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1.
J Food Prot ; 81(7): 1165-1170, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29939794

RESUMO

Seaweeds are being consumed more often worldwide and are a source of essential minerals, fiber, vitamins, amino acids, and various bioactive compounds that have many beneficial effects on human health. However, marine pollution and the high capacity of seaweed to absorb metals may mean this food can also be dangerous to human health. The concentrations of some trace elements (B, Ba, Fe, Ni, Li, and V) and toxic metals (Al, Cd, and Pb) were determined in various species of wild seaweeds in the Phaeophyta group of brown algae from the Atlantic Ocean. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry revealed high concentrations of Al (256 mg/kg dry weight), Pb (3.92 mg/kg dry weight), and Cd (0.20 mg/kg dry weight) in Padina pavonica. Pb contributed the most to the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of toxic metals in these samples; 57.2 and 45.3% of the TDI for Pb was found in 5 g of dehydrated P. pavonica and Halopteris scoparia, respectively. This percent contribution is half of the recommended TDI for this metal, which is 34.24 µg/day; therefore, high consumption of these species is discouraged. The maximum TDIs established by various institutions for the other metals were not exceeded from the daily consumption of 5 g of the other dehydrated seaweeds evaluated in this study.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Metais/isolamento & purificação , Feófitas , Alga Marinha , Oceano Atlântico , Humanos , Feófitas/química , Feófitas/metabolismo , Alga Marinha/química , Alga Marinha/metabolismo , Espanha
2.
J Food Prot ; : 1867-1871, 2017 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28994612

RESUMO

Cephalopods are an important source of nutrients and some of the most widely consumed marine foods. However, because of contamination of the oceans and the bioaccumulative nature of toxic metals, these foods may pose a health risk. For this reason, the concentrations of some trace elements (chromium [Cr], lithium, strontium [Sr], copper [Cu], and nickel) and toxic metals (aluminum [Al], cadmium, and lead) were determined in 65 frozen samples of cuttlefish, octopus, common squid, and shortfin squid by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry to evaluate dietary intake and toxic risk. Sr was the major trace element (3.03 mg/kg) in cuttlefish; however, Cu (1.57 mg/kg) was found in the highest concentration in common squid. Among the toxic metals, Al had the highest concentration (3.09 mg/kg) in common squid. Al can pose an important health risk to individuals with kidney problems and to children because these groups are most vulnerable to the toxic effects. Significant differences among the four cephalopod types were found in the concentrations of most of the metals examined. Taking into account the average consumption of cephalopods, the contribution of toxic metals does not pose a risk to the health of adults.

3.
Chemosphere ; 173: 572-579, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28152409

RESUMO

The concentration levels of 20 metals were analyzed by ICP-OES in edible seaweed (Chondrus, Eisenia, Gelidium, Himanthalia, Laminaria, Palmaria, Porphyra, Undaria), from two origins (Asia vs EU) according to their cultivation practices (conventional vs organic). Red seaweed showed higher concentrations of trace and toxic elements. Porphyra may be used as a potential bioindicator for metals. Significant differences were found between the Asian vs European mean contents. The mean Cd level from the conventional cultivation (0.28 mg/kg) was two points higher than the organic cultivation (0.13 mg/kg). A daily consumption of seaweed (4 g/day) contributes to the dietary intake of metals, mainly Mg and Cr. The average intakes of Al, Cd and Pb were 0.064, 0.001 and 0.0003 mg/day, respectively. Based on obtained results, this study suggests that exposure to the toxic metals analyzed (Al, Cd and Pb) through seaweed consumption does not raise serious health concerns, but other toxic metals should be monitored.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados , Metais/análise , Alga Marinha/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Ásia , Metais Pesados/análise , Envenenamento
4.
J Food Prot ; 77(4): 659-64, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24680081

