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1.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 2022 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979569

RESUMO

CONTEXT.­: Wide adoption of digital pathology requires efficient visualization and navigation in Web-based digital slide viewers, which is poorly defined. OBJECTIVE.­: To define and quantify relevant performance metrics for efficient visualization of cases and slides in digital slide viewers. DESIGN.­: With a universal slide viewer used in clinical routine diagnostics, we evaluate the impact of slide caching, compression type, tile, and block size of whole slide images generated from Philips, Leica, and 3DHistech scanners on streaming performance on case, slide, and field of view levels. RESULTS.­: Two hundred thirty-nine pathologists routinely reviewed 60 080 whole slide images over 3 months. The median time to open a case's slides from the laboratory information system was less than 4 seconds, the time to change to a slide within the case was less than 1 second, and the time to render the adjacent field of view when navigating the slide was less than one-quarter of a second. A whole slide image's block size and a viewer tile size of 1024 pixels showed best performance to display a field of view and was preferrable over smaller tiles due to fewer mosaic effects. For Philips, fastest median slide streaming pace was 238 ms per field of view and for 3DHistech, 125 ms. For Leica, the fastest pace of 108 ms per field of view was established with block serving without decompression. CONCLUSIONS.­: This is the first study to systematically assess user-centric slide visualization performance metrics for digital viewers, including time to open a case, time to change a slide, and time to change a field of view. These metrics help to improve the viewer's configuration, leading to an efficient visualization baseline that is widely accepted among pathologists using routine digital pathology.

2.
Mod Pathol ; 2021 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34949764

RESUMO

The morphologic spectrum of type 1 papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) is not well-defined, since a significant proportion of cases have mixed type 1 and 2 histology. We analyzed 199 cases of PRCC with any (even if focal) type 1 features, with a median follow-up of 12 years, to identify clinicopathological features associated with outcome. Ninety-five tumors (48%) of the cohort contained some type 2 component (median amount: 25%; IQR: 10%, 70%). As a group they showed high rates of progression-free (PFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). Tumor size, mitotic rate, lymphovascular invasion, sarcomatoid differentiation, sheet-like architecture, and lack of tumor circumscription were significantly associated with CSS (p ≤ 0.015) on univariate analysis. While predominant WHO/ISUP nucleolar grade was associated with PFS (p = 0.013) and CSS (p = 0.030), the presence of non-predominant (<50%) nucleolar grade did not show association with outcome (p = 0.7). PFS and CSS showed no significant association with the presence or the amount of type 2 morphology. We compared the molecular alterations in paired type 1 and type 2 areas in a subset of 22 cases with mixed type 1 and 2 features and identified 12 recurrently mutated genes including TERT, ARID1A, KDM6A, KMT2D, NFE2L2, MET, APC, and TP53. Among 78 detected somatic mutations, 61 (78%) were shared between the paired type 1 and type 2 areas. Copy number alterations, including chromosome 7 and 17 gains, were similar between type 1 and 2 areas. These findings support that type 2 features in a PRCC with mixed histology represent either morphologic variance or clonal evolution. Our study underscores the notion that PRCC with any classic type 1 regions is best considered as type 1 PRCC and assigned the appropriate WHO/ISUP nucleolar grade. It provides additional evidence that type 2 PRCC as a separate category should be re-assessed and likely needs to be abandoned.

4.
Mod Pathol ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599281

RESUMO

The field of anatomic pathology has been evolving in the last few decades and the advancements have been largely fostered by innovative technology. Immunohistochemistry enabled a paradigm shift in discovery and diagnostic evaluation, followed by booming genomic advancements which allowed for submicroscopic pathologic characterization, and now the field of digital pathology coupled with machine learning and big data acquisition is paving the way to revolutionize the pathology medical domain. Whole slide imaging (WSI) is a disruptive technology where glass slides are digitized to produce on-screen whole slide images. Specifically, in the past decade, there have been significant advances in digital pathology systems that have allowed this technology to promote integration into clinical practice. Whole slide images (WSI), or digital slides, can be viewed and navigated comparable to glass slides on a microscope, as digital files. Whole slide imaging has increased in adoption among pathologists, pathology departments, and scientists for clinical, educational, and research initiatives. Integration of digital pathology systems requires a coordinated effort with numerous stakeholders, not only within the pathology department, but across the entire enterprise. Each pathology department has distinct needs, use cases and blueprints, however the framework components and variables for successful clinical integration can be generalized across any organization seeking to undergo a digital transformation at any scale. This article will review those components and considerations for integrating digital pathology systems into clinical practice.

