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1.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(1)2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer who are infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are more likely to develop severe illness and die compared with those without cancer. The impact of immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) on the severity of COVID-19 illness is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ICI confers an additional risk for severe COVID-19 in patients with cancer. METHODS: We analyzed data from 110 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 while on treatment with ICI without chemotherapy in 19 hospitals in North America, Europe and Australia. The primary objective was to describe the clinical course and to identify factors associated with hospital and intensive care (ICU) admission and mortality. FINDINGS: Thirty-five (32%) patients were admitted to hospital and 18 (16%) died. All patients who died had advanced cancer, and only four were admitted to ICU. COVID-19 was the primary cause of death in 8 (7%) patients. Factors independently associated with an increased risk for hospital admission were ECOG ≥2 (OR 39.25, 95% CI 4.17 to 369.2, p=0.0013), treatment with combination ICI (OR 5.68, 95% CI 1.58 to 20.36, p=0.0273) and presence of COVID-19 symptoms (OR 5.30, 95% CI 1.57 to 17.89, p=0.0073). Seventy-six (73%) patients interrupted ICI due to SARS-CoV-2 infection, 43 (57%) of whom had resumed at data cut-off. INTERPRETATION: COVID-19-related mortality in the ICI-treated population does not appear to be higher than previously published mortality rates for patients with cancer. Inpatient mortality of patients with cancer treated with ICI was high in comparison with previously reported rates for hospitalized patients with cancer and was due to COVID-19 in almost half of the cases. We identified factors associated with adverse outcomes in ICI-treated patients with COVID-19.

2.
Oncologist ; 26(1): 49-55, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As indications for immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy have increased in recent years, so has the proportion of patients eligible for this type of therapy. However, a lack of data exists about the risks and benefits of ICI therapy in hospitalized patients, who tend to be frailer and sicker than patients enrolled in clinical trials. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among hospitalized patients with metastatic solid tumors who received ICI therapy at a large academic cancer center over the course of 4 years. We analyzed the characteristics and outcomes of these patients and identified demographic and clinical factors that could be used to predict mortality. RESULTS: During the 4-year study period, 106 patients were treated with ICI therapy while admitted to the hospital; 70 (66%) had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status ≥2, which would have prevented them from enrolling in most clinical trials of ICIs. Fifty-two patients (49%) died either during admission or within 30 days of discharge; median overall survival was 1.0 month from discharge, and 16 patients (15%) were alive 6 months after discharge. Independent predictors of death following receipt of inpatient ICI included a diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer relative to melanoma and prior treatment with two or more lines of therapy. CONCLUSION: The poor overall outcomes observed in this study may give clinicians pause when considering ICI therapy for hospitalized patients, particularly those with characteristics that are associated with a greater risk of mortality. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Immunotherapy strategies for patients with cancer are rapidly evolving and their use is expanding, but not all patients will develop a response, and secondary toxicity can be significant and challenging. This is especially evident in hospitalized patients, where the economic cost derived from inpatient immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) administration is important and the clinical benefit is sometimes unclear. The poor overall outcomes evidenced in the ICI inpatient population in this study highlight the need to better identify the patients that will respond to these therapies, which will also help to decrease the financial burden imposed by these highly priced therapies.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355659

