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1.
Interdisciplinaria ; 39(1): 77-90, jun. 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360481

RESUMO

Resumen En la actualidad, existe mayor interés sobre los estudios acerca de la cognición implícita y su función en la conducta. Los modelos explicativos actuales de la psicopatología tienen como limitante la escasa consideración de los procesos cognitivos automáticos en la conducta psicopatológica, como la relacionada con el consumo de sustancias. En este estudio, se revisa al sesgo atencional en los trastornos por consumo y sus implicaciones en la psicopatología, la medición del fenómeno y su aplicación para la intervención. El sesgo atencional hacia las señales críticas de sustancias o drogas es un mecanismo disfuncional de la atención selectiva que opera frecuentemente a nivel automático o implícito y en el que la asignación y focalización de la atención es desproporcionada en el tiempo, entre un estímulo específico (imagen o palabra relacionada con una droga) versus un estímulo neutro. Atrae la atención de la persona al estímulo crítico del que, posteriormente, resulta difícil de desacoplarse y facilita otros procesos cognitivos subsecuentes al consumo. Se presenta evidencia de la incidencia del sesgo atencional en el consumo, el curso, la gravedad, el craving (necesidad intensa de consumo), la abstinencia, la recaída y la probabilidad de fracaso en el tratamiento. Además, explica sobre el fenómeno del consumo, desde la cognición implícita, el inconsciente y la neurociencia cognitiva. Finalmente, en este estudio, se revisan propuestas de intervención sobre los problemas de consumo con técnicas de modificación del sesgo atencional complementarias a los tratamientos cognitivo-conductuales actuales. Se considera necesario explorar sobre esta línea de investigación y su relación con los trastornos por consumo de sustancias dentro de la región.


Abstract The objective of this work is to investigate attentional bias as an automatic cognitive process and its implications in substance use disorders. Cognitive processes are fundamental in the formulation of the different explanatory models about psychopathology. Of the various cognitive processes, attention is a significant determinant, because although it fulfils various activities such as orientation and wakefulness, it is cognitive control that arouses relevant interest for it. This is due to the fact that it fulfills a task of linking between signal uptake and the achievement of other cognitive processes that intervene in the behavioral response mechanism. When a cognitive process like attention is markedly altered it will trigger impaired sequential cognitive functioning, along with the emission of disturbing behavior. Psychology considers that cognitive processes operate consciously (voluntarily) and automatically (implicitly); that is, in a dual way in which these processes such as attention maintain a continuum of coordinated gradual variations that regulate behavior. Failure to consider automatic cognitive processes is a notorious limitation for current explanatory models of psychopathological behavior (including compulsive substance use); given that many of these underlying cognitive processes are often not considered to influence higher mental processes and therefore behavior, without the individual necessarily being aware of this. In fact, this can help to understand pathological behaviors that for the investigator or the professional of psychology can be incomprehensible or paradoxical. Among the various underlying and altered processes, the attentional bias towards critical signals associated with substances has investigative relevance. Since it is a dysfunctional mechanism of selective attention, which operates frequently at an automatic level and in which the allocation and focus of attention are disproportionate in time, between a specific stimulus (image or word related to a drug) versus a neutral stimulus. And it attracts a person's focus of attention to the critical stimulus, from which it later becomes difficult to decouple. This later facilitates other altered cognitive processes subsequent to consumption. The generation of an attentional bias towards a specific signal has its origin in the association between the signal and the behavior, which can be avoidant (recurrent in phobias) or attractive (frequent in substance or food consumption) and that is conditioned until becoming an automatic process of difficult voluntary control. Although it is true that attention bias may be present in all individuals, the evidence reveals the marked and recurrent presence in various pathologies such as mood disorders (depressive), anxiety, food intake, phobias, of personality among others. And also included in substance use disorders. The findings show that attention bias has an impact on substance use, course, the severity of the disorder, craving, withdrawal, relapse, and the probability of treatment failure. Working with an attentional bias for specific signals on substances can generate difficulty, in the case of evaluation because it is assessed through software that usually measures the eye-hand reaction time or eye movement when faced with neutral and critical signals, which can be a limitation for the usual clinic; while at the intervention level, it is required to formulate bias retraining processes that require continuous exercise as a complementary technique to the usual cognitive-behavioral treatment. It is considered necessary to explore this line of research and its relationship with substance use disorders within the region.

