Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 220
Filtrar
1.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34993875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior research indicates that female physicians spend more time working in the electronic health record (EHR) than do male physicians. OBJECTIVE: To examine gender differences in EHR usage among primary care physicians and identify potential causes for those differences. DESIGN: Retrospective study of EHR usage by primary care physicians (PCPs) in an academic hospital system. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred twenty-five primary care physicians INTERVENTIONS: N/A MAIN MEASURES: EHR usage including time spent working and volume of staff messages and patient messages. KEY RESULTS: After adjusting for panel size and appointment volume, female PCPs spend 20% more time (1.9 h/month) in the EHR inbasket and 22% more time (3.7 h/month) on notes than do their male colleagues (p values 0.02 and 0.04, respectively). Female PCPs receive 24% more staff messages (9.6 messages/month), and 26% more patient messages (51.5 messages/month) (p values 0.03 and 0.004, respectively). The differences in EHR time are not explained by the percentage of female patients in a PCP's panel. CONCLUSIONS: Female physicians spend more time working in their EHR inbaskets because both staff and patients make more requests of female PCPs. These differential EHR burdens may contribute to higher burnout rates in female PCPs.

2.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34851361

RESUMO

Importance: African American individuals have disproportionate rates of coronary heart disease (CHD) but lower levels of coronary artery calcium (CAC), a marker of subclinical CHD, than non-Hispanic White individuals. African American individuals may have distinct metabolite profiles associated with incident CHD risk compared with non-Hispanic White individuals, and examination of these differences could highlight important processes that differ between them. Objectives: To identify novel biomarkers of incident CHD and CAC among African American individuals and to replicate incident CHD findings in a multiethnic cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants: This analysis targeted plasma metabolomic profiling of 2346 participants in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS), a prospective population-based cohort study that included 5306 African American participants who were examined at baseline (2000-2004) and 2 follow-up visits. Replication of CHD-associated metabolites was sought among 1588 multiethnic participants from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), a prospective population-based multiethnic cohort study of 161 808 postmenopausal women who were examined at baseline (1991-1995) and ongoing follow-up visits. Regression analyses were performed for each metabolite to examine the associations with incident CHD and CAC scores. Data were collected from the WHI between 1994 and 2009 and from the JHS between 2000 and 2015. All data were analyzed from November 2020 to August 2021. Exposures: Plasma metabolites. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident CHD was defined as definite or probable myocardial infarction or definite fatal CHD in both the JHS and WHI cohorts. In the JHS cohort, silent myocardial infarction between examinations (as determined by electrocardiography) and coronary revascularization were included in the incident CHD analysis. Coronary artery calcium was measured using a 16-channel computed tomographic system and reported as an Agatston score. Results: Among 2346 African American individuals in the JHS cohort, the mean (SD) age was 56 (13) years, and 1468 individuals (62.6%) were female. Among 1588 postmenopausal women in the WHI cohort, the mean (SD) age was 67 (7) years; 217 individuals (13.7%) self-identified as African American, 1219 (76.8%) as non-Hispanic White, and 152 (9.6%) as other races or ethnicities. In the fully adjusted model including 1876 individuals, 46 of 303 targeted metabolites were associated with incident CHD (false discovery rate q <0.100). Data for 32 of the 46 metabolites were available in the WHI cohort, and 13 incident CHD-associated metabolites from the JHS cohort were replicated in the WHI cohort. A total of 1439 participants from the JHS cohort with available CAC scores received metabolomic profiling. Nine metabolites were associated with CAC scores. Minimal overlap was found between the results from the incident CHD and CAC analyses, with only 3 metabolites shared between the 2 analyses. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study identified metabolites that were associated with incident CHD among African American individuals, including 13 incident CHD-associated metabolites that were replicated in a multiethnic population and 9 novel metabolites that included N-acylamides, leucine, and lipid species. These findings may help to elucidate common and distinct metabolic processes that may be associated with CHD among individuals with different self-identified race.