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the incidence, risk factors, and clinical features of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients receiving dabrafenib and trametinib. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study examining the kidney outcomes of patients in a large healthcare system who received dabrafenib/trametinib between 2010 and 2019. The primary outcome was AKI, defined as a 1.5-fold increase in serum creatinine from baseline within a 12-month study period. AKI severity and etiology was determined for each case by chart review. Logistic regression was used to evaluate baseline predictors of AKI. RESULTS: 199 patients who received dabrafenib in our healthcare system from 2010-2019 were included in the analysis. Forty-two patients (21%) experienced AKI within 12 months; 10 patients (5% of total cohort, 24% of AKI) experienced AKI occurring during a dabrafenib/trametinib-induced febrile syndrome characterized by fever, chills, gastrointestinal symptoms, and elevated liver enzymes. Pre-existing liver disease was the only significant predictor of AKI in the cohort. One patient had biopsy-proven granulomatous acute interstitial nephritis that resolved with corticosteroids. CONCLUSIONS: Oncologists and nephrologists should be aware that AKI is common after dabrafenib/trametinib and a substantial number of cases occur in the setting of treatment-induced pyrexia.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia due to endocrinopathies such as adrenal insufficiency and hypothyroidism has been reported in patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). We determined the risk and predictors of hyponatremia and other electrolyte abnormalities in a 'real-world' sample of patients receiving ICIs to treat advanced malignancies. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study of all patients who received ICIs from a single cancer center between 2011 and 2018. Patients were followed for 12 months after initiation of ICIs or until death. Common Terminology for Cancer Adverse Events version 5.0 criteria were used to grade the severity of hyponatremia and other electrolyte abnormalities. The predictors of severe (Grade 3 or 4) hyponatremia were determined using a multivariable logistic regression model. The etiology of Grade 3 or 4 hyponatremia was determined by chart review. RESULTS: A total of 2458 patients were included. Their average age was 64 years [standard deviation (SD) 13], 58% were male and 90% were white. In the first year after starting ICIs, 62% experienced hyponatremia (sodium <134 mEq/L) and 136 (6%) experienced severe hyponatremia (<124 mEq/L). Severe hyponatremia occurred on average 164 days (SD 100) after drug initiation. Only nine cases of severe hyponatremia were due to endocrinopathies (0.3% overall incidence). Risk factors for severe hyponatremia included ipilimumab (a cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 inhibitor) use, diuretic use and non-White race. Other severe electrolyte abnormalities were also commonly observed: severe hypokalemia (potassium <3.0 mEq/L) occurred in 6%, severe hyperkalemia (potassium ≥6.1 mEq/L) occurred in 0.6%, severe hypophosphatemia (phosphorus <2 mg/dL) occurred in 17% and severe hypocalcemia (corrected calcium <7.0 mg/dL) occurred in 0.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Hyponatremia is common in cancer patients receiving ICIs. However, endocrinopathies are an uncommon cause of severe hyponatremia.

6.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 2020 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353814

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe interventional oncology therapies combined with immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy targeting the programmed death 1 pathway in patients with different neoplasms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent tumor-directed thermal ablation, embolization, or selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) between January 1, 2011, and May 1, 2019, and received anti-programmed death 1/PD-L1 agents ≤ 90 days before or ≤ 30 days after the interventional procedure. Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) and procedural complications ≤ 90 days after the procedure were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 5.0. The study included 65 eligible patients (49% female; age 63 years ± 11.1). The most common tumors were metastatic melanoma (n = 28) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (n = 12). Patients underwent 78 procedures (12 patients underwent > 1 procedure), most frequently SIRT (35.9%) and cryoablation (28.2%). The most common target organs were liver (46.2%), bone (24.4%), and lung (9.0%). Most patients received ICI monotherapy with pembrolizumab (n = 30), nivolumab (n = 22), and atezolizumab (n = 6); 7 patients received ipilimumab and nivolumab. RESULTS: Seven (10.8%) patients experienced an irAE (71.4% grade 1-2), mostly affecting the skin. Median time to irAE was 33 days (interquartile range, 19-38 days). Five irAEs occurred in patients with melanoma, and no irAEs occurred in patients with NSCLC. Management required corticosteroids (n = 3) and immunotherapy discontinuation (n = 1); all irAEs resolved to grade ≤ 1. There were 4 intraprocedural and 32 postprocedural complications (77.8% grade < 3). No grade 5 irAEs and/or procedural complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS: No unmanageable or unanticipated toxicities occurred within 90 days after interventional oncology therapies combined with ICIs.

