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1.
Hypertension ; : HYPERTENSIONAHA12015196, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784734

RESUMO

Social vulnerabilities increase the risk of developing hypertension and lower life expectancy, but the effect of an individual's overall vulnerability burden is unknown. Our objective was to determine the association of social vulnerability count and the risk of developing hypertension or dying over 10 years and whether these associations vary by race. We used the REGARDS study (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) and included participants without baseline hypertension. The primary exposure was the count of social vulnerabilities defined across economic, education, health and health care, neighborhood and built environment, and social and community context domains. Among 5425 participants of mean age 64±10 SD years of which 24% were Black participants, 1468 (31%) had 1 vulnerability and 717 (15%) had ≥2 vulnerabilities. Compared with participants without vulnerabilities, the adjusted relative risk ratio for developing hypertension was 1.16 (95% CI, 0.99-1.36) and 1.49 (95% CI, 1.20-1.85) for individuals with 1 and ≥2 vulnerabilities, respectively. The adjusted relative risk ratio for death was 1.55 (95% CI, 1.24-1.93) and 2.30 (95% CI, 1.75-3.04) for individuals with 1 and ≥2 vulnerabilities, respectively. A greater proportion of Black participants developed hypertension and died than did White participants (hypertension, 38% versus 31%; death, 25% versus 20%). The vulnerability count association was strongest in White participants (P value for vulnerability count×race interaction: hypertension=0.046, death=0.015). Overall, a greater number of socially determined vulnerabilities was associated with progressively higher risk of developing hypertension, and an even higher risk of dying over 10 years.

2.
Int J Cardiol Cardiovasc Risk Prev ; 11: 200117, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778888

RESUMO

Objective: The role of uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) in COVID-19 severity among patients with hypertension is unclear. We evaluated the association between uncontrolled BP and the risk of hospitalization and/or mortality in patients with hypertension from a large US integrated healthcare system. Methods: We identified patients with hypertension and a positive RT-PCR test result or a diagnosis of COVID-19 between March 1 - September 1, 2020 from Kaiser Permanente Southern California. BP categories was defined using the most recent outpatient BP measurement during 12 months prior to COVID-19 infection. The primary outcome of interest was all-cause hospitalization or mortality within 30 days from COVID-19 infection. Results: Among 12,548 patients with hypertension and COVID-19 (mean age = 60 years, 47% male), 63% had uncontrolled BP (≥130/80 mm Hg) prior to COVID-19. Twenty-one percent were hospitalized or died within 30 days of COVID-19 infection. Uncontrolled BP was not associated with higher hospitalization or mortality (adjusted rate ratios for BP ≥ 160/100 mm Hg vs < 130/80 mm Hg = 1.00 [95% CI: 0.87, 1.14]; BP 140-159/90-99 mm Hg vs < 130/80 mm Hg = 1.02 [95% CI: 0.93, 1.11]). These findings were consistent across different age groups, treatment for antihypertensive medications, as well as atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk. Conclusion: Among patients with hypertension, uncontrolled BP prior to COVID-19 infection did not appear to be an important risk factor for 30-day mortality or hospitalization.

3.
Am J Hypertens ; 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Not having a healthcare visit in the past year has been associated with a higher likelihood of uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) among individuals with hypertension. METHODS: We examined factors associated with not having a healthcare visit in the past year among US adults with hypertension using data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013-2018 (n=5,985). Hypertension was defined as systolic BP ≥140 mmHg, diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg, or antihypertensive medication use. Having a healthcare visit in the past year was self-reported. RESULTS: Overall, 7.0% of US adults with hypertension reported not having a healthcare visit in the past year. Those without versus with a healthcare visit in the past year were less likely to be aware they had hypertension (45.0% versus 83.9%), to be taking antihypertensive medication (36.7% versus 91.4%, among those who were aware they had hypertension) and to have controlled BP (systolic/diastolic BP <140/90 mmHg; 9.1% versus 51.7%). After multivariable adjustment, not having a healthcare visit in the past year was more common among US adults without health insurance (prevalence ratio [PR]: 2.22; 95%CI 1.68-2.95), without a usual source of healthcare (PR: 5.65; 95%CI 4.16-7.67), who smoked cigarettes (PR: 1.34; 95%CI 1.02-1.77), and with heavy versus no alcohol consumption (PR: 1.55; 95%CI 1.16-2.08). Also, not having a healthcare visit in the past year was more common among those without diabetes or a history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and those not taking a statin. CONCLUSION: Interventions should be considered to ensure all adults with hypertension have annual healthcare visits.

