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1.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105052

RESUMO

A full-term pregnancy is associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk; however, whether the effect of additional pregnancies is independent of age at last pregnancy is unknown. The associations between other pregnancy-related factors and endometrial cancer risk are less clear. We pooled individual participant data from 11 cohort and 19 case-control studies participating in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2) including 16 986 women with endometrial cancer and 39 538 control women. We used one- and two-stage meta-analytic approaches to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) for the association between exposures and endometrial cancer risk. Ever having a full-term pregnancy was associated with a 41% reduction in risk of endometrial cancer compared to never having a full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.63). The risk reduction appeared the greatest for the first full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.72-0.84), with a further ~15% reduction per pregnancy up to eight pregnancies (OR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.14-0.28) that was independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. Incomplete pregnancy was also associated with decreased endometrial cancer risk (7%-9% reduction per pregnancy). Twin births appeared to have the same effect as singleton pregnancies. Our pooled analysis shows that, while the magnitude of the risk reduction is greater for a full-term pregnancy than an incomplete pregnancy, each additional pregnancy is associated with further reduction in endometrial cancer risk, independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. These results suggest that the very high progesterone level in the last trimester of pregnancy is not the sole explanation for the protective effect of pregnancy.

2.
Environ Res ; 183: 109224, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd) is a developmental toxicant that is released into the environment during industrial processes. Previous animal studies suggest that Cd may impact the onset of puberty. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether Cd exposure, measured as urinary Cd concentration, was associated with ages at menarche and pubertal development. METHODS: A cohort of 211 girls, ages 10-13 years at baseline, was followed for up to two years. Girls completed an interview and self-assessment of Tanner stages of breast development and pubic hair growth. They were followed monthly until menarche. Urinary Cd concentrations were measured in overnight urine specimens. Multivariable Cox regression was used to evaluate the association between urinary Cd and age at menarche and cumulative logit regression was used to evaluate the associations between urinary Cd and breast development and pubic hair growth. RESULTS: The baseline geometric mean creatinine-adjusted Cd concentration was 0.22 µg/g creatinine (geometric standard deviation = 1.6) and decreased with increasing age (p-trend = 0.04). Cd levels were higher among Asian than White girls or girls of other/mixed race/ethnicity (p = 0.04). In multivariable analyses, girls with urinary Cd ≥ 0.4 µg/L were less likely to have attained menarche than girls with urinary Cd < 0.2 µg/L (hazard ratio = 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.78). Urinary Cd was negatively associated with pubic hair growth (p-trend = 0.01) but not with breast development (p-trend = 0.72) at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that a higher Cd body burden may delay some aspects of pubertal development among girls.


Assuntos
Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Cádmio , Menarca , Puberdade , Adolescente , Cádmio/urina , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Maturidade Sexual
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906553

RESUMO

Many California nail salon workers are low-income Vietnamese women of reproductive age who use nail products daily that contain androgen-disrupting phthalates, which may increase risk of male reproductive tract abnormalities during pregnancy. Yet, few studies have characterized phthalate exposures among this workforce. To characterize individual metabolites and cumulative phthalates exposure among a potentially vulnerable occupational group of nail salon workers, we collected 17 post-shift urine samples from Vietnamese workers at six San Francisco Bay Area nail salons in 2011, which were analyzed for four primary phthalate metabolites: mono-n-butyl-, mono-isobutyl-, mono(2-Ethylhexyl)-, and monoethyl phthalates (MnBP, MiBP, MEHP, and MEP, respectively; µg/L). Phthalate metabolite concentrations and a potency-weighted sum of parent compound daily intake (Σandrogen-disruptor, µg/kg/day) were compared to 203 Asian Americans from the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) using Student's t-test and Wilcoxin signed rank test. Creatinine-corrected MnBP, MiBP, MEHP (µg/g), and cumulative phthalates exposure (Σandrogen-disruptor, µg/kg/day) levels were 2.9 (p < 0.0001), 1.6 (p = 0.015), 2.6 (p < 0.0001), and 2.0 (p < 0.0001) times higher, respectively, in our nail salon worker population compared to NHANES Asian Americans. Levels exceeded the NHANES 95th or 75th percentiles among some workers. This pilot study suggests that nail salon workers are disproportionately exposed to multiple phthalates, a finding that warrants further investigation to assess their potential health significance.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria da Beleza/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Adulto , Monitoramento Biológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , São Francisco , Vietnã/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963577