3.
Neurology ; 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34853177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women have higher lifetime risk of stroke than men, and metabolic factors seem more strongly associated with stroke for women than men. However, few studies in either men or women have evaluated metabolomic profiles and incident stroke. METHODS: We applied liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to measure 519 plasma metabolites in a discovery set of women in the Nurses' Health Study ([NHS], 454 incident ischemic stroke cases, 454 controls) with validation in two independent, prospective cohorts: Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea ([PREDIMED], 118 stroke cases, 791 controls), and Nurses' Health Study 2 ([NHS2], 49 ischemic stroke cases, 49 controls). We applied logistic regression models with stroke as the outcome to adjust for multiple risk factors; the false discovery rate (FDR) was controlled through the q value method. RESULTS: Twenty-three metabolites were significantly associated with incident stroke in NHS after adjustment for traditional risk factors (q value <0.05). Of these, 14 metabolites were available in PREDIMED and 3 were significantly associated with incident stroke: methionine sulfoxide, N6-acetyllysine, and sucrose (q value<0.05). In NHS2, one of the 23 metabolites (glucuronate) was significantly associated with incident stroke (q value <0.05). For all four metabolites, higher levels were associated with increased risk. These four metabolites were used to create a stroke metabolite score (SMS) in the NHS and tested in PREDIMED. Per unit of standard deviation of SMS, the odds ratio for incident stroke was 4.12 (95% CI: 2.26 - 7.51) in PREDIMED, after adjustment for risk factors. In PREDIMED, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) for the model including SMS and traditional risk factors was 0.70 (95% CI: 0.75-0.79) versus the AUC for the model including the traditional risk factors only of 0.65 (95% CI: 0.70-75), corresponding to a 5% improvement in risk prediction with SMS (p < 0.005). DISCUSSION: Metabolites associated with stroke included two amino acids, a carboxylic acid and sucrose. A composite SMS including these metabolites was associated with ischemic stroke and showed improvement in risk prediction beyond traditional risk factors. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class II evidence that a stroke metabolic score accurately predicts incident ischemic stroke risk.

4.
Eur J Nutr ; 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799774

RESUMO

PURPOSE: L-Carnitine is abundant in animal source foods, particularly red meat, and circulating L-carnitine may be related to the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD). We investigated whether long-term changes in plasma L-carnitine over 10 years were associated with the CHD incidence and also examined joint associations of carnitine-rich red meat consumption and L-carnitine changes on the subsequent risk of CHD. METHODS: This prospective nested case-control study included 772 healthy women at baseline (386 incident CHD cases and 386 healthy controls). Plasma L-carnitine levels were measured both at the first (1989-90) and second blood collections (2000-02). Incident cases of CHD were prospectively followed from the date of the second blood collection through 2016. RESULTS: Overall, a greater increase in L-carnitine from the first to the second time point was related to a higher risk of CHD, regardless of the initial L-carnitine levels (relative risk: 1.36 (95% CI 0.999, 1.84) per 1-SD increase). The 10-year changes in L-carnitine were positively associated with red meat consumption over time, and women with higher red meat intake (≥ 36 g/day) and with greater increases in L-carnitine had a 1.86 (95% CI 1.13, 3.09) times increased risk of CHD, as compared to those with lower red meat intake and lesser increases in L-carnitine. CONCLUSION: Long-term increases in L-carnitine levels were associated with the subsequent incidence of CHD, especially among women with higher intake of red meat. Our results suggest the importance of atherogenic L-carnitine changes and dietary intakes over time in the prevention of CHD.

5.
Environ Res ; : 112195, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aircraft noise can affect populations living near airports. Chronic exposure to aircraft noise has been associated with cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. However, previous studies have been limited in their ability to characterize noise exposures over time and to adequately control for confounders. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the association between aircraft noise and incident hypertension in two cohorts of female nurses, using aircraft noise exposure estimates with high spatial resolution over a 20-year period. METHODS: We obtained contour maps of modeled aircraft noise levels over time for 90 U.S. airports and linked them with geocoded addresses of participants in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II) to assign noise exposure for 1994-2014 and 1995-2013, respectively. We used time-varying Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hypertension risk associated with time-varying noise exposure (dichotomized at 45 and 55 dB(A)), adjusting for fixed and time-varying confounders. Results from both cohorts were pooled via random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: In meta-analyses of parsimonious and fully-adjusted models with aircraft noise dichotomized at 45 dB(A), hazard ratios (HR) for hypertension incidence were 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.07) and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.07), respectively. When dichotomized at 55 dB(A), HRs were 1.10 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.19) and 1.07 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.15), respectively. After conducting fully-adjusted sensitivity analyses limited to years in which particulate matter (PM) was obtained, we observed similar findings. In NHS, the PM-unadjusted HR was 1.01 (95% CI: 0.90, 1.14) and PM-adjusted HR was 1.01 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.14); in NHS II, the PM-unadjusted HR was 1.08 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.22) and the PM-adjusted HR was 1.08 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.21). Overall, in these cohorts, we found marginally suggestive evidence of a positive association between aircraft noise exposure and hypertension.