4.
Am J Hypertens ; 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) for US adults increases with age. Determining characteristics of US adults ≥65 years with normal blood pressure (BP) may inform approaches to prevent this increase. METHODS: We analyzed US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2018 data (n=21,581). BP was measured up to three times and averaged. Normal BP was defined as SBP <120 mmHg and diastolic BP <80 mmHg among participants not taking antihypertensive medication. Those with SBP ≥120 mmHg, diastolic BP ≥80 mmHg, or taking antihypertensive medication were categorized as having elevated BP or hypertension. RESULTS: The prevalence of normal BP was 57.8%, 25.3%, 11.2% and 5.0% among US adults who were 18-44, 45-64, 65-74 and ≥75 years, respectively. After multivariable adjustment, in US adults ≥65 years of age, normal BP versus elevated BP/hypertension was more common among those with moderate and no versus heavy alcohol consumption (prevalence ratio [PR] 3.03; 95%CI 1.25-7.36 and 2.53; 95%CI 0.96-6.65, respectively), ≥150 versus <150 minutes of physical activity per week (PR=1.44; 95%CI 1.01-2.05), overweight and normal weight versus obesity (PR=1.88; 95%CI 1.22-2.90 and 2.94; 95%CI 1.89-4.59, respectively) and a high Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension score (PR=1.43; 95%CI 1.00-2.05). US adults ≥65 years with normal BP versus elevated BP/hypertension were less likely to have good or fair/poor versus excellent/very good self-rated health, diabetes, albuminuria, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and heart failure. CONCLUSION: Among US adults ≥65 years, normal BP was associated with healthy lifestyle factors and a lower prevalence of adverse health conditions.

5.
Diabetes Care ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607833

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine short-term mortality and cause of death among youth and young adults (YYAs) with youth-onset diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We included 19,717 YYAs newly diagnosed with diabetes before 20 years of age from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2015 enrolled in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study. Of these, 14,721 had type 1; 4,141 type 2; and 551 secondary and 304 other/unknown diabetes type. Cases were linked with the National Death Index through 31 December 2017. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% CIs based on age, sex, and race/ethnicity for state and county population areas and examined underlying causes of death. RESULTS: During 170,148 person-years (PY) (median follow-up 8.5 years), 283 individuals died: 133 with type 1 (103.0/100,000 PY), 55 with type 2 (161.5/100,000 PY), 87 with secondary (1,952/100,000 PY), and 8 with other/unknown diabetes type (312.3/100,000 PY). SMRs (95% CI) for the first three groups were 1.5 (1.2-1.8), 2.3 (1.7-3.0), and 28.0 (22.4-34.6), respectively. Diabetes was the underlying cause of death for 42.1%, 9.1%, and 4.6% of deaths, respectively. The SMR was greater for type 2 than for type 1 diabetes (P < 0.001). SMRs were significantly higher for individuals with type 1 diabetes who were <20 years of age, non-Hispanic White and Hispanic, and female and for individuals with type 2 diabetes who were <25 years of age, from all race/ethnic minority groups, and from both sexes. CONCLUSION: Excess mortality was observed among YYAs for each type of diabetes with differences in risk associated with diabetes type, age, race/ethnicity, and sex. The root causes of excess mortality among YYAs with diabetes merit further study.