6.
Endocr Pathol ; 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549366

RESUMO

Molecular characterization of adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) has highlighted a high prevalence of TERT alterations, which are associated with disease progression. Herein, 78 ACC were profiled using a combination of next generation sequencing (n = 76) and FISH (n = 9) to assess for TERT alterations. This data was combined with TCGA dataset (n = 91). A subset of borderline adrenocortical tumors (n = 5) and adrenocortical adenomas (n = 7) were also evaluated. The most common alteration involving the TERT gene involved gains/amplifications, seen in 22.2% (37/167) of cases. In contrast, "hotspot" promoter mutations (C > T promoter mutation at position -124, 7/167 cases, 4.2%) and promoter rearrangements (2/165, 1.2%) were rare. Recurrent co-alterations included 22q copy number losses seen in 24% (9/38) of cases. Although no significant differences were identified in cases with and without TERT alterations pertaining to age at presentation, tumor size, weight, laterality, mitotic index and Ki67 labeling, cases with TERT alterations showed worse outcomes. Metastatic behavior was seen in 70% (28/40) of cases with TERT alterations compared to 51.2% (65/127, p = 0.04) of cases that lacked these alterations. Two (of 5) borderline tumors showed amplifications and no TERT alterations were identified in 7 adenomas. In the borderline group, 0 (of 4) patients with available follow up had adverse outcomes. We found that TERT alterations in ACC predominantly involve gene amplifications, with a smaller subset harboring "hotspot" promoter mutations and rearrangements, and 70% of TERT-altered tumors are associated with metastases. Prospective studies are needed to validate the prognostic impact of these findings.

7.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 28(9): 1874-1884, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260720

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Broad adoption of digital pathology (DP) is still lacking, and examples for DP connecting diagnostic, research, and educational use cases are missing. We blueprint a holistic DP solution at a large academic medical center ubiquitously integrated into clinical workflows; researchapplications including molecular, genetic, and tissue databases; and educational processes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We built a vendor-agnostic, integrated viewer for reviewing, annotating, sharing, and quality assurance of digital slides in a clinical or research context. It is the first homegrown viewer cleared by New York State provisional approval in 2020 for primary diagnosis and remote sign-out during the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic. We further introduce an interconnected Honest Broker for BioInformatics Technology (HoBBIT) to systematically compile and share large-scale DP research datasets including anonymized images, redacted pathology reports, and clinical data of patients with consent. RESULTS: The solution has been operationally used over 3 years by 926 pathologists and researchers evaluating 288 903 digital slides. A total of 51% of these were reviewed within 1 month after scanning. Seamless integration of the viewer into 4 hospital systems clearly increases the adoption of DP. HoBBIT directly impacts the translation of knowledge in pathology into effective new health measures, including artificial intelligence-driven detection models for prostate cancer, basal cell carcinoma, and breast cancer metastases, developed and validated on thousands of cases. CONCLUSIONS: We highlight major challenges and lessons learned when going digital to provide orientation for other pathologists. Building interconnected solutions will not only increase adoption of DP, but also facilitate next-generation computational pathology at scale for enhanced cancer research.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Informática Médica/tendências , Neoplasias , Patologia Clínica , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Inteligência Artificial , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Pandemias , Patologia Clínica/tendências
8.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(20): 5595-5606, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261695