6.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 133: 105420, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597898

RESUMO

Several forms of chronic distress including anxiety and depression are associated with adverse cardiometabolic outcomes. Metabolic alterations may underlie these associations. Whether these forms of distress are associated with metabolic alterations even after accounting for comorbid conditions and other factors remains unclear. Using an agnostic approach, this study examines a broad range of metabolites in relation to chronic distress among women. For this cross-sectional study of chronic distress and 577 plasma metabolites, data are from different substudies within the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and Nurses' Health Studies (NHSI, NHSII). Chronic distress was characterized by depressive symptoms and other depression indicators in the WHI and NHSII substudies, and by combined indicators of anxiety and depressive symptoms in the NHSI substudy. We used a two-phase discovery-validation framework, with WHI (N = 1317) and NHSII (N = 218) substudies in the discovery phase (identifying metabolites associated with distress) and NHSI (N = 558) substudy in the validation phase. A differential network analysis provided a systems-level assessment of metabolomic alterations under chronic distress. Analyses adjusted for potential confounders and mediators (demographics, comorbidities, medications, lifestyle factors). In the discovery phase, 46 metabolites were significantly associated with depression measures. In validation, six of these metabolites demonstrated significant associations with chronic distress after adjustment for potential confounders. Among women with high distress, we found lower gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), threonine, biliverdin, and serotonin and higher C16:0 ceramide and 3-methylxanthine. Our findings suggest chronic distress is associated with metabolomic alterations and provide specific targets for future study of biological pathways in chronic diseases.

7.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 30(10): 1431-1439, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388032

RESUMO

Background: Preterm delivery is associated with a 1.4- to 2-fold increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but inclusion of preterm delivery in CVD risk prediction algorithms has not been tested. We evaluated whether including preterm delivery and parity in CVD risk scores improved identification of women at high risk versus scores based on traditional risk factors. Methods: We predicted 10-year CVD risk using 119,587 observations contributed by 76,512 women ≥40 years of age and 20-year CVD risk with 72,533 women ≥40 years of age and 72,872 women ≥30 years of age from the Nurses' Health Study II. Cox proportional hazards models were fit with established CVD risk factors (Model 1) and established risk factors plus preterm delivery and parity (Model 2). We evaluated model fit, calibration, discrimination, and risk reclassification. Results: Very preterm delivery (<32 weeks) was associated with CVD in all 10- and 20-year models that included the established CVD risk factors (e.g., hazard ratio: 1.61, 95% confidence interval: 1.19 to 2.20 in 10-year risk model). Model 2 had improved fit relative to Model 1, but discrimination was not improved in Model 2 based on the C-difference or net reclassification index. Similar models for 20-year CVD risk prediction at age ≥30 years indicated improved discrimination when including preterm delivery and parity. Conclusions: Incorporating preterm delivery and parity into CVD risk scores appears most useful when women are young, before they develop established CVD risk factors. Observed improvements in risk prediction were small and warrant further investigation to confirm our findings and assess utility in a clinical setting.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Nascimento Prematuro , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Paridade , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
Gut ; 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127525

