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2.
Genet Med ; 21(10): 2371-2380, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930462

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Recruitment of participants from diverse backgrounds is crucial to the generalizability of genetic research, but has proven challenging. We retrospectively evaluated recruitment methods used for a study on return of genetic results. METHODS: The costs of study design, development, and participant enrollment were calculated, and the characteristics of the participants enrolled through the seven recruitment methods were examined. RESULTS: A total of 1118 participants provided consent, a blood sample, and questionnaire data. The estimated cost across recruitment methods ranged from $579 to $1666 per participant and required a large recruitment team. Recruitment methods using flyers and staff networks were the most cost-efficient and resulted in the highest completion rate. Targeted sampling that emphasized the importance of Latino/a participation, utilization of translated materials, and in-person recruitments contributed to enrolling a demographically diverse sample. CONCLUSIONS: Although all methods were deployed in the same hospital or neighborhood and shared the same staff, each recruitment method was different in terms of cost and characteristics of the enrolled participants, suggesting the importance of carefully choosing the recruitment methods based on the desired composition of the final study sample. This analysis provides information about the effectiveness and cost of different methods to recruit adults for genetic research.

3.
PLoS Genet ; 14(11): e1007671, 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500825

RESUMO

Mutations that alter signaling of RAS/MAPK-family proteins give rise to a group of Mendelian diseases known as RASopathies. However, among RASopathies, the matrix of genotype-phenotype relationships is still incomplete, in part because there are many RAS-related proteins and in part because the phenotypic consequences may be variable and/or pleiotropic. Here, we describe a cohort of ten cases, drawn from six clinical sites and over 16,000 sequenced probands, with de novo protein-altering variation in RALA, a RAS-like small GTPase. All probands present with speech and motor delays, and most have intellectual disability, low weight, short stature, and facial dysmorphism. The observed rate of de novo RALA variants in affected probands is significantly higher (p = 4.93 x 10-11) than expected from the estimated random mutation rate. Further, all de novo variants described here affect residues within the GTP/GDP-binding region of RALA; in fact, six alleles arose at only two codons, Val25 and Lys128. The affected residues are highly conserved across both RAL- and RAS-family genes, are devoid of variation in large human population datasets, and several are homologous to positions at which disease-associated variants have been observed in other GTPase genes. We directly assayed GTP hydrolysis and RALA effector-protein binding of the observed variants, and found that all but one tested variant significantly reduced both activities compared to wild-type. The one exception, S157A, reduced GTP hydrolysis but significantly increased RALA-effector binding, an observation similar to that seen for oncogenic RAS variants. These results show the power of data sharing for the interpretation and analysis of rare variation, expand the spectrum of molecular causes of developmental disability to include RALA, and provide additional insight into the pathogenesis of human disease caused by mutations in small GTPases.

4.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291340

RESUMO

Deletions on chromosome 15q14 are a known chromosomal cause of cleft palate, typically co-occurring with intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, and congenital heart defects. The identification of patients with loss-of-function variants in MEIS2, a gene within this deletion, suggests that these features are attributed to haploinsufficiency of MEIS2. To further delineate the phenotypic spectrum of the MEIS2-related syndrome, we collected 23 previously unreported patients with either a de novo sequence variant in MEIS2 (9 patients), or a 15q14 microdeletion affecting MEIS2 (14 patients). All but one de novo MEIS2 variant were identified by whole-exome sequencing. One variant was found by targeted sequencing of MEIS2 in a girl with a clinical suspicion of this syndrome. In addition to the triad of palatal defects, heart defects, and developmental delay, heterozygous loss of MEIS2 results in recurrent facial features, including thin and arched eyebrows, short alae nasi, and thin vermillion. Genotype-phenotype comparison between patients with 15q14 deletions and patients with sequence variants or intragenic deletions within MEIS2, showed a higher prevalence of moderate-to-severe intellectual disability in the former group, advocating for an independent locus for psychomotor development neighboring MEIS2.

5.
Ann Neurol ; 84(5): 788-795, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269351

RESUMO

NBEA is a candidate gene for autism, and de novo variants have been reported in neurodevelopmental disease (NDD) cohorts. However, NBEA has not been rigorously evaluated as a disease gene, and associated phenotypes have not been delineated. We identified 24 de novo NBEA variants in patients with NDD, establishing NBEA as an NDD gene. Most patients had epilepsy with onset in the first few years of life, often characterized by generalized seizure types, including myoclonic and atonic seizures. Our data show a broader phenotypic spectrum than previously described, including a myoclonic-astatic epilepsy-like phenotype in a subset of patients. Ann Neurol 2018;84:796-803.

7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2018 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194818

RESUMO

De novo germline mutations in GNB1 have been associated with a neurodevelopmental phenotype. To date, 28 patients with variants classified as pathogenic have been reported. We add 18 patients with de novo mutations to this cohort, including a patient with mosaicism for a GNB1 mutation who presented with a milder phenotype. Consistent with previous reports, developmental delay in these patients was moderate to severe, and more than half of the patients were non-ambulatory and nonverbal. The most observed substitution affects the p.Ile80 residue encoded in exon 6, with 28% of patients carrying a variant at this residue. Dystonia and growth delay were observed more frequently in patients carrying variants in this residue, suggesting a potential genotype-phenotype correlation. In the new cohort of 18 patients, 50% of males had genitourinary anomalies and 61% of patients had gastrointestinal anomalies, suggesting a possible association of these findings with variants in GNB1. In addition, cutaneous mastocytosis, reported once before in a patient with a GNB1 variant, was observed in three additional patients, providing further evidence for an association to GNB1. We will review clinical and molecular data of these new cases and all previously reported cases to further define the phenotype and establish possible genotype-phenotype correlations.