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We report our experience with next-generation sequencing to characterize the landscape of actionable genomic alterations in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A query of our institutional clinical sequencing database (MSK-IMPACT) was performed that included tumor samples from 38,468 individuals across all cancer types. Somatic variations were annotated using a precision knowledge database (OncoKB) and the available clinical data stratified by level of evidence. Alterations associated with response to immune-checkpoint blockade (ICB) were analyzed separately; these included DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene alterations, tumor mutational burden (TMB), and microsatellite instability (MSI). Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) consortium as well as public data from several clinical trials in metastatic RCC were used for validation purposes. Multiregional sequencing data from the TRAcking Cancer Evolution through Therapy (TRACERx) RENAL cohort were used to assess the clonality of somatic mutations. RESULTS: Of the 753 individuals with RCC identified in the MSK-IMPACT cohort, 115 showed evidence of targetable alterations, which represented a prevalence of 15.3% [95% confidence interval (CI), 12.7%-17.8%). When stratified by levels of evidence, the alterations identified corresponded to levels 2 (11.3%), 3A (5.2%), and 3B (83.5%). A low prevalence was recapitulated in the TCGA cohort at 9.1% (95% CI, 6.9%-11.2%). Copy-number variations predominated in papillary RCC tumors, largely due to amplifications in the MET gene. Notably, higher rates of actionability were found in individuals with metastatic disease (stage IV) compared with those with localized disease (OR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.16-6.16; Fisher's P = 0.01). On the other hand, the prevalence of alterations associated with response to ICB therapy was found to be approximately 5% in both the MSK-IMPACT and TCGA cohorts and no associations with disease stage were identified (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 0.46-5.40; P = 0.8). Finally, multiregional sequencing revealed that the vast majority of actionable mutations occurred later during tumor evolution and were only present subclonally in RCC tumors. CONCLUSIONS: RCC harbors a low prevalence of clinically actionable alterations compared with other tumors and the evidence supporting their clinical use is limited. These aberrations were found to be more common in advanced disease and seem to occur later during tumor evolution. Our study provides new insights on the role of targeted therapies for RCC and highlights the need for additional research to improve treatment selection using genomic profiling.

9.
BJU Int ; 2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161656

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether subclassification of positive surgical margins (PSMs) increases predictive ability for biochemical recurrence (BCR) and aids clinical decision-making in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 2147 patients with pT2 and pT3a prostate cancer with detailed surgical margin parameters and BCR status. We compared a base model, a linear predictor calculated from the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center postoperative nomogram (prostate-specific antigen, pathological tumour grade and stage), with the addition of surgical margin status to five additional models (base model plus surgical margin subclassifications) to evaluate enhancement in predictive accuracy. Decision curve analysis (DCA) was performed to determine the clinical utility of parameters that enhanced predictive accuracy. RESULTS: Among 2147 men, 205 had PSMs, and 231 developed BCR. Discrimination for the base model with addition of surgical margin status was high (c-index = 0.801) and not meaningfully improved by adding surgical margin subclassification in the full cohort. In analyses considering only men with PSMs (N = 55 with BCR), adding surgical margin subclassification to the base model increased discrimination for total length of all PSMs - alone or with maximum Gleason grade at the margin (c-index improvement = 0.717 to 0.752 and 0.753, respectively). DCA demonstrated a modest benefit to clinical utility with the addition of these parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Specific subclassification parameters add predictive accuracy for BCR and may aid clinical utility in decision-making for patients with PSMs. These findings may be useful for patient counselling and future adjuvant therapy trial design.

10.
Adv Anat Pathol ; 28(4): 179-195, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128483

RESUMO

The Genitourinary Pathology Society (GUPS) undertook a critical review of the recent advances in bladder neoplasia with a focus on issues relevant to the practicing surgical pathologist for the understanding and effective reporting of bladder cancer, emphasizing particularly on the newly accumulated evidence post-2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification. The work is presented in 2 manuscripts. Here, in the first, we revisit the nomenclature and classification system used for grading flat and papillary urothelial lesions centering on clinical relevance, and on dilemmas related to application in routine reporting. As patients of noninvasive bladder cancer frequently undergo cystoscopy and biopsy in their typically prolonged clinical course and for surveillance of disease, we discuss morphologies presented in these scenarios which may not have readily applicable diagnostic terms in the WHO classification. The topic of inverted patterns in urothelial neoplasia, particularly when prominent or exclusive, and beyond inverted papilloma has not been addressed formally in the WHO classification. Herein we provide a through review and suggest guidelines for when and how to report such lesions. In promulgating these GUPS recommendations, we aim to provide clarity on the clinical application of these not so uncommon diagnostically challenging situations encountered in routine practice, while also importantly advocating consistent terminology which would inform future work.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Papilar/patologia , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/patologia , Neoplasias Urológicas/patologia , Humanos , Gradação de Tumores , Urotélio/patologia
11.
Mod Pathol ; 34(10): 1921-1934, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099871