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tryptophan can be catabolised to various metabolites through host kynurenine and microbial indole pathways. We aimed to examine relationships of host and microbial tryptophan metabolites with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D), host genetics, diet and gut microbiota. METHOD: We analysed associations between circulating levels of 11 tryptophan metabolites and incident T2D in 9180 participants of diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds from five cohorts. We examined host genome-wide variants, dietary intake and gut microbiome associated with these metabolites. RESULTS: Tryptophan, four kynurenine-pathway metabolites (kynurenine, kynurenate, xanthurenate and quinolinate) and indolelactate were positively associated with T2D risk, while indolepropionate was inversely associated with T2D risk. We identified multiple host genetic variants, dietary factors, gut bacteria and their potential interplay associated with these T2D-relaetd metabolites. Intakes of fibre-rich foods, but not protein/tryptophan-rich foods, were the dietary factors most strongly associated with tryptophan metabolites. The fibre-indolepropionate association was partially explained by indolepropionate-associated gut bacteria, mostly fibre-using Firmicutes. We identified a novel association between a host functional LCT variant (determining lactase persistence) and serum indolepropionate, which might be related to a host gene-diet interaction on gut Bifidobacterium, a probiotic bacterium significantly associated with indolepropionate independent of other fibre-related bacteria. Higher milk intake was associated with higher levels of gut Bifidobacterium and serum indolepropionate only among genetically lactase non-persistent individuals. CONCLUSION: Higher milk intake among lactase non-persistent individuals, and higher fibre intake were associated with a favourable profile of circulating tryptophan metabolites for T2D, potentially through the host-microbial cross-talk shifting tryptophan metabolism toward gut microbial indolepropionate production.

9.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(2): 690-703, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Because randomized trials of sustained dietary changes are sometimes impractical for long-term outcomes, the explicit emulation of a (hypothetical) target trial using observational data may be an important tool for nutritional epidemiology. OBJECTIVES: We describe a methodological approach that aims to emulate a target trial of dietary interventions sustained over many years using data from observational cohort studies. METHODS: We estimated the 20-y risk of all-cause mortality under the sustained implementation of the food-based goals of the American Heart Association (AHA) 2020 using data from 3 prospective observational studies of US men [Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS)] and women [Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II)]. We applied the parametric g-formula to estimate the 20-y mortality risk under a dietary intervention and under no dietary intervention. RESULTS: There were 165,411 participants who met the eligibility criteria. The mean age at baseline was 57.4 y (range, 43-82 y) in the HPFS, 52.4 y (range, 39-66 y) in the NHS, and 40.2 y (range, 30-50 y) in the NHS II. During 20 y of follow-up, 13,241 participants died. The estimated 20-y mortality risks under a dietary intervention versus no intervention were 21.9% compared with 25.8%, respectively, in the HPFS (risk difference, -3.9%; 95% CI: -4.9% to -3.2%); 10.0% compared with 12.6%, respectively, in the NHS (risk difference, -2.6%; 95% CI: -3.1% to -1.8%); and 2.1% compared with 2.5%, respectively, in the NHS II (risk difference, -0.35%; 95% CI: -0.56% to -0.09%). The corresponding risk ratios were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81-0.88) in the HPFS, 0.79 (95% CI: 0.75-0.85) in the NHS, and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.78-0.96) in the NHS II. CONCLUSIONS: We estimated that adherence to the food-based AHA 2020 Dietary Goals starting in midlife may reduce the 20-y risk of mortality.


Assuntos
American Heart Association , Dieta , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Cardiopatias/prevenção & controle , Mortalidade/tendências , Política Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
10.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 121(10): 1984-2002, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiometabolic diseases are prevalent in aging Americans. Although some studies have implicated greater intake of dairy products, it is not clear how dairy intake is related to biomarkers of cardiometabolic health. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to test the hypothesis that associations of dairy foods with biomarkers of lipid metabolism, insulin-like growth factor signaling, and chronic inflammation may provide clues to understanding how dairy can influence cardiometabolic health. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study in the Women's Health Initiative using baseline food frequency questionnaire data to calculate dairy intake. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Participants were 35,352 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years at 40 clinical centers in the United States. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Baseline (1993-1998) concentrations of 20 circulating biomarkers were measured. STATISTICAL ANALYSES: Multivariable-adjusted linear regression was used to estimate percent difference in biomarker concentrations per serving of total dairy and individual foods (milk, cheese, yogurt, butter, and low-fat varieties). RESULTS: Lower triglyceride concentrations were associated with greater intake of total dairy (-0.8% [95% CI -1.2% to -0.3%]), mainly driven by full-fat varieties. Individual dairy foods had specific associations with circulating lipid components. For example, greater total milk intake was associated with lower concentrations of total cholesterol (-0.4% [95% CI -0.7% to -0.2%]) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-0.5% [95% CI -0.9% to -0.1%]), whereas greater butter intake was associated with higher total cholesterol (0.6% [95% CI 0.2% to 1.0%]) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (1.6% [95% CI 1.1% to 2.0%]) concentrations. In contrast, higher total yogurt intake was associated with lower total cholesterol (-1.1% [95% CI -2.0% to -0.2%]) and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (1.8% [95% CI 0.5% to 3.1%]). Greater total dairy intake (regardless of fat content), total cheese, full-fat cheese, and yogurt were consistently associated with lower concentrations of glucose, insulin, and C-reactive protein. However, milk and butter were not associated with these biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS: Higher dairy intake, except butter, was associated with a favorable profile of lipids, insulin response, and inflammatory biomarkers, regardless of fat content. Yet, specific dairy foods might influence these markers uniquely. Findings do not support a putative role of dairy in cardiometabolic diseases observed in some previous studies.


