, or mixed expression phenotypes, with implications for treatment strategies in which dual targeting of adenocarcinoma and t-SCNC phenotypes may be necessary. IMPLICATIONS: The t-SCNC phenotype is characterized by lack of AR enhancer gain and loss of RB1 function, and demonstrates both interindividual and intraindividual heterogeneity.Visual Overview: http://mcr.aacrjournals.org/content/molcanres/17/6/1235/F1.large.jpg.

8.
JAMA Oncol ; 5(6): 856-863, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920593

RESUMO

Importance: In retrospective studies, 68Ga-PSMA-11 positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging improves detection of biochemically recurrent prostate cancer compared with conventional imaging. Objective: To assess 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET accuracy in a prospective multicenter trial. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this single-arm prospective trial conducted at University of California, San Francisco and University of California, Los Angeles, 635 patients with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer after prostatectomy (n = 262, 41%), radiation therapy (n = 169, 27%), or both (n = 204, 32%) underwent 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET. Presence of prostate cancer was recorded by 3 blinded readers on a per-patient and per-region base. Lesions were validated by histopathologic analysis and a composite reference standard. Main Outcomes and Measures: Endpoints were positive predictive value (PPV), detection rate, interreader reproducibility, and safety. Results: A total of 635 men were enrolled with a median age of 69 years (range, 44-95 years). On a per-patient basis, PPV was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.75-0.90) by histopathologic validation (primary endpoint, n = 87) and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.88-0.95) by the composite reference standard (n = 217). 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET localized recurrent prostate cancer in 475 of 635 (75%) patients; detection rates significantly increased with prostate-specific antigen (PSA): 38% for <0.5 ng/mL (n = 136), 57% for 0.5 to <1.0 ng/mL (n = 79), 84% for 1.0 to <2.0 ng/mL (n = 89), 86% for 2.0 to <5.0 ng/mL (n = 158), and 97% for ≥5.0 ng/mL (n = 173, P < .001). Interreader reproducibility was substantial (Fleiss κ, 0.65-0.78). There were no serious adverse events associated with 68Ga-PSMA-11 administration. PET-directed focal therapy alone led to a PSA drop of 50% or more in 31 of 39 (80%) patients. Conclusions and Relevance: Using blinded reads and independent lesion validation, we establish high PPV for 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET, detection rate and interreader agreement for localization of recurrent prostate cancer. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT02940262 and NCT03353740.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is incurable and progression after drugs that target the androgen receptor-signaling axis is inevitable. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop more effective treatments beyond hormonal manipulation. We sought to identify activated kinases in mCRPC as therapeutic targets for existing, approved agents, with the goal of identifying candidate drugs for rapid translation into proof of concept Phase II trials in mCRPC. METHODS: To identify evidence of activation of druggable kinases in these patients, we compared mRNA expression from metastatic biopsies of patients with mCRPC (n = 101) to mRNA expression in localized prostate from TCGA and used this analysis to infer differential kinase activity. In addition, we assessed the differential phosphorylation levels for key MAPK pathway kinases between mCRPC and localized prostate cancers. RESULTS: Transcriptomic profiling of 101 patients with mCRPC as compared to patients with localized prostate cancer identified evidence of hyperactive ERK1, and whole genome sequencing revealed frequent amplifications of members of the MAPK pathway in 32% of this cohort. Next, we confirmed elevated levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2 in castration resistant prostate cancer as compared to untreated primary prostate cancer. We observed that the presence of detectable phosphorylated ERK1/2 in the primary tumor is associated with biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy independent of clinicopathologic features. ERK1 is the immediate downstream target of MEK1/2, which is druggable with trametinib, an approved therapeutic for melanoma. Trametinib elicited a profound biochemical and clinical response in a patient who had failed multiple prior treatments for mCRPC. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that pharmacologic targeting of the MEK/ERK pathway may be a viable treatment strategy for patients with refractory metastatic prostate cancer. An ongoing Phase II trial tests this hypothesis.