RESUMO

Thyroid-like follicular renal cell carcinoma is an uncommon kidney tumor with no distinct molecular alteration described to date. This cohort of eight women with mean and median ages of 45 and 46 years, respectively (range 19-65 years), had unencapsulated, well-circumscribed tumors composed of tightly packed anastomosing follicle-like cysts filled with eosinophilic colloid-like material and lined by cuboidal cells with high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratios, oval to elongated nuclei with perpendicular arrangement toward the lumens, and prominent nuclear overlapping. The stroma between these was minimal with the exception of two tumors. Calcifications and necrosis were absent. Immunohistochemically, the tumors were positive for KRT19 (7/7), PAX8 (5/5), cyclin D1 (6/6), KRT7 (5/7), and AMACR (1/5; focal, weak), and were negative for WT1, TTF1 (transcription termination factor-1), and thyroglobulin. In three of three tumors tested molecularly, EWSR1-PATZ1 fusion was identified by RNA sequencing and confirmed by RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. Over a follow-up period of 1-7 years, no evidence of recurrence or metastasis has been detected. The EWSR1-PATZ1 fusion has been recognized as a recurrent alteration in a subset of round to spindle cell sarcomas with EWSR1-non-ETS fusions (EWSR1-PATZ1 sarcoma) and in several central nervous system tumors. The finding of an EWSR1-PATZ1 fusion in all three of the thyroid-like follicular renal cell carcinomas for which sufficient tissue was available for genomic profiling provides the first distinct molecular abnormality in thyroid-like follicular renal cell carcinomas, supporting its designation as a distinct diagnostic entity.

12.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34003251

RESUMO

CONTEXT.­: The original guideline, "Validating Whole Slide Imaging for Diagnostic Purposes in Pathology," was published in 2013 and included 12 guideline statements. The College of American Pathologists convened an expert panel to update the guideline following standards established by the National Academies of Medicine for developing trustworthy clinical practice guidelines. OBJECTIVE.­: To assess evidence published since the release of the original guideline and provide updated recommendations for validating whole slide imaging (WSI) systems used for diagnostic purposes. DESIGN.­: An expert panel performed a systematic review of the literature. Frozen sections, anatomic pathology specimens (biopsies, curettings, and resections), and hematopathology cases were included. Cytology cases were excluded. Using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach, the panel reassessed and updated the original guideline recommendations. RESULTS.­: Three strong recommendations and 9 good practice statements are offered to assist laboratories with validating WSI digital pathology systems. CONCLUSIONS.­: Systematic review of literature following release of the 2013 guideline reaffirms the use of a validation set of at least 60 cases, establishing intraobserver diagnostic concordance between WSI and glass slides and the use of a 2-week washout period between modalities. Although all discordances between WSI and glass slide diagnoses discovered during validation need to be reconciled, laboratories should be particularly concerned if their overall WSI-glass slide concordance is less than 95%.