Assuntos
Laticínios/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/métodos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dislipidemias/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Insulina/sangue , Modelos Lineares , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Circulation ; 143(18): e902-e916, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779213

RESUMO

This statement summarizes evidence that adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) such as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, preterm delivery, gestational diabetes, small-for-gestational-age delivery, placental abruption, and pregnancy loss increase a woman's risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and of developing subsequent CVD (including fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and heart failure). This statement highlights the importance of recognizing APOs when CVD risk is evaluated in women, although their value in reclassifying risk may not be established. A history of APOs is a prompt for more vigorous primordial prevention of CVD risk factors and primary prevention of CVD. Adopting a heart-healthy diet and increasing physical activity among women with APOs, starting in the postpartum setting and continuing across the life span, are important lifestyle interventions to decrease CVD risk. Lactation and breastfeeding may lower a woman's later cardiometabolic risk. Black and Asian women experience a higher proportion APOs, with more severe clinical presentation and worse outcomes, than White women. More studies on APOs and CVD in non-White women are needed to better understand and address these health disparities. Future studies of aspirin, statins, and metformin may better inform our recommendations for pharmacotherapy in primary CVD prevention among women who have had an APO. Several opportunities exist for health care systems to improve transitions of care for women with APOs and to implement strategies to reduce their long-term CVD risk. One proposed strategy includes incorporation of the concept of a fourth trimester into clinical recommendations and health care policy.


Assuntos
American Heart Association/organização & administração , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(1): 163-174, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have reported a modest inverse association between dairy consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Whether plasma metabolite profiles associated with dairy consumption reflect this relationship remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify the plasma metabolites associated with total and specific dairy consumption, and to evaluate the association between the identified multi-metabolite profiles and T2D. METHODS: The discovery population included 1833 participants from the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) trial. The confirmatory cohorts included 1522 PREDIMED participants at year 1 of the trial and 4932 participants from the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS), Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII), and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study US-based cohorts. Dairy consumption was assessed using validated FFQs. Plasma metabolites (n = 385) were profiled using LC-MS. We identified the dairy-related metabolite profiles using elastic net regularized regressions with a 10-fold cross-validation procedure. We evaluated the associations between the metabolite profiles and incident T2D in the discovery and the confirmatory cohorts. RESULTS: Total dairy intake was associated with 38 metabolites. C14:0 sphingomyelin (positive coefficient), C34:0 phosphatidylethanolamine (positive coefficient), and γ-butyrobetaine (negative coefficient) were associated in a directionally similar fashion with total and specific (milk, yogurt, cheese) dairy consumption. The Pearson correlation coefficients between self-reported total dairy intake and predicted total dairy intake based on the corresponding multi-metabolite profile were 0.37 (95% CI, 0.33-0.40) in the discovery cohort and 0.16 (95% CI, 0.13-0.19) in the US confirmatory cohort. After adjusting for T2D risk factors, a higher total dairy intake-related metabolite profile score was associated with a lower T2D risk [HR per 1 SD; discovery cohort: 0.76 (95% CI, 0.63-0.90); US confirmatory cohort: 0.88 (95% CI, 0.78-0.99)]. CONCLUSIONS: Total dairy intake was associated with 38 metabolites, including 3 consistently associated with dairy subtypes (C14:0 sphingomyelin, C34:0 phosphatidylethanolamine, γ-butyrobetaine). A score based on the 38 identified metabolites showed an inverse association with T2D risk in Spanish and US populations.