6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(21): e021601, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713708

RESUMO

Background Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are widely used in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation for stroke prevention. However, long-term adherence to DOACs and clinical outcomes in real-world clinical practice is not well understood. This study evaluated long-term medication adherence patterns to DOAC therapy and clinical outcomes in a large US integrated health care system. Methods and Results We included adult patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who newly initiated DOACs between 2012 and 2018 in Kaiser Permanente Southern California. Long-term (3.5 years) adherence trajectories to DOAC were investigated using monthly proportion of days covered and group-based trajectory models. Factors associated with long-term adherence trajectories were investigated. Multivariable Poisson regression analyses were used to investigate thromboembolism and major bleeding events associated with long-term adherence trajectories. Of 18 920 patients newly initiating DOACs, we identified 3 DOAC adherence trajectories: consistently adherent (85.2%), early discontinuation within 6 months (10.6%), and gradually declining adherence (4.2%). Predictors such as lower CHA2DS2-VASc (0-1 versus ≥5) and previous injurious falls were associated with both early discontinuation and gradually declining adherence trajectories. Early discontinuation of DOAC therapy was associated with a higher risk of thromboembolism (rate ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.05-1.86) especially after 12 months from DOAC initiation but a lower risk of major bleed compared with consistent adherence (rate ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.30-0.75), specifically during the first 12 months following DOAC initiation. A gradual decline in adherence to DOACs was not statistically significantly associated with thromboembolism outcomes compared with consistent adherence. Conclusions Although a large proportion of patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation were adherent to DOAC therapy over 3.5 years, early discontinuation of DOAC was associated a higher risk of thromboembolic events. Future tailored interventions for early discontinuers may improve clinical outcomes.

7.
Diabetes Care ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518376

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There are few studies testing the amount of weight loss necessary to achieve initial remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) following bariatric surgery and no published studies with use of weight loss to predict initial T2DM remission in sleeve gastrectomy (SG) patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: With Cox proportional hazards models we examined the relationship between initial T2DM remission and percent total weight loss (%TWL) after bariatric surgery. Categories of %TWL were included in the model as time-varying covariates. RESULTS: Of patients (N = 5,928), 73% were female; mean age was 49.8 ± 10.3 years and BMI 43.8 ± 6.92 kg/m2, and 57% had Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Over an average follow-up of 5.9 years, 71% of patients experienced initial remission of T2DM (mean time to remission 1.0 year). With 0-5% TWL used as the reference group in Cox proportional hazards models, patients were more likely to remit with each 5% increase in TWL until 20% TWL (hazard ratio range 1.97-2.92). When categories >25% TWL were examined, all patients had a likelihood of initial remission similar to that of 20-25% TWL. Patients who achieved >20% TWL were more likely to achieve initial T2DM remission than patients with 0-5% TWL, even if they were using insulin at the time of surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Weight loss after bariatric surgery is strongly associated with initial T2DM remission; however, above a threshold of 20% TWL, rates of initial T2DM remission did not increase substantially. Achieving this threshold is also associated with initial remission even in patients who traditionally experience lower rates of remission, such as patients taking insulin.

8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2126605, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559229

