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3.
Arch Sex Behav ; 2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34155577

RESUMO

The current study examined the relevance of relationship functioning to partners' agreement or consensus about joint effort surrounding COVID-19 prevention. Interdependence theory has been widely used to understand how relationship partners influence health behavior, including how sexual minority male (SMM) couples regulate HIV risk. Couples with better relationship functioning tend to be more successful at negotiating joint (shared) goals and subsequently accomplishing them. The study recruited 134 cis-male, SARS-CoV-2 negative adults in relationships with cis-male partners from phone-based social networking applications. Participants completed an online survey assessing relationship functioning (Perceived Relationship Components Questionnaire), COVID-19 prevention behaviors, and risk perceptions. Partners' consensus around joint COVID-19 prevention effort was assessed using an adapted version of the Preferences for Sexual Health Outcomes scale. Path analyses indicated that consensus for joint prevention effort predicted social distancing (B = 0.23; p = .001) and the number of other COVID-19 prevention behaviors engaged in (B = 0.17; p = .003) above and beyond perceived risk and relationship functioning. Relationship satisfaction predicted higher levels of consensus for joint COVID-19 prevention effort (B = 0.40; p = .029). Findings suggest that the theoretical foundations of successful HIV prevention interventions that utilize joint goal formation may generalize to the prediction of COVID-19 prevention behavior and may be leveraged to mitigate the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among SMM in relationships. Interventions that overlook the potential for dyadic regulation of health behavior may miss opportunities to capitalize on shared coping resources and fail to address relational barriers to prevention.

4.
J Psychosoc Oncol ; : 1-15, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576717

RESUMO

Purpose: Although research on how adolescents and young adults (AYAs) cope with their own cancer is expanding, there is little knowledge on how AYAs cope with a parent's cancer. And, thus, little evidence-based knowledge for how to deliver services. Moreover, most research has been with majority White populations. To fill this gap, we examined whether the cultural values of familismo (familism) and espíritu (spirit) moderate the association between stress appraisals and coping with psychological distress among Latino/AYAs facing a parent's cancer.Design: Cross-sectional, observational.Sample: Thirty eight adolescents and young adults between the ages of 12 and 25 whose mother had breast cancer.Methods: Participants completed standardized measures. Generalized estimating equation analysis was used to analyze the nested data.Results: There was a protective pattern of familismo and espíritu against symptoms of depression. AYAs experienced psychological distress, but those with higher levels of familismo and espíritu fared better than those with lower levels, regardless of the coping strategies they used.Implications: Psychosocial interventions for Latino/a AYAs coping with parental cancer should incorporate or strengthen these values.

5.
Int J Behav Med ; 28(1): 14-20, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the need to better understand mechanisms linking poor sleep and psychological distress in the context of chronic illness, we explored a novel factor, intolerance of uncertainty (IU), in relation to insomnia among parents of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer. We hypothesized that parents with higher IU would report greater insomnia symptoms, which would be associated with higher anxiety and depressive symptoms. These greater levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms are hypothesized to mediate the relationship between insomnia symptoms and subjective well-being (SWB). METHOD: Surveying 59 parents of AYAs with cancer, we computed a parallel-serial mediational analysis using bootstrapping techniques for ordinary least squares regression to test two pathways (adjusting for whether the AYA currently resided with the parent). The first serial pathway was IU→insomnia symptoms→anxiety symptoms→SWB. The second pathway was IU→insomnia symptoms→depressive symptoms→SWB. RESULTS: Although the first pathway involving sleep and anxiety as serial mediators was nonsignificant, the second pathway with sleep and depressive symptoms was significant. The relationship between IU and SWB was mediated through insomnia and depressive symptoms. An alternative serial mediation analysis wherein depressive symptoms preceded sleep was not significant, lending support to study findings. CONCLUSION: This study provides preliminary evidence that IU's detrimental influence on depression and SWB may operate through its influence on insomnia symptoms. Given implications for parents' well-being and, likely, their subsequent capacity to care for the AYA with cancer, interventions addressing IU and disturbed sleep among this underserved population deserve attention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Adolescente , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pais , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Incerteza , Adulto Jovem
7.
Soc Sci Med ; 255: 113009, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371270