Assuntos
Laticínios , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar , Leite , Idoso , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(10): 1302-1312, 2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDPs) are leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. However, it is uncertain whether HDPs are associated with long-term risk of premature mortality (before age 70 years). OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether HDPs were associated with premature mortality. METHODS: Between 1989 and 2017, the authors followed 88,395 parous female nurses participating in the Nurses' Health Study II. The study focused on gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia within the term HDPs. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between HDPs and premature mortality were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards models, with adjustment for relevant confounders. RESULTS: The authors documented that 2,387 women died before age 70 years, including 1,141 cancer deaths and 212 CVD deaths. The occurrence of HDPs, either gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia, was associated with an HR of 1.31 (95% CI: 1.18 to 1.46) for premature death during follow-up. When specific causes of death were examined, these relations were strongest for CVD-related mortality (HR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.67 to 3.07). The association between HDPs and all-cause premature death persisted, regardless of the subsequent development of chronic hypertension (HR: 1.20 [95% CI: 1.02 to 1.40] for HDPs only and HR: 2.02 [95% CI: 1.75 to 2.33] for both HDPs and subsequent chronic hypertension). CONCLUSIONS: An occurrence of HDPs, either gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia, was associated with an increased risk of premature mortality, particularly CVD mortality, even in the absence of chronic hypertension.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/mortalidade , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Neurology ; 96(15): e1940-e1953, 2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692165

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a healthful plant-based diet is related to lower stroke risk, we examined the associations of plant-based diet quality with risk of total, ischemic, and hemorrhagic stroke. METHODS: The participants were 73,890 women in Nurses' Health Study (NHS; 1984-2016), 92,352 women in NHSII (1991-2017), and 43,266 men in Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2012) without cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline. Plant-based diet quality was evaluated by the overall plant-based diet index (PDI), the healthful PDI (hPDI), and the unhealthful PDI (uPDI). Participants who reported that their meat and/or fish intakes were 0 or <1 serving per month were categorized as vegetarians, and others were classified as nonvegetarians. Strokes with available medical records were subtyped as ischemic or hemorrhagic. RESULTS: During the follow-up, 6,241 total stroke cases (including 3,015 ischemic and 853 hemorrhagic strokes) were documented. Compared to participants with the lowest PDIs, among participants with the highest PDIs, the hazard ratios (HRs) for total stroke were 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.86-1.03) for PDI, 0.90 (0.83-0.98) for hPDI, and 1.05 (0.96-1.15) for uPDI. Participants in the highest hPDI showed marginally lower HR for ischemic stroke (0.92 [0.82-1.04]) and no consistent associations for hemorrhagic stroke. We observed no association between a vegetarian diet and total stroke (1.00 [0.76-1.32]), although the number of cases was small. CONCLUSION: Lower risk of total stroke was observed by those who adhered to a healthful plant-based diet.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegetariana , AVC Hemorrágico/epidemiologia , AVC Isquêmico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
15.
Adv Med Educ Pract ; 12: 49-52, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33488136

RESUMO

Background: Gender bias in clinical training has been well established; however, little is known about how perceptions differ between men and women. Furthermore, few curricular options have been developed to discuss gender bias. Objective: To measure the prevalence of gender bias, examine qualitative differences between men and women, and create a gender bias curriculum for internal medicine residents. Methods: We surveyed 114 residents (response rate of 53.5%) to identify the prevalence and types of gender bias experienced in training. We compared estimates between genders and organized qualitative results into shared themes. We then developed a curriculum to promote and normalize discussions of gender bias. Results: Among surveyed residents, 61% reported personal experiences of gender bias during training, with 98% of women and 19% of men reporting experiences when stratified by gender. We identified two domains in which gender bias manifested: role misidentification and a difficult working environment. Residents identified action items that led to the development of a gender bias curriculum. The curriculum includes didactic conferences and training sessions, a microaggression response toolkit, dinners for men and women residents, participation in a WhatsApp support group, and participation in academic projects related to gender bias in training. Conclusion: We confirmed a wide prevalence of gender bias and developed a scalable curriculum for gender bias training. Future work should explore the long-term impacts of these interventions.