RESUMO

Importance: Cardiovascular events and mortality are the principal causes of excess mortality and health care costs for people with type 2 diabetes. No large studies have specifically compared long-acting insulin alone with long-acting plus short-acting insulin with regard to cardiovascular outcomes. Objective: To compare cardiovascular events and mortality in adults with type 2 diabetes receiving long-acting insulin who do or do not add short-acting insulin. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study emulated a randomized experiment in which adults with type 2 diabetes who experienced a qualifying glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level of 6.8% to 8.5% with long-acting insulin were randomized to continuing treatment with long-acting insulin (LA group) or adding short-acting insulin within 1 year of the qualifying HbA1c level (LA plus SA group). Retrospective data in 4 integrated health care delivery systems from the Health Care Systems Research Network from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2013, were used. Analysis used inverse probability weighting estimation with Super Learner for propensity score estimation. Analyses took place from April 1, 2018, to June 30, 2019. Exposures: Long-acting insulin alone or with added short-acting insulin within 1 year from the qualifying HbA1c level. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mortality, cardiovascular mortality, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, and hospitalization for heart failure. Results: Among 57 278 individuals (39 279 with data on cardiovascular mortality) with a mean (SD) age of 60.6 (11.5) years, 53.6% men, 43.5% non-Hispanic White individuals, and 4 years of follow-up (median follow-up of 11 [interquartile range, 5-20] calendar quarters), the LA plus SA group was associated with increased all-cause mortality compared with the LA group (hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.05-1.49) and a decreased risk of acute myocardial infarction (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.81-0.97). Treatment with long-acting plus short-acting insulin was not associated with increased risks of congestive heart failure, stroke, or cardiovascular mortality. Conclusions and Relevance: Findings of this retrospective cohort study suggested an increased risk of all-cause mortality and a decreased risk of acute myocardial infarction for the LA plus SA group compared with the LA group. Given the lack of an increase in major cardiovascular events or cardiovascular mortality, the increased all-cause mortality with long-acting plus short-acting insulin may be explained by noncardiovascular events or unmeasured confounding.

9.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 30(12): 1630-1634, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558760

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our objective was to calculate the positive predictive value (PPV) of the ICD-9 diagnosis code for angioedema when physicians adjudicate the events by electronic health record review. Our secondary objective was to evaluate the inter-rater reliability of physician adjudication. METHODS: Patients from the Cardiovascular Research Network previously diagnosed with heart failure who were started on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) during the study period (July 1, 2006 through September 30, 2015) were included. A team of two physicians per participating site adjudicated possible events using electronic health records for all patients coded for angioedema for a total of five sites. The PPV was calculated as the number of physician-adjudicated cases divided by all cases with the diagnosis code of angioedema (ICD-9-CM code 995.1) meeting the inclusion criteria. The inter-rater reliability of physician teams, or kappa statistic, was also calculated. RESULTS: There were 38 061 adults with heart failure initiating ACEI in the study (21 489 patient-years). Of 114 coded events that were adjudicated by physicians, 98 angioedema events were confirmed for a PPV of 86% (95% CI: 80%, 92%). The kappa statistic based on physician inter-rater reliability was 0.65 (95% CI: 0.47, 0.82). CONCLUSIONS: ICD-9 diagnosis code of 995.1 (angioneurotic edema, not elsewhere classified) is highly predictive of angioedema in adults with heart failure exposed to ACEI.

10.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza infection can result in decompensation or exacerbation of heart failure (HF) symptoms, hospitalization, and death. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of influenza vaccination with mortality and hospitalization during influenza and non-influenza seasons between 2009 and 2018. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In this prospective, observational cohort study, we included Kaiser Permanente Southern California members with a HF diagnosis prior to September 1 each year from 2009 to 2017. EXPOSURE: The first influenza vaccination in each season (September 1 to May 31) was recorded. Vaccinated/unvaccinated patients were matched 1:1 on age, sex, and ejection fraction at the vaccination date (n-total = 74,870). MAIN OUTCOMES: Patients were followed through the end of each influenza season for all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes included cardiovascular mortality and all-cause hospitalization. In a sensitivity analysis, we examined mortality in the non-influenza season. RESULTS: Influenza vaccinated vs unvaccinated patients had more comorbidities and higher healthcare utilization. After multivariable adjustment for utilization, sociodemographics, comorbidities, and medications, influenza vaccinated vs unvaccinated patients had a lower risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality during the influenza season (hazard ratio [HR] 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63, 0.70 and HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.63, 0.74, respectively) but a higher risk of all-cause hospitalization (HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.21, 1.31). There was no association between influenza vaccination and all-cause or cardiovascular mortality during the non-influenza season (HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.89, 1.09 and HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.84, 1.21, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Influenza vaccination in HF patients was associated with a lower risk of mortality during the influenza season. Our findings provide support for recommendations of universal influenza vaccination in patients with HF.