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The differential attrition of racial/ethnic minority participants in clinical research is a major threat to advancing medical and behavioral science. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine the influence of racial/ethnic concordance between participants and research staff on study attrition. METHOD: Data were pooled from participants and clinical research coordinators (CRCs) in six longitudinal studies of respiratory illness. Dyads were classified as concordant if the patient and CRC were of the same racial/ethnic group. Multilevel modeling examined the effect of racial/ethnic concordance on attrition at the first and one-year follow-ups. RESULTS: Spanish language, lower education, and greater depressive symptoms predicted greater attrition, but these effects disappeared in adjusted models. Race/ethnicity, age, gender and health literacy did not predict attrition. Contrary to hypotheses, attrition was greater among concordant than discordant dyads: Attrition was almost five times greater at first follow-up for Black and Hispanic participants in concordant dyads, and almost four times greater at one year. CONCLUSIONS: Racial/ethnic concordance between participant and CRCs was related to greater attrition in a highly diverse sample of adults with respiratory illness. Differential attrition of racial/ethnic minorities is a major threat to advancing public health. Interactions with research staff may be critical to bridging the disparities gap.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos , Grupos Minoritários , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Escolaridade , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Idioma
8.
J Psychosoc Oncol ; 38(4): 435-448, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983313

RESUMO

Objective: The experience of cancer-related financial stress was examined within the developmental context of emerging adulthood.Methodological approach: This study is a secondary analysis of data drawn from two samples of testicular or hematologic cancer survivors. In-depth interviews from 52 emerging adult (EA) cancer survivors, ages 18-29, were coded by combining thematic analysis with an abductive approach.Findings: Emergent themes included some common to most age groups, including worries about medical costs and availability of health insurance, as well as specific age-related concerns, such as fertility preservation. Financial stress appeared to interrupt developmental tasks of emerging adulthood, including completing an education, establishing independence, and managing relationships. Surprisingly, financial stress was experienced as a benefit for some participants.Conclusion: Financial stress affects EA cancer survivors in unique ways. To provide support, health professionals should consider survivors' developmental life stage to understand their financial stress, and ultimately, to improve quality of life.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Estresse Financeiro/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Behav Med ; 43(2): 237-245, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267408

RESUMO

Parents of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer experience distress comparable to other caregiver populations, but remain understudied. This study tested the social cognitive processing model of emotional adjustment to cancer. We hypothesized that social constraints on emotional disclosure would inhibit cognitive processing and be related to greater fear of cancer recurrence (FCR), potentially negatively influencing psychological adjustment. Data were collected through an online cross-sectional survey study of 66 parents of AYAs with cancer (aged 15-39) and analyzed using bootstrapping techniques for ordinary least squares regression. One-third of the parents reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms. Serial mediation analyses indicated that greater social constraints were related to poorer cognitive processing and higher FCR, and, ultimately, greater depressive symptoms. Alternative models were tested and were not significant. Future psychosocial interventions for parents of AYAs with cancer should include improving cancer-related communication between parents and their social network.


Assuntos
Ajustamento Emocional , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/psicologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cuidadores/psicologia , Cognição , Comunicação , Estudos Transversais , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos , Recidiva , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Health Psychol ; 25(3): 298-310, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28810471

RESUMO

Gay men's experiences with prostate cancer and its impact on health-related quality of life are poorly understood. This qualitative study explored gay men's experience with prostate cancer with a focus on the emotional, physical, and sexual impact of cancer; support needs; and healthcare interactions. Three semi-structured focus groups of gay men with prostate cancer were conducted. A conventional content analytic approach was used to identify six primary content areas that described poignant aspects of the men's experience with prostate cancer: minority stress, intimacy and sexuality concerns, impact on life outlook, healthcare experiences, social support and the gay community, and intersectional identities.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Satisfação do Paciente , Neoplasias da Próstata/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Apoio Social , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia
11.
Psychooncology ; 28(12): 2374-2381, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600426

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Breast cancer (BC) can be understood as a we-disease, which affects a couple as a unit and requires coping as a unit (eg, common dyadic coping, CDC). However, partners can be incongruent in their perceptions of CDC, for example, because of misunderstandings and lack of mutuality or conflict, which may likely be associated with greater distress. Thus, this paper examines the effect of CDC congruence on individual psychological distress in cancer patients and their partners. METHODS: Seventy mixed-sex couples in which the woman had nonmetastatic BC completed self-report questionnaires at 2 weeks, 3 months, and 1 year after cancer surgery. CDC congruence measured the difference between patients' and partners' CDC perceptions while controlling for CDC itself. RESULTS: Multilevel modeling showed negative associations between couples' CDC and psychological distress. Beyond this effect, female patients' psychological distress was associated with CDC congruence with an interaction showing that psychological distress was greater when couples were congruent with low rather than a high CDC. CONCLUSION: Less congruence was associated with greater psychological distress in BC patients but not their male partners - especially if the couple reported low CDC. Health professionals should identify and address diverging perceptions, so that additional distress can be minimized for BC patients.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Cônjuges/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Health Psychol Rev ; 13(4): 484-486, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303125
13.
J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol ; 8(2): 149-156, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30489197