7.
JTO Clin Res Rep ; : 100124, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205053

RESUMO

Introduction: Lung cancer is associated with severe COVID-19 infections. Symptom overlap between COVID-19 and lung cancer may complicate diagnostic evaluation. We aimed to investigate the incidence, symptoms, differential diagnosis, and outcomes of COVID-19 in lung cancer patients. Methods: To determine an at-risk population for COVID-19, we retrospectively identified lung cancer patients receiving longitudinal care within a single institution in the 12 months (4/1/19 - 3/31/20) immediately preceding the COVID-19 pandemic, including an "active therapy population" treated within the last 60 days of this period. Among patients subsequently referred for COVID-19 testing, we compared symptoms, laboratory/radiographic findings, and outcomes of positive versus negative patients. Results: Between 4/1/2019-3/31/2020, 696 patients received longitudinal care, including 406 (58%) in the active therapy population. Among 55 patients referred for COVID-19 testing, 24 (44%) were COVID-19 positive, representing a cumulative incidence of 3.4% (longitudinal population) and 1.5% (active therapy population). Compared to COVID-19-negative patients, COVID-19-positive patients were more likely to have a supplemental oxygen requirement (11% vs. 54%, p=0.005) and to have typical COVID-19 pneumonia imaging findings (5 vs. 56%, p=0.001). Otherwise, there were no significant differences in presenting symptoms. Among COVID-negative patients, alternative etiologies included treatment-related toxicity (26%), atypical pneumonia (22%), and disease progression (22%). Sixteen COVID-19-postive patients (67%) required hospitalization, and 7 (29%) died from COVID-related complications. Conclusions: COVID-19 was infrequent in this lung cancer population, but these patients experienced high rates of morbidity and mortality. Oncologists should maintain a low threshold for COVID-19 testing in lung cancer patients presenting with acute symptoms.

8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(23): e018306, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190570

RESUMO

Background Myocarditis attributable to immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy is a potentially fatal immune-related adverse event. Limited data have suggested an association between baseline and on-treatment absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the development of other immune-related adverse events; there are no data characterizing the role of ALC and NLR in ICI-associated myocarditis. Methods and Results This was a case control study of 55 patients with ICI myocarditis and 55 controls without any post-ICI immune-related adverse events. We leveraged clinical testing, where patients underwent routine serial blood counts before and with each ICI cycle to compare the baseline and change in ALC and NLR between cases and controls. The association between the change in these parameters with clinical variables and major adverse cardiac events was also tested. In cases, there was a statistically significant decrease in ALC with myocarditis from baseline (1.6 thousands per cubic milliliter (K/µL); interquartile range, 1.1-1.9 K/µL) to admission (1.1 K/µL; interquartile range, 0.7-1.3 K/µL; P<0.001). Similarly, there was an increase in NLR from baseline (3.5; interquartile range, 2.3-5.4) to admission (6.6; interquartile range, 4.5-14.1; P<0.001). There was no statistically significant change in controls. In follow-up, there were 20 events; larger decreases in ALC (44.6% versus 18.2%; P<0.001) or increases in NLR (156.5% versus 65.1%; P=0.019) were associated with major adverse cardiac events. Conclusions A reduction in ALC and an increase in NLR was seen with ICI myocarditis. A greater decrease in ALC or increase in NLR was associated with subsequent major adverse cardiac events.

9.
Kidney Int Rep ; 5(10): 1700-1705, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102962

RESUMO

Background: Programmed cell death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors are immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) with a side effect profile that may differ from other classes of ICIs such as those directed against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death 1 receptor (PD-1). Being the more recently approved class of checkpoint inhibitors, there are no studies investigating the frequency, etiology and predictors of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients receiving PD-L1 inhibitors. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients who received PD-L1 inhibitors during 2017 to 2018 in our healthcare system. AKI was defined by a ≥1.5-fold rise in serum creatinine from baseline. The etiology of all cases of sustained AKI (lasting >48 hours) and clinical course were determined by review of electronic health records. Results: The final analysis included 599 patients. Within 12 months of ICI initiation, 104 patients (17%) experienced AKI, and 36 (6%) experienced sustained AKI; however, only 5 (<1%) experienced suspected PD-L1-related AKI. The PD-L1-related AKI occurred a median of 99 days after starting therapy. All patients concurrently received another medication known to cause acute interstitial nephritis (proton pump inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or antibiotics) at the time of the suspected PDL1-related AKI. Conclusion: Although AKI is common in patients receiving PD-L1 therapy, the incidence of suspected PD-L1-related AKI is low (<1%) and may be less common when compared to other classes of ICIs. This cohort provides further validation that other drugs associated with acute interstitial nephritis may be involved in the pathogenesis of ICI-related AKI.