12.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 30(10): 1441-1446, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245081

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A pre-licensure clinical trial of a two-dose cytosine phosphoguanine adjuvanted hepatitis B vaccine (HEPLISAV-B® [Dynavax, USA]; HepB-CpG vaccine) found an unanticipated numerical imbalance in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared to recipients of a three-dose aluminum adjuvanted hepatitis B vaccine (ENGERIX-B® [GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium]; HepB-alum vaccine). A post-licensure study was required to compare AMI rates among recipients of HepB-CpG vaccine and HepB-alum vaccine. Individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM), who are at higher risk of AMI, comprise more than half of the post-licensure study cohort. To inform the ongoing post-licensure study, we examined the association between AMI and receipt of HepB-alum vaccine in individuals with DM. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study nested in a cohort of individuals with DM ages ≥40 years at Kaiser Permanente Southern California using electronic health records. AMI cases from 2012 to 2017 were identified by principal discharge diagnosis and matched 1:1 with randomly selected controls. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for receipt of ≥1 HepB-alum vaccine dose was compared for AMI cases and controls using conditional logistic regression. We subsequently performed the same matched case-control analysis stratified by year. RESULTS: Of 8138 matched case-control pairs, 17.4% of cases and 15.0% of controls received HepB-alum vaccine. The aOR of HepB-alum vaccination comparing cases and controls was 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.87-1.08). Similarly, there was no significant association between HepB-alum vaccine and AMI in any of the study years. CONCLUSIONS: HepB-alum vaccination was not associated with AMI in individuals with DM. This finding will provide contextual insight for the ongoing post-licensure study of HepB-CpG vaccine.

13.
Vaccine X ; 8: 100101, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195599

RESUMO

Post-licensure vaccine safety studies are essential to identify adverse events that may not have been detected in pre-licensure clinical trials and to address questions that arose during the pre-licensure phase. These studies are increasingly conducted using real-world data collected as part of routine health care delivery. However, design of post-licensure vaccine safety studies involves many pragmatic and scientific decisions, which must be made while balancing diverse stakeholder opinions. Challenges include selecting exposure and comparison groups, deciding on the most appropriate outcome, determining sample size and length of follow-up time, and other analytic considerations. As an example of this process and to inform other post-licensure vaccine safety studies in real-world settings, we discuss our experience with design of an FDA-required Phase 4 post-licensure safety study of a hepatitis B vaccine in a large integrated health care organization in the United States.

14.
Chest ; 160(4): 1459-1470, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited existing data suggest that the novel COVID-19 may increase risk of VTE, but information from large, ethnically diverse populations with appropriate control participants is lacking. RESEARCH QUESTION: Does the rate of VTE among adults hospitalized with COVID-19 differ from matched hospitalized control participants without COVID-19? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study among hospitalized adults with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and hospitalized adults without evidence of COVID-19 matched for age, sex, race or ethnicity, acute illness severity, and month of hospitalization between January 2020 and August 2020 from two integrated health care delivery systems with 36 hospitals. Outcomes included VTE (DVT or pulmonary embolism ascertained using diagnosis codes combined with validated natural language processing algorithms applied to electronic health records) and death resulting from any cause at 30 days. Fine and Gray hazards regression was performed to evaluate the association of COVID-19 with VTE after accounting for competing risk of death and residual differences between groups, as well as to identify predictors of VTE in patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: We identified 6,319 adults with COVID-19 and 6,319 matched adults without COVID-19, with mean ± SD age of 60.0 ± 17.2 years, 46% women, 53.1% Hispanic, 14.6% Asian/Pacific Islander, and 10.3% Black. During 30-day follow-up, 313 validated cases of VTE (160 COVID-19, 153 control participants) and 1,172 deaths (817 in patients with COVID-19, 355 in control participants) occurred. Adults with COVID-19 showed a more than threefold adjusted risk of VTE (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.48; 95% CI, 2.03-5.98) compared with matched control participants. Predictors of VTE in patients with COVID-19 included age ≥ 55 years, Black race, prior VTE, diagnosed sepsis, prior moderate or severe liver disease, BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2, and platelet count > 217 k/µL. INTERPRETATION: Among ethnically diverse hospitalized adults, COVID-19 infection increased the risk of VTE, and selected patient characteristics were associated with higher thromboembolic risk in the setting of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Grupos Étnicos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Tromboembolia Venosa/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/etnologia , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Gestão de Riscos , SARS-CoV-2 , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Cardiol Hypertens ; 9: 100088, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34155486