13.
Mod Pathol ; 34(8): 1596-1607, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33854184

RESUMO

Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MiT) family aberration-associated renal cell carcinoma (MiTF-RCC) is a subtype of renal cell carcinoma harboring recurrent chromosomal rearrangements involving TFE3 or TFEB genes. MiTF-RCC is morphologically diverse, can histologically resemble common RCC subtypes like clear cell RCC and papillary RCC, and often poses a diagnostic challenge in genitourinary clinical and pathology practice. To characterize the MiTF-RCC at the molecular level and identify biomarker signatures associated with MiTF-RCC, we analyzed RNAseq data from MiTF-RCC, other RCC subtypes and benign kidney. Upon identifying TRIM63 as a cancer-specific biomarker in MiTF-RCC, we evaluated its expression independently by RNA in situ hybridization (RNA-ISH) in whole tissue sections from 177 RCC cases. We specifically included 31 cytogenetically confirmed MiTF-RCC cases and 70 RCC cases suspicious for MiTF-RCC in terms of clinical and morphological features, to evaluate and compare TRIM63 RNA-ISH results with the results from TFE3/TFEB fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), which is the current clinical standard. We confirmed that TRIM63 mRNA was highly expressed in all classes of MiTF-RCC compared to other renal tumor categories, where it was mostly absent to low. While the TRIM63 RNA-ISH and TFE3/TFEB FISH results were largely concordant, importantly, TRIM63 RNA-ISH was strongly positive in TFE3 FISH false-negative cases with RBM10-TFE3 inversion. In conclusion, TRIM63 can serve as a diagnostic marker to distinguish MiTF-RCC from other renal tumor subtypes with overlapping morphology. We suggest a combination of TFE3/TFEB FISH and TRIM63 RNA-ISH assays to improve the accuracy and efficiency of MiTF-RCC diagnosis. Accurate diagnosis of MiTF-RCC and other RCC subtypes would enable effective targeted therapy and avoid poor therapeutic response due to tumor misclassification.

14.
Mod Pathol ; 34(7): 1392-1424, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664427

RESUMO

The Genitourinary Pathology Society (GUPS) reviewed recent advances in renal neoplasia, particularly post-2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification, to provide an update on existing entities, including diagnostic criteria, molecular correlates, and updated nomenclature. Key prognostic features for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remain WHO/ISUP grade, AJCC/pTNM stage, coagulative necrosis, and rhabdoid and sarcomatoid differentiation. Accrual of subclonal genetic alterations in clear cell RCC including SETD2, PBRM1, BAP1, loss of chromosome 14q and 9p are associated with variable prognosis, patterns of metastasis, and vulnerability to therapies. Recent National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines increasingly adopt immunotherapeutic agents in advanced RCC, including RCC with rhabdoid and sarcomatoid changes. Papillary RCC subtyping is no longer recommended, as WHO/ISUP grade and tumor architecture better predict outcome. New papillary RCC variants/patterns include biphasic, solid, Warthin-like, and papillary renal neoplasm with reverse polarity. For tumors with 'borderline' features between oncocytoma and chromophobe RCC, a term "oncocytic renal neoplasm of low malignant potential, not further classified" is proposed. Clear cell papillary RCC may warrant reclassification as a tumor of low malignant potential. Tubulocystic RCC should only be diagnosed when morphologically pure. MiTF family translocation RCCs exhibit varied morphologic patterns and fusion partners. TFEB-amplified RCC occurs in older patients and is associated with more aggressive behavior. Acquired cystic disease (ACD) RCC-like cysts are likely precursors of ACD-RCC. The diagnosis of renal medullary carcinoma requires a negative SMARCB1 (INI-1) expression and sickle cell trait/disease. Mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma (MTSCC) can be distinguished from papillary RCC with overlapping morphology by losses of chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 13, 14, 15, and 22. MTSCC with adverse histologic features shows frequent CDKN2A/2B (9p) deletions. BRAF mutations unify the metanephric family of tumors. The term "fumarate hydratase deficient RCC" ("FH-deficient RCC") is preferred over "hereditary leiomyomatosis and RCC syndrome-associated RCC". A low threshold for FH, 2SC, and SDHB immunohistochemistry is recommended in difficult to classify RCCs, particularly those with eosinophilic morphology, occurring in younger patients. Current evidence does not support existence of a unique tumor subtype occurring after chemotherapy/radiation in early childhood.