10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2016144, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052401

RESUMO

Importance: Checkpoint inhibitor combination therapy represents a major advance in the first-line treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma. Pembrolizumab-axitinib and nivolumab-ipilimumab have become standard of care options after demonstrating clinical efficacy against sunitinib in separate phase 3 trials. The cost-effectiveness of these regimens is unknown. Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of pembrolizumab-axitinib and nivolumab- ipilimumab in the first-line treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: For this economic evaluation, a primary microsimulation model was developed and run between August and December 2019. Separate analyses were conducted for an intermediate- and poor-risk patient population (base case) and a favorable-risk population (exploratory analysis) because prognosis is known to differ between risk groups; 100 000 patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma were simulated in each treatment arm. Survival, treatment regimens, and other relevant conditions were based on data from the phase 3 KEYNOTE-426 and CheckMate214 clinical trials. The study perspective was the US health care sector. Main Outcomes and Measures: An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated for each of the 2 analyses and compared with a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100 000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). Results: Pembrolizumab-axitinib was estimated to add 0.60 QALYs compared with nivolumab-ipilimumab in the base case analysis (3.66 vs 3.05 QALYs) and 0.25 QALYs compared with nivolumab-ipilimumab in the exploratory analysis (4.55 vs 4.30 QALYs), and was more costly (base case analysis: $562 927 vs $458 961; exploratory analysis: $589 035 vs $470 403). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $172 532 per QALY in the base case analysis and $468 682 per QALY in the exploratory analysis. One-way sensitivity analyses revealed that the base case model was most sensitive to first-line drug prices (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio at upper limit of nivolumab price and lower limits of axitinib and pembrolizumab prices: $89 983, $102 287, and $114 943 per QALY, respectively). The exploratory analysis model was most sensitive to overall survival rates (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio at lower limit of pembrolizumab-axitinib rate and upper limit of nivolumab-ipilimumab rate: $278 644 and $285 684 per QALY, respectively). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings suggest that pembrolizumab-axitinib treatment is associated with greater QALYs compared with nivolumab/ipilimumab treatment in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma but may not be cost-effective. Price reductions may make the cost of pembrolizumab-axitinib proportional to its clinical value and less financially burdensome to the US health care system.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/economia , Axitinibe/economia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/economia , Ipilimumab/economia , Nivolumabe/economia , Sunitinibe/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/economia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Axitinibe/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Sunitinibe/uso terapêutico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) enterocolitis is a common immune-related adverse event and can be fatal, especially when not diagnosed and treated promptly. The current gold standard for diagnosis is endoscopy with biopsy, but CT scan is a possible alternative. The primary objective of this study is to identify the diagnostic performance of CT in the evaluation of ICI enterocolitis. METHODS: With institutional review board approval, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients who received ICI therapy between 2015 and 2019 across a healthcare system. Patients were included if they underwent both abdominal CT and endoscopy with biopsy within 3 days. The radiological and pathological diagnoses, as well as clinical characteristics, were extracted from the electronic medical record. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of CT for diagnosing ICI enterocolitis when compared with tissue diagnosis. RESULTS: Of the 4474 patients screened, 138 met inclusion criteria. Most common tumor types were melanoma (37%) and lung cancer (19%). Seventy-four per cent were treated with antiprogrammed cell death (PD-1)/PD-L1 therapy. Thirty-nine per cent had signs of enterocolitis on CT scan and 58% had biopsy-proven ICI enterocolitis. Sensitivity and specificity of CT were 50% and 74%, respectively. PPV was 73% and NPV was 52%. Of those with confirmed ICI enterocolitis, 70% had grade 3 or higher symptoms, 91% received steroids and 40% received infliximab. CONCLUSION: The performance of CT scan for diagnosis of ICI enterocolitis is moderate to poor and does not replace endoscopy with biopsy.