RESUMO

Monitoring the metal content in foods such as potatoes is an important aspect of food safety and regulation. Samples of nine varieties of potatoes (73 samples of local potatoes and 77 samples of imported potatoes) were randomly obtained from supermarkets, farmers markets, and farmer plots in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The edible portion (pulp) was the only part considered for analysis because Spaniards traditionally eat only peeled potatoes. Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Cd concentrations ranged from 0.006 mg/kg in the Cara and Negra varieties to 0.019 mg/kg in the Bonita variety, and Pb concentrations ranged from 0.007 mg/kg in the Up-to-date variety to 0.023 mg/kg in the Recara variety. The mean concentrations of Cd (0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.014 mg/kg) were below the limits established by European regulations for potatoes (0.1 mg/kg of wet weight for each metal). Based on a mean consumption of 143.2 g of potato per person per day for the Canary Islands population, the mean daily intakes of Cd (0.015 mg/day) and Pb (0.023 mg/day) were below the legislated respective tolerable weekly intakes. Thus, the samples analyzed were considered safe to eat with regard to the metal concentrations found.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Chumbo/análise , Solanum tuberosum/química , Cádmio/administração & dosagem , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Humanos , Chumbo/administração & dosagem , Espanha , Espectrofotometria Atômica
5.
Nutr. hosp ; 27(5): 1605-1609, sept.-oct. 2012. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-110194

RESUMO

Introduction: Tomato is considered a healthy food due to its high content in lycopene and other health-promoting natural compounds. Tomatoes have, undoubtedly, assumed the status of a food with functional properties, considering the epidemiological evidence of reducing the risk of certain types of cancers. Objective: Samples of tomatoes from Morocco were analyzed for the mineral composition. Methods: 94 tomato samples from Morocco were analyzed. Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (FAAS) was used to determine essential elements (Copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn)) and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry with Graphite Furnace (GAAS) was used to analyzed cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). Results: The mean concentrations were 0.17 mg/kg, 0.73 mg/kg, 0.20 mg/kg, 0.44 mg/kg, 7.58 μg/kg and 15.8 μg/kg for Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd and Pb, respectively. The highest contribution to the intakes was observed for Cu (0.67% for adults) while that Zn showed the lowest contribution (0.14% for adult males and 0.20% for adult females). Conclusions: Tomatoes are a good source of essential elements for the diet, mainly iron and zinc. Tomatoes consumption does not significantly affect the intake of heavy metals (AU)


Introducción: El tomate es considerado un alimento saludable debido a su alto contenido en licopeno y otros componentes naturales promotores de salud. Indudablemente, los tomates han asumido el estatus de un alimento con propiedades funcionales, considerando desde un punto de vista epidemiológico reducir ciertos tipos de cánceres Objetivo: Analizar la composición mineral de muestras de tomates de Marruecos. Métodos: 94 muestras de tomates de Marruecos fueron analizadas. Espectrofotometría de Absorción Atómica por llama (FAAS) se usó para determinar elementos esenciales (Cobre (Cu), hierro (Fe), manganeso (Mn) y zinc (Zn) y Espectrofotometría de Absorción Atómica con cámara de grafito (GAAS) se usó para analizar cadmio (Cd) y plomo (Pb). Resultados: Las concentraciones medias fueron 0,17 mg/kg, 0,73 mg/kg, 0,20 mg/kg, 0,44 mg/kg, 7,58 μg/kg and 15,8 μg/kg para Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd y Pb, respectivamente. La contribución a la ingesta más alta fue observada para el Cu (0,67% para adultos) mientras que el Zn presentó la contribución más baja (0,14% para hombres adultos y 0,20% para mujeres adultas). Conclusión: Los tomates son una buena fuente de elementos esenciales para la dieta, principalmente hierro y zinc. El consumo de tomates no afecta significativamente a la ingesta de metales pesados (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Oligoelementos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Minerais na Dieta/análise , Lycopersicon esculentum/toxicidade , Concentrados de Tomates , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/epidemiologia
6.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 71: 11-7, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22906691