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Young adulthood is a period of building autonomy, relationships, and careers. Experiencing cancer as a young adult (YA) is an "off-time" event in the normative adult life cycle and may interrupt age-specific goals. The majority of prior research on illness uncertainty centers on medical concerns about recurrence or mortality. The current study identifies how YA survivors of hematologic cancers, an understudied group, experience illness uncertainties related to the developmental tasks of young adulthood. METHODS: This is a qualitative study of 53 YA hematologic cancer survivors, ages 20-39. Participants completed hour-long semistructured interviews about psychological, social, and treatment-related aspects of their cancer experience. Interviews were transcribed and coded using an abductive approach to qualitative analysis. RESULTS: Most participants (80%) spontaneously described at least one illness uncertainty tied to developmental tasks. Fertility was the most commonly reported type of uncertainty (55%), with more women than men reporting it, followed by family and intimate relationships (43%), peers and social life (36%), and academic or career goals (26%). These uncertainties were described with reference to the off-time nature of illness. Example excerpts are provided and interpreted. CONCLUSIONS: These findings have the potential to advance our understanding of the cancer experience of YA survivors by expanding on the notion of illness uncertainty in this population. Given the extent to which uncertainties related to developmental tasks were reported, tailored interventions targeting these concerns may improve quality of life among YAs with hematologic cancers.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Escolha da Profissão , Neoplasias Hematológicas/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Qualidade de Vida , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Prognóstico , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Incerteza , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am Psychol ; 73(3): 294, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29648852

RESUMO

Presents an obituary of Dorothy G. Singer (1927-2016) who passed away on November 19, 2016, at Yale New Haven Hospital, at the age of 89. Singer was a professor, research scientist, consultant, child therapist, and author. As the author or coauthor of more than 25 books and 200 scientific and popular articles, Singer brought new insights to child development, particularly in the areas of imaginative play and the effects of TV on children. She was a tireless advocate for the power of play in children's lives. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Psicologia da Criança/história , Connecticut , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , New York
15.
J Occup Environ Med ; 60(7): 612-616, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29271841

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Assess associations between business travel and behavioral and mental health. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses of de-identified electronic medical record data from EHE International, Inc. a provider of corporate wellness programs. RESULTS: Higher levels of business travel were associated with poorer outcomes. Compared with traveling 1 to 6 nights/mo for work, those who traveled 21+ nights were more likely to: smoke (prevalence ratio [PR] = 3.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.56, 5.46), report trouble sleeping (PR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.09, 1.71), be sedentary (PR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.56, 2.43), and score above clinical thresholds for alcohol dependence (CAGE score >1: PR = 2.04, 95% CI 1.26, 3.29), and mild or worse anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Scale [GAD-7] score >4: PR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.29, 2.21), and depression symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9] score >4: PR = 2.27, 95% CI 1.70, 3.03). CONCLUSIONS: Employers should provide programs to help employees manage stress and maintain health while traveling for work.


Assuntos
Comércio , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Viagem/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Prevalência , Comportamento Sedentário , Inquéritos e Questionários , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Aging Ment Health ; 21(9): 975-982, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27212642