2.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405364

RESUMO

Resumen La integración social (IS) de población venezolana que se ha movilizado por América Latina resulta compleja, por el contexto político, social, laboral, económico y recientemente sanitario adverso, que les expone a dinámicas de discriminación, exclusión y vulneración de derechos. El presente trabajo tiene por objetivo analizar, desde un enfoque psicosocial, la participación social y el apoyo social como dimensiones de IS de venezolanas/os residentes en Quito, Ecuador. Para ello, se aplica una encuesta a 50 participantes (25 hombres y 25 mujeres) que evalúa los problemas y el vínculo con la sociedad de acogida, la participación social y el apoyo social percibido. Los resultados revelan que la población venezolana presenta diversas limitaciones en la IS, especialmente, en la incorporación laboral y el ámbito económico, pero que se están creando canales a nivel socio-comunitario que posibilitan mayores vínculos con la población local, a la vez que presenta una valoración positiva de las expectativas previas al proceso migratorio, que está incidiendo en un apoyo social. Se discuten estos hallazgos y la necesidad de que los Estados latinoamericanos generen políticas públicas que faciliten la IS de población venezolana.


Abstract The social integration (SI) of the Venezuelan population that has been moving through Latin America is complex, in an adverse political, social, labor, economic and recently health context, which exposes them to dynamics of discrimination, exclusion and violation of rights. The aim of this paper is to analyze, from a psychosocial approach, social participation and social support as dimensions of SI of Venezuelan residents in Quito, Ecuador. For this purpose, a survey was applied to 50 participants (25 men and 25 women) that evaluated the problems and the link with the host society, social participation and perceived social support, through group meetings. The results reveal that the Venezuelan population presents several limitations in the SI, especially in labor and economic incorporation, but that it is creating channels at the socio-community level that enable greater links with the local population, while presenting a positive appraisal of expectations prior to the migration process, which is influencing social support. These findings and the need for Latin American states to generate public policies that facilitate the SI of the Venezuelan population are discussed.


Resumo A integração social (SI) da população venezuelana que se deslocou pela América Latina é complexa, devido ao contexto adverso político, social, trabalhista, econômico e de saúde recente, o que os expõe a dinâmicas de discriminação, exclusão e violação de direitos. O objetivo deste documento é analizar, a partir de uma abordagem psicosocial, a participação social e o apoio social como dimensões da SI entre os venezuelanos residentes em Quito, Equador. Para este fim, uma pesquisa foi aplicada a 50 participantes (25 homens e 25 mulheres) para avaliar problemas e vínculos com a sociedade anfitriã, participação social e apoio social percebido. Os resultados revelam que a população venezuelana apresenta várias limitações no SI, especialmente no mercado de trabalho e na esfera econômica, mas que está criando canais em nível sócio-comunitário que permitem maiores vínculos com a população local, ao mesmo tempo em que apresenta uma avaliação positiva das expectativas antes do processo migratório, o que está tendo um impacto no apoio social. Estas descobertas e a necessidade dos estados latino-americanos de gerar políticas públicas que facilitem a SI da população venezuelana são discutidas.

3.
Psocial (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 7(2): 41-52, jul. 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387049

RESUMO

Resumen Los estudios macroeconómicos evidencian que países con mayor desigualdad social presentan peores indicadores de salud mental y bienestar, sin embargo, otros mecanismos intervinientes no están del todo claro. Recientes investigaciones han propuesto que la percepción de derrota social configura una variable clave para comprender los impactos de las desigualdades. El objetivo de este estudio fue explorar el rol predictor de la derrota social en el bienestar subjetivo de estudiantes universitarios provenientes de países latinoamericanos que exhiben niveles de desigualdad social. Los participantes fueron 347 estudiantes universitarios de Chile y 246 de Ecuador, en los cuales se evaluó la percepción de derrota social, fatalismo, participación social, bienestar social, y bienestar subjetivo. Los resultados del modelo de regresión muestran que la predicción del bienestar subjetivo mejora al incluir las dimensiones de derrota social en el modelo (r2 = .38). Se propone la derrota social como una variable que ayuda a comprender cómo un contexto de desigualdad social puede impactar en el bienestar percibido de jóvenes universitarios.


Abstract Macroeconomic studies show that countries with greater social inequality have worse indicators of mental health and well-being; however, other intervening mechanisms are not entirely clear. Recent research has proposed that the perception of social defeat is a key variable in understanding the impacts of inequalities. The aim of this study was to explore the predictive role of social defeat in the subjective well-being of university students from Latin American countries that exhibit levels of social inequality. The participants were 347 university students from Chile and 246 from Ecuador, in whom the perception of social defeat, fatalism, social participation, social well-being, and subjective well-being were evaluated. The results of the regression model show that the prediction of subjective well-being improves when including the dimensions of social defeat in the model (r2 = .38) Social defeat is proposed as a variable that helps to understand how a context of social inequality can impact the perceived well-being of young university students.