RESUMO

Phytopharmaceuticals are gaining popularity worldwide; however, cases of adverse effects and drug interactions have also increased. One reason is in the high metal content both as ingredients but also as contaminants. Metal monitoring in food, like herbal teas, provides basic information on safety aspects in regulatory processes as well as nutritional values. In the present work, Cd, Pb, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al, B, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Li, Ni, and Mo were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICPS) in 36 samples of Mentha sp. Mint tea bags and loose leaves were randomly obtained from supermarkets, traditional markets, herbal stores, and pharmacies in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). Metal contents varied significantly, dependent on the stores the products were purchased in and on tea packaging (loose leaves versus tea bags). Pb analyses revealed levels (0.65±0.71mg/kg) below legal limits. The maximum permissible limit for Cd, 0.3mg/kg, set by the WHO for medicinal plants, was exceeded by 19.44% of the samples (0.22±0.13mg/kg), but all values were below the limit given in the European Pharmacopoeia for this metal (4mg/kg). We observed high Al (151.24±162.73mg/kg) and Li (5.46±3.94mg/kg) levels. B, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn, and Mo mean levels were 20.51, 14.15, 0.26, 1.65, 10.65, 406.00, 55.05, 1.72, 33.67, and 0.73mg/kg, respectively. Mean Ca, Mg, K, and Na were detected in concentrations of 10.32, 3.83, 7.23 and 1.17g/kg, respectively. In conclusion, metal exposure through herbal mint teas does not seem to be of health concern, as to most of the studied metals, but regulatory limits for Al contents should be imposed.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Mentha/química , Metais/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos , Folhas de Planta/química , Análise Espectral/métodos , Chá/química
7.
Nutr Hosp ; 27(2): 548-52, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22732982

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Palm syrup is a typical product from the Canary Islands, traditionally produced from the sap of the tropical palm tree Phoenix canariensis. Its high caloric content has led to its increasing use as a health food supplement for athletes, children and elderly. Furthermore, demand for this natural syrup is continuously increasing due also to its medicinal uses in homeopathic medicine. OBJECTIVE: Palm Tree syrup samples prepared with palm sap from primary producers in La Gomera island (Canary Islands, Spain) were analyzed for their nutritional composition (moisture, ash, sugars, fat, vitamins and minerals). METHODS: 35 syrup samples from five different producing regions in La Gomera island were analyzed. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine sugars and vitamins and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (FAAS) was used to analyze the minerals. RESULTS: Major carbohydrates were sucrose (37.8%), glucose (9.50%) and fructose (4.80%), respectively. The presence of arabinose could not be confirmed. Niacin was the water-soluble vitamin with the highest concentration with an average content of 0.003%. Fat content was found to be under 0.20%. Potassium was the mineral with highest contents (0.45%). CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that palm tree syrup can play an important role as a sugar and mineral source in human nutrition, suggesting that future applications for this product could be developed.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/química , Suplementos Nutricionais , Preparações de Plantas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Minerais/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Controle de Qualidade , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Vitaminas/análise
8.
Nutr. hosp ; 27(2): 548-552, mar.-abr. 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-103439

RESUMO

Introduction: Palm syrup is a typical product from the Canary Islands, traditionally produced from the sap of the tropical palm tree Phoenix canariensis. Its high caloric content has led to its increasing use as a health food supplement for athletes, children and elderly. Furthermore, demand for this natural syrup is continuously increasing due also to its medicinal uses in homeopathic medicine. Objective: Palm Tree syrup samples prepared with palm sap from primary producers in La Gomera island (Canary Islands, Spain) were analyzed for their nutritional composition (moisture, ash, sugars, fat, vitamins and minerals). Methods: 35 syrup samples from five different producing regions in La Gomera island were analyzed. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine sugars and vitamins and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (FAAS) was used to analyze the minerals. Results: Major carbohydrates were sucrose (37.8%), glucose (9.50%) and fructose (4.80%), respectively. The presence of arabinose could not be confirmed. Niacin was the water-soluble vitamin with the highest concentration with an average content of 0.003%. Fat content was found to be under 0.20%. Potassium was the mineral with highest contents (0.45%). Conclusions: Results suggest that palm tree syrup can play an important role as a sugar and mineral source in human nutrition, suggesting that future applications for this product could be developed (AU)