10.
Clin Nucl Med ; 44(5): e353-e356, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789399

RESUMO

Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen 11 (PSMA) PET/CT imaging accurately depicts metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma (PCa). Pulmonary metastases of PCa are often overlooked on follow-up imaging in patients after initial treatment and following androgen deprivation therapy. Here we present a rare case of biopsy-proven PCa pulmonary metastasis with a ground-glass appearance. The increased PSMA expression and the evolving CT features of the solid component of the ground-glass nodule detected by PSMA PET/CT imaging led to surgical resection and PET/CT-guided therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Nódulos Pulmonares Múltiplos/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Ácido Edético/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oligopeptídeos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
11.
Med Res Rev ; 39(3): 910-960, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30565725

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality in men in the United States. The androgen receptor (AR) and the physiological pathways it regulates are central to the initiation and progression of PCa. As a member of the nuclear steroid receptor family, it is a transcription factor with three distinct functional domains (ligand-binding domain [LBD], DNA-binding domain [DBD], and transactivation domain [TAD]) in its structure. All clinically approved drugs for PCa ultimately target the AR-LBD. Clinically active drugs that target the DBD and TAD have not yet been developed due to multiple factors. Despite these limitations, the last several years have seen a rise in the discovery of molecules that could successfully target these domains. This review aims to present and comprehensively discuss such molecules that affect AR signaling through direct or indirect interactions with the AR-TAD or the DBD. The compounds discussed here include hairpin polyamides, niclosamide, marine sponge-derived small molecules (eg, EPI compounds), mahanine, VPC compounds, JN compounds, and bromodomain and extraterminal domain inhibitors. We highlight the significant in vitro and in vivo data found for each compound and the apparent limitations and/or potential for further development of these agents as PCa therapies.


Assuntos
Receptores Androgênicos/química , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Ligantes , Domínios Proteicos
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(40): 9986-9991, 2018 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224472

RESUMO

Tumor cells are hypothesized to use proteolytic enzymes to facilitate invasion. Whether circulating tumor cells (CTCs) secrete these enzymes to aid metastasis is unknown. A quantitative and high-throughput approach to assay CTC secretion is needed to address this question. We developed an integrated microfluidic system that concentrates rare cancer cells >100,000-fold from 1 mL of whole blood into ∼50,000 2-nL drops composed of assay reagents within 15 min. The system isolates CTCs by size, exchanges fluid around CTCs to remove contaminants, introduces a matrix metalloprotease (MMP) substrate, and encapsulates CTCs into microdroplets. We found CTCs from prostate cancer patients possessed above baseline levels of MMP activity (1.7- to 200-fold). Activity of CTCs was generally higher than leukocytes from the same patient (average CTC/leukocyte MMP activity ratio, 2.6 ± 1.5). Higher MMP activity of CTCs suggests active proteolytic processes that may facilitate invasion or immune evasion and be relevant phenotypic biomarkers enabling companion diagnostics for anti-MMP therapies.


Assuntos
Separação Celular , Colagenases/metabolismo , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Células A549 , Separação Celular/instrumentação , Separação Celular/métodos , Humanos , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/métodos , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia
14.
Cancer Metab ; 6: 13, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30258629

RESUMO

Background: Cancer cell metabolism requires sustained pools of intracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) which is maintained by a balance of NAD+ hydrolase activity and NAD+ salvage activity. We recently reported that human prostate cancer can be initiated following oncogene expression in progenitor-like luminal cells marked by low expression of the NAD+-consuming enzyme CD38. CD38 expression is reduced in prostate cancer compared to benign prostate, suggesting that tumor cells may reduce CD38 expression in order to enhance pools of NAD+. However, little is known about how CD38 expression is repressed in advanced prostate cancer and whether CD38 plays a role in regulating NAD+ levels in prostate epithelial cells. Methods: CD38 expression, its association with recurrence after prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer, and DNA methylation of the CD38 promoter were evaluated in human prostate tissues representing various stages of disease progression. CD38 was inducibly over-expressed in benign and malignant human prostate cell lines in order to determine the effects on cell proliferation and levels of NAD+ and NADH. NAD+ and NADH were also measured in urogenital tissues from wild-type and CD38 knockout mice. Results: CD38 mRNA expression was reduced in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer compared to localized prostate cancer. In a large cohort of men undergoing radical prostatectomy, CD38 protein expression was inversely correlated with recurrence. We identified methylation of the CD38 promoter in primary and metastatic prostate cancer. Over-expression of wild-type CD38, but not an NAD+ hydrolase-deficient mutant, depleted extracellular NAD+ levels in benign and malignant prostate cell lines. However, expression of CD38 did not significantly alter intracellular NAD+ levels in human prostate cell lines grown in vitro and in urogenital tissues isolated from wild-type and CD38 knockout mice. Conclusions: CD38 protein expression in prostate cancer is associated with risk of recurrence. Methylation results suggest that CD38 is epigenetically regulated in localized and metastatic prostate cancer tissues. Our study provides support for CD38 as a regulator of extracellular, but not intracellular, NAD+ in epithelial cells. These findings suggest that repression of CD38 by methylation may serve to increase the availability of extracellular NAD+ in prostate cancer tissues.