4.
Front Psychol ; 12: 641793, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33841276

RESUMO

The psychosocial impacts of natural disasters are associated with the triggering of negative and positive responses in the affected population; also, such effects are expressed in an individual and collective sphere. This can be seen in several reactions and behaviors that can vary from the development of individual disorders to impacts on interpersonal relationships, cohesion, communication, and participation of the affected communities, among others. The present work addressed the psychosocial impacts of the consequences of natural disasters considering individual effects via the impact of trauma and community effects, through the perception of social well-being, the valuation of the community and the social exchange of emotions. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between individual reactions (i.e., intensity of trauma) and the evaluation of social and collective circumstances (i.e., social well-being) after the earthquake of 27F 2010 in Chile, through collective-type intervention variables not used in previous studies (i.e., social sharing of emotions and community appraisal). For this purpose, a descriptive, ex post facto correlational and cross-sectional methodology was carried on, with the participation of 487 people affected by the 2010 earthquake, 331 women (68%) and 156 men (32%), between 18 and 58 years old (M = 21.09; SD = 5.45), from the provinces of Ñuble and Biobío, VIII region, Chile. The measurement was carried out 4 years after the earthquake and the results show that greater individual than collective involvements were found, mainly in the coastal zone of the region. The mediation analysis showed that the relationship between the intensity of the trauma and social well-being occurs through a route that considers social sharing of emotions and community appraisal. These results indicate that the overcoming of individual affectations to achieve social well-being occurs when in the immediate post-disaster phases the affected communities activate shared emotional and cognitive processes, which allow them to jointly face subsequent threats and abrupt changes.

5.
Front Psychol ; 11: 607538, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362666

RESUMO

8 March (8M), now known as International Women's Day, is a day for feminist claims where demonstrations are organized in over 150 countries, with the participation of millions of women all around the world. These demonstrations can be viewed as collective rituals and thus focus attention on the processes that facilitate different psychosocial effects. This work aims to explore the mechanisms (i.e., behavioral and attentional synchrony, perceived emotional synchrony, and positive and transcendent emotions) involved in participation in the demonstrations of 8 March 2020, collective and ritualized feminist actions, and their correlates associated with personal well-being (i.e., affective well-being and beliefs of personal growth) and collective well-being (i.e., social integration variables: situated identity, solidarity and fusion), collective efficacy and collective growth, and behavioral intention to support the fight for women's rights. To this end, a cross-cultural study was conducted with the participation of 2,854 people (age 18-79; M = 30.55; SD = 11.66) from countries in Latin America (Mexico, Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Colombia, and Ecuador) and Europe (Spain and Portugal), with a retrospective correlational cross-sectional design and a convenience sample. Participants were divided between demonstration participants (n = 1,271; 94.0% female) and non-demonstrators or followers who monitored participants through the media and social networks (n = 1,583; 75.87% female). Compared with non-demonstrators and with males, female and non-binary gender respondents had greater scores in mechanisms and criterion variables. Further random-effects model meta-analyses revealed that the perceived emotional synchrony was consistently associated with more proximal mechanisms, as well as with criterion variables. Finally, sequential moderation analyses showed that proposed mechanisms successfully mediated the effects of participation on every criterion variable. These results indicate that participation in 8M marches and demonstrations can be analyzed through the literature on collective rituals. As such, collective participation implies positive outcomes both individually and collectively, which are further reinforced through key psychological mechanisms, in line with a Durkheimian approach to collective rituals.