Introducción: La miel de palma es un producto típico de las Islas Canarias, tradicionalmente producido a partir de la savia de la palmera Phoenix canariensis. El alto contenido calórico lo convierte en un producto cada vez más utilizado como suplemento alimenticio para atletas, niños y mayores. Además, la demanda de este sirope natural, está en constante crecimiento debido también a sus usos medicinales en la medicina homeopática. Objetivo: Analizar la composición nutricional (humedad, cenizas, azúcares, grasa, vitaminas y minerales) de las muestras de miel de palma preparadas con la savia de las palmeras de los productores de la isla de La Gomera (Islas Canarias, España). Métodos: 35 muestras de miel de palma procedentes de cinco regiones productoras de la isla de La Gomera fueron analizadas. Los azúcares y las vitaminas fueron medidos mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (CLAR) y la espectrofotometría de absorción atómica por llama (FAAS) se usó para determinar los minerales. Resultados: Los hidratos de carbono mayoritarios fueron sacarosa (37,8%), glucosa (9,50%) y fructosa (4,80%), respectivamente. La presencia de arabinosa no pudo ser confirmada. La niacina es la vitamina hidrosoluble con la mayor concentración con un contenido promedio de 0,003%. Los contenidos en grasas se encontraron por debajo de 0,20%. El potasio era el macroelemento con los contenidos más altos (0,45%). Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que la miel de palma puede jugar un papel importante como una fuente de azúcar y minerales en la nutrición humana y se pueden desarrollar futuras aplicaciones para este producto (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Mel/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Edulcorantes/análise
9.
Nutr Hosp ; 27(5): 1605-9, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23478712

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tomato is considered a healthy food due to its high content in lycopene and other health-promoting natural compounds. Tomatoes have, undoubtedly, assumed the status of a food with functional properties, considering the epidemiological evidence of reducing the risk of certain types of cancers. OBJECTIVE: Samples of tomatoes from Morocco were analyzed for the mineral composition. METHODS: 94 tomato samples from Morocco were analyzed. Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (FAAS) was used to determine essential elements (Copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn)) and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry with Graphite Furnace (GAAS) was used to analyzed cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). RESULTS: The mean concentrations were 0.17 mg/kg, 0.73 mg/kg, 0.20 mg/kg, 0.44 mg/kg, 7.58 µg/kg and 15.8 µg/kg for Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd and Pb, respectively. The highest contribution to the intakes was observed for Cu (0.67% for adults) while that Zn showed the lowest contribution (0.14% for adult males and 0.20% for adult females). CONCLUSIONS: Tomatoes are a good source of essential elements for the diet, mainly iron and zinc. Tomatoes consumption does not significantly affect the intake of heavy metals.


Assuntos
Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Metais/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metais Pesados/análise , Marrocos , Controle de Qualidade , Espectrofotometria Atômica
10.
J Food Prot ; 74(11): 1938-43, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22054198

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the levels of metals (Ca, K, Na, Mg) and trace metals (Ni, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cd) in two fish species (gilthead bream [Sparus aurata] and sea bass [Dicentrarchus labrax]) collected from fish farms located along the coast of Tenerife Island. Ca, K, Na, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry, whereas Pb, Cd, and Ni were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn contents were 3.09, 0.59, 0.18, and 8.11 mg/kg (wet weight) in S. aurata and 3.20, 0.76, 0.24, and 10.11 mg/kg (wet weight) in D. labrax, respectively. In D. labrax, Ca, K, Na, and Mg levels were 1,955, 2,787, 699.7, and 279.2 mg/kg (wet weight), respectively; in S. aurata, they were 934.7, 3,515, 532.8, and 262.8 mg/kg (wet weight), respectively. The Pb level in S. aurata was 7.28 ± 3.64 µg/kg (wet weight) and, in D. labrax, 4.42 ± 1.56 µg/kg (wet weight). Mean Cd concentrations were 3.33 ± 3.93 and 1.36 ± 1.53 µg/kg (wet weight) for D. labrax and S. aurata, respectively. All Pb and Cd levels measured were well below the accepted European Commission limits, 300 and 50 µg/kg for lead and cadmium, respectively.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Bass/metabolismo , Metais/metabolismo , Dourada/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos/normas , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Animais , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Humanos , Metais/análise , Espanha , Especificidade da Espécie , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Oligoelementos/análise
11.
Nutr. hosp ; 22(1): 101-107, ene.-feb. 2007. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-054828