16.
Eur Radiol ; 31(8): 5713-5720, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459857

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To recognize most common patterns of upper extremity (UE) injuries in victims of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). METHODS: Radiological review of 308 patients who reported physical IPV at our institution from January 2013 to June 2018, identified 55 patients with 88 unique UE injuries. Demographic data and injury patterns and associations were collected from the electronic medical records. RESULTS: The cohort included 49 females and 6 males (age 19-63, mean 38). At the time of injury, IPV was reported in 15/88 (17%) and IPV screening was documented for 22/88 (25%) injuries. There were 46 fractures, 8 dislocations or subluxations, and 34 isolated soft tissue injuries, most commonly involving the hand (56/88). Fractures most commonly involved the fingers (21/46, 46%) and the 5th digit (8/27, 30%). Medial UE fractures (5th digit, 4th digit) constituted 44% of hand and finger fractures (12/27) and 26% of all fractures (12/46). Comminuted and displaced fractures were rare (8/46, 17%). Head and face injuries were the most common concomitant injuries (9/22, 41%) and subsequent injuries (21/61, 35%). Of 12 patients with recurrent UE injuries, 6 had recurrent injuries of the same hand. Five of 6 non-acute fractures (83%) were of the hand. CONCLUSIONS: Hand and finger injuries are the most common UE injuries in patients with IPV, with finger being the most common site and medial hand the most common region of fracture. Repeated injuries involving the same site and a combination of medial hand and head or face injuries could indicate IPV. KEY POINTS: • Upper extremity injuries in victims of intimate partner violence are most commonly seen in the hand and fingers. • Fingers are the most common site of fracture and the medial hand is the most common region of fracture in the upper extremity in victims of intimate partner violence. • In intimate partner violence victims with upper extremity injuries, concomitant injuries and subsequent injuries are most commonly seen in the head and neck region.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Adulto , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Extremidade Superior , Adulto Jovem
17.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(3): 809-815, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Among stroke patients, low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D predicts poor outcomes. In mice, higher omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid intake diminishes brain damage after stroke. In this study, we tested whether vitamin D or n-3 fatty acids supplementation prior to stroke reduces the risk of functional limitations and physical disability after stroke. METHODS: We used data from VITAL (the VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL) which randomized middle-aged and older men and women without cardiovascular disease to vitamin D3 (2000 IU/day) and/or marine n-3 fatty acids (1 g/day) and followed them for incident stroke events. Individuals experiencing a non-fatal stroke were mailed questionnaires assessing functional limitations (the physical performance scale adapted from Nagi) and physical disability (the modified Katz Activities of Daily Living and Rosow-Breslau Functional Health scales). We used logistic regression to analyze associations between randomized treatment and limitations on each scale. RESULTS: A total of 290 individuals experienced their first stroke during the trial, of whom 197 stroke survivors completed the stroke outcomes questionnaire a median of 1.4 years after diagnosis. We observed no associations between randomized treatment to vitamin D and functional limitations (odds ratio [OR] 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.52, 1.97) or physical disability (Rosow-Breslau scale: OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.50, 1.67; Katz scale: OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.31, 3.42). Those randomized to n-3 fatty acids had a non-significantly lower risk of functional limitations (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.28, 1.09) and physical disability (Rosow-Breslau scale: OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.31, 1.02; Katz sclae: OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.50, 1.67). CONCLUSION: Vitamin D or omega-3 fatty acid supplementation prior to stroke did not result in significantly improved post-stroke outcomes.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina D
18.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 30(3): 305-313, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986503