RESUMO

Objective: Although recent evidence suggests no increased risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes associated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) use, the relationship is less clear among patients with hypertension and diverse racial/ethnic groups. This study evaluates the risk of hospitalization and mortality among patients with hypertension and COVID-19 in a large US integrated healthcare system. Methods: Patients with hypertension and COVID-19 (between March 1- September 1, 2020) on ACEIs or ARBs were compared with patients on other frequently used antihypertensive medications. Results: Among 14,129 patients with hypertension and COVID-19 infection (mean age 60 years, 48% men, 58% Hispanic), 21% were admitted to the hospital within 30 days of COVID-19 infection. Of the hospitalized patients, 24% were admitted to intensive care units, 17% required mechanical ventilation, and 10% died within 30 days of COVID-19 infection. Exposure to ACEIs or ARBs prior to COVID-19 infection was not associated with an increased risk of hospitalization or all-cause mortality (rate ratios for ACEIs vs other antihypertensive medications â€‹= â€‹0.98, 95% CI: 0.88, 1.08; ARBs vs others â€‹= â€‹1.00, 95% CI: 0.90, 1.11) after applying inverse probability of treatment weights. These associations were consistent across racial/ethnic groups. Use of ACEIs or ARBs during hospitalization was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (odds ratios for ACEIs or ARBs vs others â€‹= â€‹0.50, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.72). Conclusion: Our study findings support continuation of ACEI or ARB use for patients with hypertension during the COVID-19 pandemic and after COVID-19 infection.

16.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 261, 2021 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, decreases in mortality rates attributable to cardiovascular diseases have slowed but mortality attributable to heart failure (HF) has increased. METHODS: Between 2001-2017, trends in age-adjusted mortality with HF as an underlying cause for Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) members were derived through linkage with state death files and compared with trends among California residents and the US. Average annual percent change (AAPC) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Joinpoint regression. Analyses were repeated examining HF as a contributing cause of death. RESULTS: In KPSC, the age-adjusted HF mortality rates were comparable to California but lower than the US, increasing from 23.9 per 100,000 person-years (PY) in 2001 to 44.7 per 100,000 PY in 2017, representing an AAPC of 1.3% (95% CI 0.0%, 2.6%). HF mortality also increased in California from 33.9 to 46.5 per 100,000 PY (AAPC 1.5%, 95% CI 0.3%, 2.7%), while remaining unchanged in the US at 57.9 per 100,000 PY in 2001 and 2017 (AAPC 0.0%, 95% CI - 0.5%, 0.5%). Trends among KPSC members ≥ 65 years old were similar to the overall population, while trends among members 45-64 years old were flat between 2001-2017. Small changes in mortality with HF as a contributing cause were observed in KPSC members between 2001 and 2017, which differed from California and the US. CONCLUSION: Lower rates of HF mortality were observed in KPSC compared to the US. Given the aging of the US population and increasing prevalence of HF, it will be important to examine individual and care-related factors driving susceptibility to HF mortality.