RESUMO

En este artículo se hace una revisión exhaustiva del zinc, elemento metálico esencial para el funcionamiento del organismo. Repasamos y reflejamos aspectos relacionados con la farmacocinética, con las fuentes dietéticas más importantes, así como las IDR (Ingestas Dietéticas Recomendadas) del mismo. También se hace mención a los signos y síntomas relacionados tanto con una ingesta deficiente, como con posibles efectos tóxicos, derivados de ingestas excesivas


This article comprehensively reviews zinc, the metallic element essential for body functioning. We review and highlight issues related to pharmacokinetics, the most important dietary sources, as well as its RDIs (Recommended Dietary Intakes). We also focus on signs and symptoms related with both a deficient intake and possible toxic effects derived from excessive intakes


Assuntos
Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Humanos , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Zinco/deficiência , Zinco/toxicidade , Dieta , Política Nutricional
12.
Nutr Hosp ; 22(1): 101-7, 2007.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17260538

RESUMO

This article comprehensively reviews zinc, the metallic element essential for body functioning. We review and highlight issues related to pharmacokinetics, the most important dietary sources, as well as its RDIs (Recommended Dietary Intakes). We also focus on signs and symptoms related with both a deficient intake and possible toxic effects derived from excessive intakes.


Assuntos
Zinco , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Humanos , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política Nutricional , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Zinco/deficiência , Zinco/toxicidade
13.
Environ Res ; 100(1): 123-9, 2006 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16337849

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) in the human diet constitutes a potential chronic hazard to health. In the nonsmoking general population, diet is the major source of cadmium exposure; therefore, it is important to monitor the dietary intake of this heavy metal to quantify and improve the understanding of Cd accumulation in the human body. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of Cd in a range of food and drink commonly consumed in the Canary Islands. Food samples (420) were analyzed for Cd by atomic absorption spectrometry. The most recent nutritional survey conducted for the Canarian population was used to define the food and drink groups analyzed. The measured Cd concentrations combined with the food consumption data resulted in a total Cd intake in the Canary Islands of 0.16 microg/kg of body weight/day, which is well below the respective provisional tolerable weekly intake of Cd of 1 microg/kg of body weight per day determined by the FAO/WHO. The results are also compared with values reported for other national and international communities.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos , Bebidas/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Análise de Alimentos , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Espanha
14.
Rev. toxicol ; 21(2/3): 64-71, 2004. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-125981

RESUMO

A partir de los años 40 se inician investigaciones para relacionar el tabaquismo con la aparición de determinadas enfermedades, principalmente respiratorias y pulmonares. Desde entonces se genera una cascada de información epidemiológica y médica, que termina por considerar el consumo de tabaco como un problema de salud mundial. Como protección y promoción de la salud, la OMS insta a los gobiernos para que desarrollen programas específicos antitabaco. En este artículo se hace una revisión sobre la toxicidad de los componentes químicos del tabaco y los estudios más actuales sobre sus efectos en el organismo (AU)


As of 1940, investigations begin to relate nocotinism with the appearance of certain illnesses, mainly respiratory and pulmonary diseases. subsequently, a cascade of epidemic and medical information is generated and concludes that the consumption of tobacco is a universal problem. in order to promote and protect health, the oms urges the governments to develop specific antitobacco programs. in this article reviews the toxicity of the chemical components of tobacco and the most current studies regarding the effects of said components on the organism (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Tabaco/toxicidade , Nicotina/toxicidade , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise , Lesão por Inalação de Fumaça/induzido quimicamente , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Fumaça/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/toxicidade , Doenças Respiratórias/complicações , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Pneumopatias/complicações , Farmacocinética
15.
Rev. toxicol ; 21(2/3): 72-80, 2004. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-125982

RESUMO

El plomo es un metal pesado caracterizado por ocasionar efectos tóxicos sobre el tracto gastrointestinal, sobre el sistema renal y sobre el SNC y periférico, así como interferencias con sistemas enzimáticos implicados en la síntesis del grupo hemo. A pesar de que en los últimos diez años, los contenidos de plomo de los productos alimenticios se han reducido sensiblemente gracias a los esfuerzos realizados para reducir la emisión de plomo en su origen y por los progresos en la garantía de calidad de los análisis químicos, la dieta sigue siendo una fuente importante de exposición de plomo. Es por ello que, el objetivo a largo plazo de las autoridades sanitarias es el de continuar reduciendo los contenidos medios de plomo en los productos alimenticios con el fin de que las ingestas medias dietéticas de Pb de las poblaciones cumplan con la PTWI (Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake) de 25 μg Pb/Kg/semana establecida por el Comité Mixto FAO/OMS (AU)