8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(2): 221-231, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30057030

RESUMO

Bloom syndrome, caused by biallelic mutations in BLM, is characterized by prenatal-onset growth deficiency, short stature, an erythematous photosensitive malar rash, and increased cancer predisposition. Diagnostically, a hallmark feature is the presence of increased sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) on cytogenetic testing. Here, we describe biallelic mutations in TOP3A in ten individuals with prenatal-onset growth restriction and microcephaly. TOP3A encodes topoisomerase III alpha (TopIIIα), which binds to BLM as part of the BTRR complex, and promotes dissolution of double Holliday junctions arising during homologous recombination. We also identify a homozygous truncating variant in RMI1, which encodes another component of the BTRR complex, in two individuals with microcephalic dwarfism. The TOP3A mutations substantially reduce cellular levels of TopIIIα, and consequently subjects' cells demonstrate elevated rates of SCE. Unresolved DNA recombination and/or replication intermediates persist into mitosis, leading to chromosome segregation defects and genome instability that most likely explain the growth restriction seen in these subjects and in Bloom syndrome. Clinical features of mitochondrial dysfunction are evident in several individuals with biallelic TOP3A mutations, consistent with the recently reported additional function of TopIIIα in mitochondrial DNA decatenation. In summary, our findings establish TOP3A mutations as an additional cause of prenatal-onset short stature with increased cytogenetic SCEs and implicate the decatenation activity of the BTRR complex in their pathogenesis.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(5): 716-724, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100085

RESUMO

DHX30 is a member of the family of DExH-box helicases, which use ATP hydrolysis to unwind RNA secondary structures. Here we identified six different de novo missense mutations in DHX30 in twelve unrelated individuals affected by global developmental delay (GDD), intellectual disability (ID), severe speech impairment and gait abnormalities. While four mutations are recurrent, two are unique with one affecting the codon of one recurrent mutation. All amino acid changes are located within highly conserved helicase motifs and were found to either impair ATPase activity or RNA recognition in different in vitro assays. Moreover, protein variants exhibit an increased propensity to trigger stress granule (SG) formation resulting in global translation inhibition. Thus, our findings highlight the prominent role of translation control in development and function of the central nervous system and also provide molecular insight into how DHX30 dysfunction might cause a neurodevelopmental disorder.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , RNA Helicases/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Adolescente , Aminoácidos/genética , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , RNA/genética
11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(12): 3158-3164, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28941020

RESUMO

The association between 1p32-p31 contiguous gene deletions and a distinct phenotype that includes anomalies of the corpus callosum, ventriculomegaly, developmental delay, seizures, and dysmorphic features has been long recognized and described. Recently, the observation of overlapping phenotypes in patients with chromosome translocations that disrupt NFIA (Nuclear factor I/A), a gene within this deleted region, and NFIA intragenic deletions has led to the hypothesis that NFIA is a critical gene within this region. The wide application and increasing accessibility of whole exome sequencing (WES) has helped identify new cases to support this hypothesis. Here, we describe four patients with loss-of-function variants in the NFIA gene identified through WES. The clinical presentation of these patients significantly overlaps with the phenotype described in previously reported cases of 1p32-p31 deletion syndrome, NFIA gene disruptions and intragenic NFIA deletions. Our cohort includes a mother and daughter as well as an unrelated individual who share the same nonsense variant (c.205C>T, p.Arg69Ter; NM_001145512.1). We also report a patient with a frameshift NFIA variant (c.159_160dupCC, p.Gln54ProfsTer49). We have compared published cases of 1p32-p31 microdeletion syndrome, translocations resulting in NFIA gene disruption, intragenic deletions, and loss-of-function mutations (including our four patients) to reveal that abnormalities of the corpus callosum, ventriculomegaly/hydrocephalus, macrocephaly, Chiari I malformation, dysmorphic features, developmental delay, hypotonia, and urinary tract defects are common findings. The consistent overlap in clinical presentation provides further evidence of the critical role of NFIA haploinsufficiency in the development of the 1p32-p31 microdeletion syndrome phenotype.


Assuntos
Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/genética , Malformação de Arnold-Chiari/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Megalencefalia/genética , Fatores de Transcrição NFI/genética , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/diagnóstico , Malformação de Arnold-Chiari/diagnóstico , Criança , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1 , Estudos de Coortes , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Feminino , Haploinsuficiência , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Megalencefalia/diagnóstico , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
12.
J Hum Genet ; 62(5): 581-584, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28123174

RESUMO

Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive chromosome breakage disorder caused by mutations in the ATM gene. Typically, it presents in early childhood with progressive cerebellar dysfunction along with immunodeficiency and oculocutaneous telangiectasia. An increased risk of malignancy is also associated with the syndrome and, rarely, may be the presenting feature in small children. We describe a 17-year-old boy with slurred speech, mild motor delays and learning disability diagnosed with atypical A-T in the setting of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Suspicion for A-T was raised after review of a peripheral blood karyotype demonstrating rearrangements involving chromosomes 7 and/or 14. The diagnosis was confirmed after molecular testing identified a novel homozygous missense variant in ATM (c.5585T>A; p.Leu1862His) that resulted in protein instability and abolished serine/threonine protein kinase activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of concurrent A-T and lymphoid malignancy diagnoses in an older child or adult with only mild neurological disease. Our experience suggests that screening for the disorder should be considered in any individual with lymphoid malignancy and neurological findings, especially as radiation and certain chemotherapy protocols are contraindicated in A-T.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Ataxia Telangiectasia/complicações , Ataxia Telangiectasia/diagnóstico , Mutação/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/complicações , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
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