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and their caregivers are at high risk for developing depression. Depression can adversely affect the quality of life of patients and caregivers; however, studies in COPD have largely examined predictors of patient and caregiver depression in isolation. This dyadic study examined individual-level predictors of patient and caregiver depression in COPD (i.e. actor effects) as well as how dyad members effect each other's depression (i.e. partner effects). METHODS: Survey data were collected from 89 patient-caregiver dyads that were enrolled in a multi-site cohort study. RESULTS: Participants were predominantly women (61% of patients and 76% of caregivers) and racial/ethnic minorities (65% of patients and 63% of caregivers). Based on PHQ9 cutoffs, 30% of patients and 20% of caregivers had mild depression; 30% of patients and 8% of caregivers had moderate to severe depression. Multilevel models with the dyad as the unit of analysis showed that less frequent patient self-management, higher levels of caregiver burden, and being in poorer health were associated with higher levels of depression for both dyad members. Higher levels of depression in a partner were also associated with higher levels of depression for women, regardless of whether women were patients or caregivers. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that similar factors predict patient and caregiver depression in COPD and that women are at increased risk for developing depression when their partners are depressed. Dyadic psychosocial interventions that target patients and their caregivers may thus be beneficial in terms of addressing depression in this this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Depressão/terapia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/enfermagem , Autogestão/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Patient Educ Couns ; 99(8): 1377-81, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27021781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigates whether applying educational testing approaches to an informed consent video for a medical procedure can lead to greater recall of the information presented. METHODS: Undergraduate students (n=120) were randomly assigned to watch a 20-min video on informed consent under one of three conditions: 1) tested using multiple-choice knowledge questions and provided with feedback on their answers after each 5-min segment; 2) tested with multiple choice knowledge questions but not provided feedback after each segment; or 3) watched the video without knowledge testing. RESULTS: Participants who were tested and provided feedback had significantly greater information recall compared to those who were tested but not provided feedback and to those not tested. The effect of condition was stronger for moderately difficult questions versus easy questions. CONCLUSIONS: Inserting knowledge tests and providing feedback about the responses at timed intervals in videos can be effective in improving recall of information. PRACTICAL IMPLICATION: Providing informed consent information through a video not only standardizes the material, but using testing with feedback inserted within the video has the potential to increase recall and retention of this material.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Rememoração Mental , Ansiedade , Feminino , Humanos , Multimídia , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Endocr Pract ; 22(5): 602-11, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26799628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The dramatic increase in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is primarily a result of early diagnosis of small cancers. Active surveillance is a promising management strategy for papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMCs). However, as this management strategy gains traction in the U.S., it is imperative that patients and clinicians be properly educated, patients be followed for life, and appropriate tools be identified to implement the strategy. METHODS: We review previous active surveillance studies and the parameters used to identify patients who are good candidates for active surveillance. We also review some of the challenges to implementing active surveillance protocols in the U.S. and discuss how these might be addressed. RESULTS: Trials of active surveillance support nonsurgical management as a viable and safe management strategy. However, numerous challenges exist, including the need for adherence to protocols, education of patients and physicians, and awareness of the impact of this strategy on patient psychology and quality of life. The Thyroid Cancer Care Collaborative (TCCC) is a portable record keeping system that can manage a mobile patient population undergoing active surveillance. CONCLUSION: With proper patient selection, organization, and patient support, active surveillance has the potential to be a long-term management strategy for select patients with PTMC. In order to address the challenges and opportunities for this approach to be successfully implemented in the U.S., it will be necessary to consider psychological and quality of life, cultural differences, and the patient's clinical status.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Papilar/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Papilar/terapia , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Vigilância da População/métodos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/terapia , Carcinoma Papilar/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Atenção à Saúde/economia , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/economia , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/economia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
J Res Adolesc ; 26(4): 1048-1060, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28453210

RESUMO

Peer problems are a stressor for many early adolescents, and simple cost-effective tools for managing peer stress are needed. Expressive writing (EW) may be one such tool. With a sample of middle school children aged 12-14 years (n = 119; 53% males), this research evaluates whether cognitively oriented expressive writing (CEW), which focuses more on psychological self-distancing, improves personal well-being better than traditional EW, which focuses more on emotional disclosure. CEW-compared with EW-slightly enhanced long-term social adjustment for the entire sample, and increased positive affect for those early adolescents that reported more peer problems at baseline. These findings suggest that structured writing instructions with early adolescents may be key to improvements.


Assuntos
Emoções , Grupo Associado , Ajustamento Social , Redação , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais
20.
J Behav Med ; 39(2): 225-32, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26546242

RESUMO

This study examined associations among anxiety, depressive symptoms, and sleep duration in a sample of middle-aged couples using the actor-partner interaction model with dyadic data. Self-report measures were completed independently by both partners as part of the health histories obtained during their annual preventive medical examinations in 2011 and 2012. Results showed that husbands' anxiety and depressive symptoms had a stronger effect on their wives' anxiety and depression than the other way around, but this was not moderated by one's own sleep duration. For both wives and husbands, higher levels of depressive symptoms and anxiety predicted shorter sleep duration for their partner 1 year later, although the effect of husbands' mental health on their wives' was again stronger. The findings suggest that sleep problems might better be treated as a couple-level phenomenon than an individual one, particularly for women.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Cônjuges/psicologia , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Casamento/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Estatística como Assunto
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