Lead is a heavy metal characterized for its toxic effects on the gastrointestinal tract, on the renal system and on the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems, as well as its interferences with enzymatic systems involved in hemo group synthesis. In spite of the fact that in the last ten years the lead content in foodstuffs has been notably reduced due to the efforts made in reducing the lead emission in its origin and also due to the progress in quality control of chemical analysis, diet confines to be an important source of lead exposure. This is the reason why the long term objective of the sanitary authorities is to continue to reduce the mean lead contents until the population’s Pb dietary intake meets the PTWI (Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake) of 25 μg Pb/Kg/week, established by the FAO/OMS Committee (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Intoxicação por Chumbo/complicações , Intoxicação por Chumbo/diagnóstico , Intoxicação por Chumbo/terapia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/sangue , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/complicações , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/fisiopatologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/terapia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Farmacocinética
16.
Rev. toxicol ; 20(1): 8-12, ene.-abr. 2003.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-17731

RESUMO

El botulismo es una toxi-infección producida por la bacteria anaerobia Clostridium botulinum por medio de una potentísima toxina, la toxina botulínica, de la cual existen ocho serotipos diferentes. Ésta es capaz de provocar en humanos al menos cuatro cuadros clínicos diferentes por bloqueo de la transmisión neuromuscular, y que pueden variar en gravedad desde la casi ausencia de síntomas hasta la muerte por parálisis respiratoria. Paradójicamente, la toxina botulínica se presenta también como un arma terapéutica eficaz y segura en decenas de enfermedades, si bien gran parte de estas potenciales aplicaciones está aún en fase de investigación. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Botulismo/induzido quimicamente , Toxinas Botulínicas/efeitos adversos , Botulismo/diagnóstico , Botulismo/tratamento farmacológico , Botulismo/classificação , Toxinas Botulínicas/farmacologia , Toxinas Botulínicas , Interações Medicamentosas , Diagnóstico Clínico , Distonia/classificação , Distonia/tratamento farmacológico , Clostridium botulinum/patogenicidade
18.
Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss ; 74 Spec No: 79-89, 1981 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-6794531

RESUMO

Diclofurime is a non-inotropic arterial vasodilator and an antagonist to calcium transport. We studied its antihypertensive effect in 16 hypertensive subjects. When given alone at an average dose of 240 mg/day, it induced an overall significant diminution of systolic and diastolic arterial pressure. Among the 16 subjects studied, diclofurime lowered arterial pressure below 150/90 mm Hg in seven, induced an improvement in arterial pressure in six, and showed no effect in three. When hypertension is not controlled with 450 mg diclofurime in 3 doses/day, it may be given in association with acebutolol. Diclofurime is well tolerated. The most troublesome side effects noted were headache, cardiac erethism, asthenia and edema in the lower limbs. These clinical signs were usually transient. Among these 32 patients side effects required interruption of treatment in three. Laboratory follow-up was made on day 78 and 180 after initiation of treatment. No significant change in results was noted. Renal function was studied in seven patients having normal renal function and in six chronic renal failure patients whose inulin clearance was about 30 ml min-I. It was observed that in the normal subject, the injection of a loading dose of 40 mg diclofurime followed by a maintenance dose of 80 mg during one hour induced a slight increase in glomerular filtration and a greater increase in renal blood flow; the filtered fraction was thus diminished. Diclofurime induced a clear and sustained increase in excretion of water and sodium chloride without modifying urinary excretion of potassium. In severe renal failure, no significant changes in glomerular filtration, renal blood flow or electrolyte excretion were observed with diclofurime.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Furanos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão Renal/tratamento farmacológico , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Oximas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Feminino , Furanos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipertensão Renal/etiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oximas/efeitos adversos
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