15.
Cell ; 174(3): 758-769.e9, 2018 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30033370

RESUMO

While mutations affecting protein-coding regions have been examined across many cancers, structural variants at the genome-wide level are still poorly defined. Through integrative deep whole-genome and -transcriptome analysis of 101 castration-resistant prostate cancer metastases (109X tumor/38X normal coverage), we identified structural variants altering critical regulators of tumorigenesis and progression not detectable by exome approaches. Notably, we observed amplification of an intergenic enhancer region 624 kb upstream of the androgen receptor (AR) in 81% of patients, correlating with increased AR expression. Tandem duplication hotspots also occur near MYC, in lncRNAs associated with post-translational MYC regulation. Classes of structural variations were linked to distinct DNA repair deficiencies, suggesting their etiology, including associations of CDK12 mutation with tandem duplications, TP53 inactivation with inverted rearrangements and chromothripsis, and BRCA2 inactivation with deletions. Together, these observations provide a comprehensive view of how structural variations affect critical regulators in metastatic prostate cancer.

16.
J Nucl Med ; 59(11): 1714-1721, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29653978

RESUMO

Standard-of-care imaging for initial staging of prostate cancer (PCa) underestimates disease burden. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT detects PCa metastasis with superior accuracy, having a potential impact on the planning of definitive radiation therapy (RT) for nonmetastatic PCa. Our objectives were to determine how often definitive RT planning based on standard target volumes covers 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT-defined disease and to assess the potential impact of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT on definitive RT planning. Methods: This was a post hoc analysis of an intention-to-treat population of 73 patients with localized PCa without prior local therapy who underwent 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT for initial staging as part of an investigational new drug trial. Eleven of the 73 were intermediate-risk (15%), 33 were high-risk (45%), 22 were very-high-risk (30%), and 7 were N1 (9.5%). Clinical target volumes (CTVs), which included the prostate, seminal vesicles, and (in accord with the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group consensus guidelines) pelvic lymph nodes (LNs), were contoured on the CT portion of the PET/CT images by a radiation oncologist masked to the PET findings. 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT images were analyzed by a nuclear medicine physician. 68Ga-PSMA-11-positive lesions not covered by planning volumes based on the CTVs were considered to have a major potential impact on treatment planning. Results: All patients had one or more 68Ga-PSMA-11-positive primary prostate lesions. Twenty-five (34%) and 7 (9.5%) of the 73 patients had 68Ga-PSMA-11-positive pelvic LN and distant metastases, respectively. The sites of LN metastases in decreasing order of frequency were external iliac (20.5%), common iliac (13.5%), internal iliac (12.5%) obturator (12.5%), perirectal (4%), abdominal (4%), upper diaphragm (4%), and presacral (1.5%). The median size of the LN lesions was 6 mm (range, 4-24 mm). RT planning based on the CTVs covered 69 (94.5%) of the 73 primary lesions and 20 (80%) of the 25 pelvic LN lesions, on a per-patient analysis. Conclusion: 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT had a major impact on intended definitive RT planning for PCa in 12 (16.5%) of the 73 patients whose RT fields covered the prostate, seminal vesicles, and pelvic LNs and in 25 (37%) of the 66 patients whose RT fields covered the prostate and seminal vesicles but not the pelvic LNs.

17.
J Nucl Med ; 59(3): 434-441, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29242398

RESUMO

In this prospective survey of referring physicians, we investigated whether and how 68Ga-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen 11 (68Ga-PSMA-11) PET/CT affects the implemented management of prostate cancer patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR). Methods: We conducted a prospective survey of physicians (NCT02940262) who referred 161 patients with prostate cancer BCR (median prostate-specific antigen value, 1.7 ng/mL; range, 0.05-202 ng/mL). Referring physicians completed one questionnaire before the scan to indicate the treatment plan without 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT information (Q1; n = 101), one immediately after the scan to denote intended management changes (Q2; n = 101), and one 3-6 mo later to document the final implemented management (Q3; n = 56). The implemented management was also obtained via electronic chart review or patient contact (n = 45). Results: A complete documented management strategy (Q1 + Q2 + implemented management) was available for 101 of 161 patients (63%). Seventy-six of these (75%) had a positive 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT result. The implemented management differed from the prescan intended management (Q1) in 54 of 101 patients (53%). The postscan intended management (Q2) differed from the prescan intended management (Q1) in 62 of 101 patients (61%); however, these intended changes were not implemented in 29 of 62 patients (47%). Pelvic nodal and extrapelvic metastatic disease on 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT (PSMA T0N1M0 and PSMA T0N1M1 patterns) was significantly associated with implemented management changes (P = 0.001 and 0.05). Conclusion: Information from 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT brings about management changes in more than 50% of prostate cancer patients with BCR (54/101; 53%). However, intended management changes early after 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT frequently differ from implemented management changes.