16.
Mod Pathol ; 34(6): 1167-1184, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526874

RESUMO

The Genitourinary Pathology Society (GUPS) undertook a critical review of the recent advances in renal neoplasia, particularly focusing on the newly accumulated evidence post-2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification. In the era of evolving histo-molecular classification of renal neoplasia, morphology is still key. However, entities (or groups of entities) are increasingly characterized by specific molecular features, often associated either with recognizable, specific morphologies or constellations of morphologies and corresponding immunohistochemical profiles. The correct diagnosis has clinical implications leading to better prognosis, potential clinical management with targeted therapies, may identify hereditary or syndromic associations, which may necessitate appropriate genetic testing. We hope that this undertaking will further facilitate the identification of these entities in practice. We also hope that this update will bring more clarity regarding the evolving classification of renal neoplasia and will further reduce the category of "unclassifiable renal carcinomas/tumors". We propose three categories of novel entities: (1) "Novel entity", validated by multiple independent studies; (2) "Emerging entity", good compelling data available from at least two or more independent studies, but additional validation is needed; and (3) "Provisional entity", limited data available from one or two studies, with more work required to validate them. For some entities initially described using different names, we propose new terminologies, to facilitate their recognition and to avoid further diagnostic dilemmas. Following these criteria, we propose as novel entities: eosinophilic solid and cystic renal cell carcinoma (ESC RCC), renal cell carcinoma with fibromyomatous stroma (RCC FMS) (formerly RCC with leiomyomatous or smooth muscle stroma), and anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement-associated renal cell carcinoma (ALK-RCC). Emerging entities include: eosinophilic vacuolated tumor (EVT) and thyroid-like follicular renal cell carcinoma (TLFRCC). Finally, as provisional entities, we propose low-grade oncocytic tumor (LOT), atrophic kidney-like lesion (AKLL), and biphasic hyalinizing psammomatous renal cell carcinoma (BHP RCC).

17.
Oncologist ; 26(6): 483-491, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The National Comprehensive Cancer Network recommends either three cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin or four cycles of etoposide and cisplatin (EPx4) as initial chemotherapy for the treatment of good-risk germ cell tumors (GCTs). To assess the response, toxicity, and survival outcomes of EPx4, we analyzed our experience. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Response and survival outcomes, selected toxicities, and adherence to chemotherapy dose and schedule were assessed in patients with good-risk GCT who received EPx4 at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center between 1982 and 2016. The results were compared with our past results and published data. RESULTS: Between 1982 and 2016, 944 patients with GCT were treated with EPx4, 289 who were previously reported plus 655 treated between January 2000 and August 2016. A favorable response was achieved in 928 of 944 patients (98.3%). Five-year progression-free, disease-specific, and overall survival rates were 93.9%, 98.6%, and 97.9%, respectively. Median follow-up was 7.3 years (range, 2.8 months to 35.5 years). Viable, nonteratomatous malignant GCT was present in 3.5% of 432 postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection specimens from patients with nonseminomatous GCT. Febrile neutropenia and thromboembolic events occurred in 16.0% and 8.9%, respectively, with one treatment-related death. In the more recent 655-patient cohort, full-dose EPx4 was administered to 631 (96.3%), with deviations from planned treatment driven mainly by vascular (n = 13), hematologic (n = 11), renal (n = 7), or infectious (n = 5) events. CONCLUSION: EPx4 is highly effective and well tolerated in patients with good-risk GCTs and remains a standard of care. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Four cycles of etoposide and cisplatin (EPx4) is a standard-of-care regimen for all patients with good-risk germ cell tumors with a favorable response rate and disease-specific survival of 98%. Full-dose administration of etoposide and cisplatin and complete resection of residual disease lead to optimal outcomes. EPx4 should be the recommended regimen in active smokers, patients with reduced or borderline kidney function, and patients aged 50 years or older, which are patient groups at increased risk for bleomycin pulmonary toxicity. Because of a risk of acquired severe pulmonary illness, EPx4 may also be favored for patients who vape or use e-cigarettes and during ongoing transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas , Neoplasias Testiculares , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Bleomicina/efeitos adversos , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Etoposídeo/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/tratamento farmacológico , SARS-CoV-2 , Neoplasias Testiculares/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Radiother Oncol ; 159: 33-38, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587971