12.
Circulation ; 142(24): 2299-2311, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) treat an expanding range of cancers. Consistent basic data suggest that these same checkpoints are critical negative regulators of atherosclerosis. Therefore, our objectives were to test whether ICIs were associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and a higher risk of atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular events. METHODS: The study was situated in a single academic medical center. The primary analysis evaluated whether exposure to an ICI was associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular events in 2842 patients and 2842 controls matched by age, a history of cardiovascular events, and cancer type. In a second design, a case-crossover analysis was performed with an at-risk period defined as the 2-year period after and the control period as the 2-year period before treatment. The primary outcome was a composite of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and ischemic stroke). Secondary outcomes included the individual components of the primary outcome. In addition, in an imaging substudy (n=40), the rate of atherosclerotic plaque progression was compared from before to after the ICI was started. All study measures and outcomes were blindly adjudicated. RESULTS: In the matched cohort study, there was a 3-fold higher risk for cardiovascular events after starting an ICI (hazard ratio, 3.3 [95% CI, 2.0-5.5]; P<0.001). There was a similar increase in each of the individual components of the primary outcome. In the case-crossover, there was also an increase in cardiovascular events from 1.37 to 6.55 per 100 person-years at 2 years (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.8 [95% CI, 3.5-6.5]; P<0.001). In the imaging study, the rate of progression of total aortic plaque volume was >3-fold higher with ICIs (from 2.1%/y before 6.7%/y after). This association between ICI use and increased atherosclerotic plaque progression was attenuated with concomitant use of statins or corticosteroids. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiovascular events were higher after initiation of ICIs, potentially mediated by accelerated progression of atherosclerosis. Optimization of cardiovascular risk factors and increased awareness of cardiovascular risk before, during, and after treatment should be considered among patients on an ICI.

13.
Mod Pathol ; 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32884128

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) can induce a durable response against a wide range of malignancies but cause immune related adverse events. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the pattern of inflammation in a liver biopsy in patients on ICIs is likely to be related to ICIs or other causes, and whether the pattern correlates with LFT abnormalities, imaging findings, and responsiveness to steroids. Cancer patients on ICIs who underwent liver biopsy were identified. Clinical data were obtained from electronic records. Liver biopsies were recorded as hepatitic, cholangitic, mixed, steatotic, or as mild nonspecific changes. In total, 28 liver biopsies had a predominantly hepatitic pattern of inflammation, including 11 biopsies with granulomas and 10 with endothelialitis. Eight biopsies had a mixed hepatocytic and cholangitic pattern of injury, including 6 with granulomas and 4 with endothelialitis. Sixteen patients had a predominantly cholangitic pattern, with portal-based inflammation. Three patients had a pattern resembling fatty liver, and five had mild nonspecific changes. The three most common histologic patterns correlated with the pattern of LFT abnormalities. The majority of patients with a cholangitic pattern had competing causes for elevated LFTs, including disease progression or concomitant chemotherapy. The cholangitic pattern was more likely to have bile duct dilatation or narrowing on liver imaging. The pattern of inflammation, degree of lobular injury, or presence of granulomas or endothelialitis did not predict response to steroids or the need for secondary immunosuppression. In this retrospective study, the pattern of inflammation did not predict the need for steroids, the length of time that steroids is required, or the need for secondary immunosuppression. A cholangitic pattern was seen when the pattern of LFTs was cholestatic, and was associated with imaging abnormalities of the bile duct, but a similar pattern was seen in bile duct obstruction and other drug reactions.

15.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(8): e398-e404, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758477