18.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 109(12)2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29206995

RESUMO

Background: Real-time knowledge of the somatic genome can influence management of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). While routine metastatic tissue biopsy is challenging in mCRPC, plasma circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has emerged as a minimally invasive tool to sample the tumor genome. However, no systematic comparisons of matched "liquid" and "solid" biopsies have been performed that would enable ctDNA profiling to replace the need for direct tissue sampling. Methods: We performed targeted sequencing across 72 clinically relevant genes in 45 plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) samples collected at time of metastatic tissue biopsy. We compared ctDNA alterations with exome sequencing data generated from matched tissue and quantified the concordance of mutations and copy number alterations using the Fisher exact test and Pearson correlations. Results: Seventy-five point six percent of cfDNA samples had a ctDNA proportion greater than 2% of total cfDNA. In these patients, all somatic mutations identified in matched metastatic tissue biopsies were concurrently present in ctDNA. Furthermore, the hierarchy of variant allele fractions for shared mutations was remarkably similar between ctDNA and tissue. Copy number profiles between matched liquid and solid biopsy were highly correlated, and individual copy number calls in clinically actionable genes were 88.9% concordant. Detected alterations included AR amplifications in 22 (64.7%) samples, SPOP mutations in three (8.8%) samples, and inactivating alterations in tumor suppressors TP53 , PTEN , RB1 , APC , CDKN1B , BRCA2 , and PIK3R1 . In several patients, ctDNA sequencing revealed robust changes not present in paired solid biopsy, including clinically relevant alterations in the AR, WNT, and PI3K pathways. Conclusions: Our study shows that, in the majority of patients, a ctDNA assay is sufficient to identify all driver DNA alterations present in matched metastatic tissue and supports development of DNA biomarkers to guide mCRPC patient management based on ctDNA alone.


Assuntos
DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p27/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida , Masculino , Mutação , Metástase Neoplásica , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Retinoblastoma/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética
19.
Cell Rep ; 17(10): 2596-2606, 2016 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27926864

RESUMO

Inflammation is a risk factor for prostate cancer, but the mechanisms by which inflammation increases that risk are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that low expression of CD38 identifies a progenitor-like subset of luminal cells in the human prostate. CD38lo luminal cells are enriched in glands adjacent to inflammatory cells and exhibit epithelial nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling. In response to oncogenic transformation, CD38lo luminal cells can initiate human prostate cancer in an in vivo tissue-regeneration assay. Finally, the CD38lo luminal phenotype and gene signature are associated with disease progression and poor outcome in prostate cancer. Our results suggest that prostate inflammation expands the pool of progenitor-like target cells susceptible to tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Inflamação/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , NF-kappa B/genética , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Próstata/metabolismo , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
20.
Clin Cancer Res ; 22(6): 1356-63, 2016 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26527750

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Galeterone is a selective, multitargeted agent that inhibits CYP17, antagonizes the androgen receptor (AR), and reduces AR expression in prostate cancer cells by causing an increase in AR protein degradation. These open-label phase I and II studies [Androgen Receptor Modulation Optimized for Response-1 (ARMOR1) and ARMOR2 part 1] evaluated the efficacy and safety of galeterone in patients with treatment-naive nonmetastatic or metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and established a dose for further study. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In ARMOR1, 49 patients received increasing doses (650-2,600 mg) of galeterone in capsule formulation; 28 patients in ARMOR2 part 1 received increasing doses (1,700-3,400 mg) of galeterone in tablet formulation for 12 weeks. Patients were evaluated biweekly for safety and efficacy, and pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed. RESULTS: In ARMOR1, across all doses, 49.0% (24/49) achieved a ≥30% decline in prostate-specific antigen (PSA; PSA30) and 22.4% (11/49) demonstrated a ≥50% PSA decline (PSA50). In ARMOR2 part 1, across all doses, PSA30 was 64.0% (16/25) and PSA50 was 48.0% (12/25). In the 2,550-mg dose cohort, PSA30 was 72.7% (8/11) and PSA50 was 54.5% (6/11). Galeterone was well tolerated; the most common adverse events were fatigue, increased liver enzymes, gastrointestinal events, and pruritus. Most were mild or moderate in severity and required no action and there were no apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME) events. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy and safety from ARMOR1 and ARMOR2 part 1 and the pharmacokinetic results support the galeterone tablet dose of 2,550 mg/d for further study. Galeterone was well tolerated and demonstrated pharmacodynamic changes consistent with its selective, multifunctional AR signaling inhibition.


Assuntos
Androstadienos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Androstadienos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Retratamento , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
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