6.
An. psicol ; 35(3): 483-489, oct. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-190036

RESUMO

Los recientes estudios en priming perceptivo se han centrado en identificar las diferencias entre población con y sin Trastorno por Estrés Postraumático (TEPT) confirmando la hipótesis que el TEPT representa un trastorno de la memoria. En este trabajo, se pretende abordar el priming en personas que han estado expuestas a diversas experiencias traumáticas relacionadas con el desplazamiento forzado. Para ello, se diseñaron tres categorías de palabras "trauma" (i.e., de amenaza, emocional y judicial) y una categoría de palabras "neutra", las cuales compartían su raíz de tres letras. Participaron 44 colombianos refugiados y solicitantes de asilo que residen en Ecuador con presencia o ausencia de TEPT. Los resultados confirman que las personas con TEPT presentan mayor priming perceptivo en las categorías de amenaza y emociones y los solicitantes de asilo en la categoría judicial. Se discuten las implicaciones para los estudios que abordan el impacto de violencia política


In line with the hypothesis that PTSD is a memory disorder, recent studies on perceptual priming have focused on identifying the differences between population with and without Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). This study addresses priming in people who have been exposed to traumatic experiences of forced displacement. To that end, three categories of the word "trauma" (i.e., of threat, emotional and judicial) and a category of "neutral" words, which shared their three-letter root were chosen. The participants were 44 Colombian refugees and asylum seekers living in Ecuador with or without PTSD. The results of our study point that people with PTSD have higher perceptual priming in the threat and emotional categories, and asylum seekers show higher priming in the judicial category. The implications for studies that address the impact of political violence are discussed


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Refugiados/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Carência Psicossocial , Colômbia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Direito a Buscar Asilo
7.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 12(2): 42-49, dic.- 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-980925

RESUMO

Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, de campo, transversal con el objetivo de analizar el consumo de alcohol en la Universidad Nacional de Chimborazo, de la ciudad de Riobamba, donde parti-ciparon 512 estudiantes de las facultades de Ciencias de la Salud, Ciencias Políticas e Ingenie-ría, en el año 2017. Entre los resultados obtenidos, se observa un alto índice de consumo de alcohol, en la población universitaria, en la cual el 70.2% ha consumido por lo menos alguna vez en su vida alcohol, siendo la Facultad de Ingeniería y el género masculino con más alto nivel de consumo perjudicial y dependencia respecta. La clase social baja presentó un alto nivel de consumo perjudicial, y en la alta se observó un alto consumo riesgoso y dependencia al alcohol. Se comprobó que el consumo de alcohol estaba generalmente asociado a variables inherenytes a los estudiantes universitario, constituyendo un problema que trae consigo conse-cuencias negativas no solo para el consumidor, sino también a su familia y su grupo social.Palabras clave: consumo de bebidas alcohólicas, salud del estudiante, clase social.


A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in order to analyze alcohol consumption in Universidad Nacional de Chimborazo, in the city of Riobamba. 512 students participated from the faculties of Health Sciences, Political Sciences, and Engineering, in the year 2017. Among the results obtained, a high rate of alcohol consumption is observed in the university population, in which 70.2% have consumed alcohol at least once in their life, the Faculty of Engineering and the male gender were the highest level of harmful consumption and depen-dence. The low social class presented a high level of harmful consumption, and the high social class showed a high risky consumption and alcohol dependence. This study proved that alco-hol consumption was generally associated with university students. So, it constitutes a problem that brought negative consequences not only for the student who consumed, but also for his family and his entire social group.


Assuntos
Humanos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Saúde do Estudante , Promoção da Saúde
8.
Univ. psychol ; 16(supl.5): 234-247, dic. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-979465

RESUMO

Resumen La integración social (IS) se presenta como un fenómeno clave en la complejidad de las sociedades actuales. Son escasas las investigaciones que consideran una perspectiva psicosocial para evaluar la IS. En el presente trabajo, se plantea una propuesta que tiene en cuenta tales dimensiones en población colombiana con desplazamiento forzado y cubana con migración económica, residentes en Quito (Ecuador). Participaron 255 personas a quienes se evalúan la anomia y arraigo social. Se encuentra que, en ambos grupos de participantes, la presencia o ausencia de trabajo condiciona la anomia o arraigo social. Estos resultados presentan implicaciones sobre diversas políticas de inmigración, en las cuales la integración social requeriría incorporar dimensiones psicosociales para abordar tal proceso.


Abstract Social Integration (SI) is presented as a key phenomenon in the complexity of today's societies. There are few investigations that considered psychosocial perspective to evaluate SI and here we propose a proposal that considers such dimensions in Colombian population with forced displacement and Cuban with economic migration residing in Quito, Ecuador. 255 persons participated who are evaluated anomia and social roots. The models of mediation show that in both groups of participants, the presence or absence of work conditions the social anomia or rootedness. These results have implications for various immigration policies, in which social integration requires incorporating psychosocial dimensions to address such a process. Keyword social integration; forced and economic migration in Ecuador; integration policies Introducción


Assuntos
Humanos , Seguridade Social , Equador , Migração Humana
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