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate predictors associated with post-treatment biopsy outcomes after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for localized prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 257 patients treated with prostate SBRT to dose levels of 32.5 Gy to >40 Gy in 5-6 fractions underwent a post-treatment biopsy performed approximately two years after treatment to evaluate local control status. 73 had% intermediate-risk disease (n = 187) and the remaining 17% (n = 43) and 10% (n = 27) had low-risk and high-risk disease, respectively. RESULTS: The incidence of positive, negative, and treatment-effect post-treatment biopsies were 15.6%, 57.6%, and 26.8%, respectively. The incidence of a positive biopsy according to dose was 37.5% (n = 9/24), 21.4% (n = 6/28), 19.4% (n = 6/31), and 10.9% (n = 19/174) for 32.5 Gy, 35 Gy, 37.5 Gy, and >40 Gy, respectively. In a multivariable model, patients treated with SBRT doses of <40 Gy and those with unfavorable-intermediate-risk or high-risk disease had higher likelihood of a positive post-treatment biopsy. A positive post-SBRT biopsy was associated with a significantly higher likelihood of subsequent PSA relapse at five years (Positive biopsy: 57%, 95% CI: 29-77% compared to negative biopsy: 7%, 95% CI: 3-14%; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Based on two-year post-SBRT biopsies, excellent tumor control was achieved when dose levels of 40 Gy or higher were used. Standard SBRT dose levels of 35-37.5 Gy were associated with a higher likelihood of a positive post-treatment biopsy. Two-year positive post-treatment biopsies pre-dated the development of PSA failure in the majority of patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Radiocirurgia , Biópsia , Humanos , Masculino , Antígeno Prostático Específico , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos
20.
Eur Urol ; 79(4): 468-477, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCPRCC) is a recently described tumor entity. Several questions remain about its epidemiology, molecular features, and clinical behavior. OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively evaluate clinicopathologic and molecular features of CCPRCC, and compare it with more common kidney cancer subtypes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We identified 89 CCPRCC patients and compared their clinicopathologic features with 1120 localized clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and 129 type 1 papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) patients. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Nonparametric statistical testing was used to compare relevant features between tumor types. Overall, cancer-specific survival (CSS) and metastasis-free survival estimates were calculated from initial diagnosis using the Kaplan-Meier method. Patients with ipsilateral multifocal disease were explored further. A subset of CCPRCC tumors underwent genomic analysis and were compared with other RCC subtypes. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A higher proportion of female (45% vs 32%) and African-American (19% vs 3%) patients were observed in the CCPRCC cohort than in the ccRCC and pRCC cohorts. CCPRCC tumors also had increased odds of presenting with additional ipsilateral masses (odds ratio [OR]: 4.41 [confidence interval {CI}: 2.34, 8.15], p < 0.001) and bilateral disease (OR: 4.80 [CI: 2.40, 9.59], p < 0.001) compared with ccRCC tumors. On molecular analysis, CCPRCC tumors showed fewer somatic aberrations and a greater degree of mitochondrial DNA depletion. In multifocal CCPRCC tumors, histologic concordance among the different renal cell carcinoma masses was estimated at 44% (7/16), and none of the individuals presenting exclusively with CCPRCC tumors developed metastatic disease after 5 yr. In contrast, multifocal tumors with CCPRCC and other nonconcordant histologies were more likely to experience adverse outcomes (CSS, log rank p = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: CCPRCC is characterized by distinct molecular and epidemiologic features that could be used to refine current diagnostic approaches. Although their clinical course is generally indolent, multifocal CCPRCC tumors represent a unique diagnostic challenge. In this context, single-mass biopsies could miss concomitant aggressive disease, with a potential negative impact on patient outcomes. Furthermore, high discordance rates in multifocal CCPRCC tumors have important clinical implications in management. PATIENT SUMMARY: We explored the molecular and clinical features of clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCPRCC) relative to other kidney cancer subtypes. While CCPRCC generally conveys a good prognosis, additional caution should be taken when it is diagnosed using biopsy if multiple kidney masses are present.

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