17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(11): e020997, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34006116

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is a public health crisis, having killed more than 514 000 US adults as of March 2, 2021. COVID-19 mitigation strategies have unintended consequences on managing chronic conditions such as hypertension, a leading cause of cardiovascular disease and health disparities in the United States. During the first wave of the pandemic in the United States, the combination of observed racial/ethnic inequities in COVID-19 deaths and social unrest reinvigorated a national conversation about systemic racism in health care and society. The 4th Annual University of Utah Translational Hypertension Symposium gathered frontline clinicians, researchers, and leaders from diverse backgrounds to discuss the intersection of these 2 critical social and public health phenomena and to highlight preexisting disparities in hypertension treatment and control exacerbated by COVID-19. The discussion underscored environmental and socioeconomic factors that are deeply embedded in US health care and research that impact inequities in hypertension. Structural racism plays a central role at both the health system and individual levels. At the same time, virtual healthcare platforms are being accelerated into widespread use by COVID-19, which may widen the divide in healthcare access across levels of wealth, geography, and education. Blood pressure control rates are declining, especially among communities of color and those without health insurance or access to health care. Hypertension awareness, therapeutic lifestyle changes, and evidence-based pharmacotherapy are essential. There is a need to improve the implementation of community-based interventions and blood pressure self-monitoring, which can help build patient trust and increase healthcare engagement.


Assuntos
Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Hipertensão , Racismo/prevenção & controle , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Environ Res ; 197: 111075, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798519

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of chronic exposures to particulate and traffic-related air pollution on allostatic load (AL) score, a marker of cumulative biological risk, among youth with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants were drawn from five clinical sites of the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth (SEARCH) study (n = 2338). Baseline questionnaires, anthropometric measures, and a fasting blood test were taken at a clinic visit between 2001 and 2005. AL was operationalized using 10 biomarkers reflecting cardiovascular, metabolic, and inflammatory risk. Annual residential exposures to PM2.5 and proximity to heavily-trafficked major roadways were estimated for each participant. Poisson regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were conducted for each exposure. RESULTS: No significant associations were observed between exposures to PM2.5 or proximity to traffic and AL score, however analyses were suggestive of effect modification by race for residential distance to heavily-trafficked major roadways (p = 0.02). In stratified analyses, residing <100, 100-<200 and 200-<400 m compared to 400 m or more from heavily-trafficked major roadways was associated with 11%, 26% and 14% increases in AL score, respectively (95% CIs: -4, 29; 9, 45; -1, 30) for non-white participants compared to 6%, -2%, and -2% changes (95% CIs: -2, 15; -10, 7; -8, 6) for white participants. CONCLUSIONS: Among this population of youth with type 1 diabetes, we did not observe consistent relationships between chronic exposures to particulate and traffic-related air pollution and changes in AL score, however associations for traffic-related pollution exposures may differ by race/ethnicity and warrant further examination.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Alostase , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade
19.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(4): 1101-1109, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834371

RESUMO

Treatment options for patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) include warfarin and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Although DOACs are easier to administer than warfarin and do not require routine laboratory monitoring, few studies have directly assessed whether patients are more satisfied with DOACs. We surveyed adults from two large integrated health systems taking DOACs or warfarin for incident VTE occurring between January 1, 2015 and June 30, 2018. Treatment satisfaction was assessed using the validated Anti-Clot Treatment Scale (ACTS), divided into the ACTS Burdens and ACTS Benefits scores; higher scores indicate greater satisfaction. Mean treatment satisfaction was compared using multivariable linear regression, adjusting for patient demographic and clinical characteristics. The effect size of the difference in means was calculated using a Cohen's d (0.20 is considered a small effect and ≥ 0.80 is considered large). We surveyed 2217 patients, 969 taking DOACs and 1248 taking warfarin at the time of survey. Thirty-one point five percent of the cohort was aged ≥ 75 years and 43.1% were women. DOAC users were on average more satisfied with anticoagulant treatment, with higher adjusted mean ACTS Burdens (50.18 v. 48.01, p < 0.0001) and ACTS Benefits scores (10.21 v. 9.84, p = 0.046) for DOACs vs. warfarin, respectively. The magnitude of the difference was small (Cohen's d of 0.29 for ACTS Burdens and 0.12 for ACTS Benefits). Patients taking DOACs for venous thromboembolism were on average more satisfied with anticoagulant treatment than were warfarin users, although the magnitude of the difference was small.

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