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have now been approved in numerous and diverse cancer types and combination regimens. Effective recognition and treatment of ICI toxicities, which might occur acutely, affect any organ system, and produce many distinct clinical syndromes, have emerged as essential goals of ICI management. Thus, developing robust diagnostic and management approaches for ICI toxicity across the health-care system is an urgent and unmet clinical need. In this Personal View, we describe barriers to high-quality care that have constrained the most effective management of patients with cancer receiving ICI treatment. We review education initiatives to enhance patient and physician awareness, which is necessary given the broad spectrum of ICI toxicities often experienced by patients, and assess various systems-based approaches that maximise the chances of appropriate management. In addition, we describe research pipelines that broaden evidence-based approaches and the pathobiology of these novel events. Developing effective, systematic approaches for the recognition and treatment of ICI toxicities will continue to grow in importance as these agents proliferate in cancer care.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Oncologia/educação , Assistência ao Paciente/métodos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos
17.
Cancer ; 126(15): 3569-3578, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced cancer and their caregivers have substantial misperceptions regarding hospice, which contributes to its underuse. METHODS: The authors conducted a single-site randomized trial of a video educational tool versus a verbal description of hospice in 150 hospitalized patients with advanced cancer and their caregivers. Patients without a caregiver were eligible. Intervention participants (75 patients and 18 caregivers) viewed a 6-minute video depicting hospice. Control participants (75 patients and 26 caregivers) received a verbal description identical to the video narrative. The primary outcome was patient preference for hospice. Secondary outcomes included patient and/or caregiver knowledge and perceptions of hospice, and hospice use. RESULTS: Between February 2017 and January 2019, approximately 55.7% of eligible patients (150 of 269 eligible patients) and 44 caregivers were enrolled. After the intervention, there was no difference noted with regard to patients' preferences for hospice (86.7% vs 82.7%; P = .651). Patients in the video group reported greater knowledge regarding hospice (9.0 vs 8.4; P = .049) and were less likely to endorse that hospice is only about death (6.7% vs 21.6%; P = .010). Among deceased patients, those assigned to the intervention were more likely to have used hospice (85.2% vs 63.6%; P = .01) and to have had a longer hospice length of stay (median, 12 days vs 3 days; P < .001). After the intervention, caregivers assigned to view the video were more likely to prefer hospice for their loved ones (94.4% vs 65.4%; P = .031), reported greater knowledge concerning hospice (9.7% vs 8.0%; P = .001), and were less likely to endorse that hospice is only about death (0.0% vs 23.1%; P = .066). CONCLUSIONS: A hospice video did not significantly impact patients' preferences for hospice care. Patients with advanced cancer and their caregivers who were assigned to view the video were more informed regarding hospice and reported more favorable perceptions of hospice. Patients were more likely to use hospice and to have a longer hospice length of stay.

19.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(1)2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434790

RESUMO

COVID-19 infections are characterized by inflammation of the lungs and other organs that ranges from mild and asymptomatic to fulminant and fatal. Patients who are immunocompromised and those with cardiopulmonary comorbidities appear to be particularly afflicted by this illness. During pandemic conditions, many aspects of cancer care have been impacted. One important clinical question is how to manage patients who need anticancer therapy, including immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) during these conditions. Herein, we consider diagnostic and therapeutic implications of using ICI during this unprecedented period of COVID-19 infections. In particular, we consider the impact of ICI on COVID-19 severity, decisions surrounding continuing or interrupting therapy, diagnostic measures in patients with symptoms or manifestations potentially consistent with either COVID-19 or ICI toxicity, and resumption of therapy in infected patients. While more robust data are needed to guide clinicians on management of patients with cancer who may be affected by COVID-19, we hope this commentary provides useful insights for the clinical community.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Pandemias , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores
20.
Cancer ; 126(10): 2288-2295, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adults with impaired performance status (PS) often receive immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) despite limited efficacy data and unknown effects on end-of-life care. METHODS: This was a retrospective, single-site study of 237 patients with advanced NSCLC who initiated ICI treatment from 2015 to 2017. Cox regression was used to compare the overall survival (OS) of patients who had impaired PS (≥2) at the start of ICI treatment with those who had PS 0 or 1 using Cox regression. Logistic regression was conducted to analyze the association between ICI use in the last 30 days of life and the use of end-of-life health care. RESULTS: The patient mean age at ICI initiation was 67 years (range, 37-91 years), and 35.4% of patients had PS ≥2. Most patients (80.8%) received ICI as second-line or later therapy. The median OS was 4.5 months in patients with PS ≥2 and 14.3 months in those with PS 0 or 1 (hazard ratio, 2.5; P < .0001). Among the patients who died (n = 184), 28.8% who had PS ≥2 received ICIs in their last 30 days of life compared with 10.8% of those who had PS 0 or 1 (P = .002). Receipt of ICI in the last 30 days of life was associated with decreased hospice referral (odds ratio, 0.29; P = .008) and increased in-hospital deaths (odds ratio, 6.8; P = .001), independent of PS. CONCLUSIONS: Adults with advanced NSCLC and impaired PS experience significantly shorter survival after ICI treatment and receive ICIs near death more often than those with better PS. Receipt of an ICI near death was associated with lower hospice use and an increased risk of death in the hospital. These results underscore the need for high-quality communication about potential tradeoffs of ICIs, particularly among adults receiving ICIs as second-line or later therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Avaliação de Estado de Karnofsky , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Assistência Terminal
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