RESUMO

Background: Preeclampsia predicts future cardiovascular disease (CVD) yet few programs exist for post-preeclampsia care. Methods: The Health after Preeclampsia Patient and Provider Engagement Network workshop was convened at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study in June 2018. The workshop sought to identify: 1) patient perspectives on barriers and facilitators to CVD risk reduction; 2) clinical programs specialized in post-preeclampsia care; 3) recommendations by national organizations for risk reduction; and 4) next steps. Stakeholders included the Preeclampsia Foundation, patients, clinicians who had initiated CVD risk reduction programs for women with prior preeclampsia, researchers, and national task force members. Results: Participants agreed there is insufficient awareness and action to prevent CVD after preeclampsia. Patients suggested a clinician checklist to ensure communication of CVD risks, enhanced training for clinicians on the link between preeclampsia and CVD, and a post-delivery appointment with a clinician knowledgeable about this link. Clinical programs primarily served patients in the first postpartum year, bridging obstetrical and primary care. They recommended CVD risk modification with periodic blood pressure, weight, lipid and diabetes screening. Barriers included the paucity of programs designed for this population and gaps in insurance coverage after delivery. The American Heart Association, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the Preeclampsia Foundation have developed guidelines and materials for patients and providers to guide management of women with prior preeclampsia. Conclusions: Integrated efforts of patients, caregivers, researchers, and national organizations are needed to improve CVD prevention after preeclampsia. This meeting's recommendations can serve as a resource and catalyst for this effort.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Sistema Cardiovascular , Obstetrícia , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
19.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 30(3): 289-292, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877307

RESUMO

Women have historically faced gendered patterns of disadvantage during times of emergency. Evidence demonstrates differences in gendered exposures and inequities during acute crises such as natural disasters and pandemics, including Covid-19, and longer-term emergencies such as climate change. These patterns, without intervention, may be perpetuated in future crises. Threats to women's health in times of emergency can arise from restricted access to health care, economic disadvantages, and harmful social norms. During crises, women face additional barriers to accessing maternal, contraceptive, and abortion care, likely exacerbating existing inequities in reproductive health outcomes. Gendered inequalities in financial and economic stability can become even more stark. Globally, women perform the majority of health care and unpaid caregiving work, but face barriers to affording costs of living and obtaining health insurance due to over-representation in low-wage jobs. Finally, gendered expectations of social roles contribute to increased vulnerabilities, such as displacement and poverty. Violence against women rises in times of emergency and pathways to escaping trauma can be limited. In addition to directly addressing women's unique barriers and providing support in times of emergency through bolstering health care access, economic, and social support systems, thoughtful solutions such as trauma-informed care, increasing the number of women in leadership roles, educational initiatives, and advocacy from health professionals are needed to protect and advance women's health.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Medicina de Desastres , Emergências , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva , Saúde da Mulher , Mudança Climática , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2 , Normas Sociais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(7): 3315-3327, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859999

RESUMO

Recent animal and small clinical studies have suggested depression is related to altered lipid and amino acid profiles. However, this has not been examined in a population-based sample, particularly in women. We identified multiple metabolites associated with depression as potential candidates from prior studies. Cross-sectional data from three independent samples of postmenopausal women were analyzed, including women from the Women's Health Initiative-Observational Study (WHI-OS, n = 926), the WHI-Hormone Trials (WHI-HT; n = 1,325), and the Nurses' Health Study II Mind-Body Study (NHSII-MBS; n = 218). Positive depression status was defined as having any of the following: elevated depressive symptoms, antidepressant use, or depression history. Plasma metabolites were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (21 phosphatidylcholines (PCs), 7 lysophosphatidylethanolamines, 5 ceramides, 3 branched chain amino acids, and 9 neurotransmitters). Associations between depression status and metabolites were evaluated using multivariable linear regression; results were pooled by random-effects meta-analysis with multiple testing adjustment using the false discovery rate (FDR). Prevalence rates of positive depression status were 24.4% (WHI-OS), 25.7% (WHI-HT), and 44.7% (NHSII-MBS). After multivariable adjustment, positive depression status was associated with higher levels of glutamate and PC 36 : 1/38 : 3, and lower levels of tryptophan and GABA-to-glutamate and GABA-to-glutamine ratio (FDR-p < 0.05). Positive associations with LPE 18 : 0/18 : 1 and inverse associations with valine and serotonin were also observed, although these associations did not survive FDR adjustment. Associations of positive depression status with several candidate metabolites including PC 36 : 1/38 : 3 and amino acids involved in neurotransmission suggest potential depression-related metabolic alterations in postmenopausal women, with possible implications for later chronic disease.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...