RESUMO

There are little epidemiological data on the impact of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and endocrine disruptors on mammographic density (MD), a strong predictor of breast cancer. We assessed MD in 116 non-Hispanic white post-menopausal women for whom serum concentrations of 23 commonly detected chemicals including 3 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 8 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), and 12 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) had been measured. Linear regression analyses adjusting for potential confounders were used to examine the associations between the levels of the chemical compounds, modeled as continuous and dichotomized (above/below median) variables, and square-root-transformed MD. None of the associations were statistically significant after correcting for multiple testing. Prior to correction for multiple testing, all chemicals with un-corrected p-values < 0.05 had regression coefficients less than zero, suggesting inverse associations between increased levels and MD, if any. The smallest p-value was observed for PCB-153 (regression coefficient for above-median vs. below-median levels: -0.87, un-corrected p = 0.008). Neither parity nor body mass index modified the associations. Our results do not support an association between higher MD and serum levels of PBDEs, PCBs, or PFASs commonly detected in postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Pós-Menopausa , Idoso , California , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(2): 127-138, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916076

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Breast density is an important risk factor for breast cancer and varies substantially across racial-ethnic groups. However, determinants of breast density in Vietnamese immigrants in the United States (US) have not been studied. We investigated whether reproductive factors, immigration history, and other demographic and lifestyle factors were associated with breast density in Vietnamese Americans. METHODS: We collected information on demographics, immigration history, and other lifestyle factors and mammogram reports from a convenience sample of 380 Vietnamese American women in California aged 40 to 70 years. Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast density was abstracted from mammogram reports. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association between lifestyle factors and having dense breasts (BI-RADS 3 or 4). RESULTS: All participants were born in Viet Nam and 82% had lived in the US for 10 years or longer. Younger age, lower body mass index, nulliparity/lower number of deliveries, and longer US residence (or younger age at migration) were associated with having dense breasts. Compared to women who migrated at age 40 or later, the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for having dense breasts among women who migrated between the ages of 30 and 39 and before age 30 were 1.72 (0.96-3.07) and 2.48 (1.43-4.32), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Longer US residence and younger age at migration were associated with greater breast density in Vietnamese American women. Identifying modifiable mediating factors to reduce lifestyle changes that adversely impact breast density in this traditionally low-risk population for breast cancer is warranted.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos , Densidade da Mama/etnologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Estilo de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , California , Estudos Transversais , Emigração e Imigração , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Paridade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos , Saúde da Mulher
6.
Chronobiol Int ; 36(11): 1504-1514, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452403

RESUMO

Chronotype is the behavioral manifestation of an individual's underlying circadian rhythm, generally characterized by one's propensity to sleep at a particular time during the 24 hour cycle. Evening chronotypes ("night owls") generally suffer from worse physical and mental health compared to morning chronotypes ("morning larks") - for reasons that have yet to be explained. One hypothesis is that evening chronotypes may be more susceptible to circadian disruption, a condition where the coordinated timing of biologic processes breaks down. The role of chronotype as an independent or modifying risk factor for cancer has not been widely explored. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the risk of breast cancer associated with chronotype in a case-control study nested within the California Teachers Study (CTS) cohort. The study population consisted of 39686 post-menopausal CTS participants who provided information on chronotype by completing a questionnaire in 2012-2013. 2719 cases of primary invasive breast cancer diagnosed from 1995/1996 through completion of the chronotype questionnaire were identified by linkage of the CTS to the California Cancer Registry. 36967 CTS participants who had remained cancer-free during this same time period served as controls. Chronotype was ascertained by responses to an abbreviated version of the Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and was characterized into five categories: definite morning, more morning than evening, neither morning or evening, more evening than morning, definite evening. Multivariable unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for each of the chronotypes, adjusted for established breast cancer risk factors. Compared to definite morning types, definite evening types had an increased risk of breast cancer with elevated ORs that were statistically significant in both the crude (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.10-1.40) and fully-adjusted models (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.06-1.35). The risk estimates in the fully-adjusted model for all other chronotypes did not significantly differ from one. These results suggest that evening chronotype may be an independent risk factor for breast cancer among a population of women who are not known to have engaged in any substantial night shift work. Further research in other populations of non-shift workers is warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Ritmo Circadiano , Pós-Menopausa , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , California , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247904

RESUMO

Gold mining activities occurred throughout the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California, leaving behind persistent toxic contaminants in the soil, dust, and water that include arsenic and cadmium. Despite a high level of concern among local residents about potential exposure and high breast cancer rates, no biomonitoring data has been collected to evaluate the levels of heavy metals. We conducted a study to characterize the urinary levels of heavy metals among women in this region by working with the community in Nevada County. Sixty women provided urine samples and completed a questionnaire. We examined levels of arsenic, cadmium, and other metals in relation to the length of residency in the area, age, dietary factors, recreational activities, and smoking. We compared urinary metal levels in participants to levels in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Overall, study participants had higher urinary levels of arsenic than women in the national sample. Cadmium levels were similar to the national average, although they were elevated in women ≥35 years who had lived in the region for 10 years or more. Arsenic levels were higher among women who smoked, ate fish, ate home-grown produce, and who reported frequent hiking or trail running, although these differences were not statistically significant. This study established a successful community-research partnership, which facilitated community dialogue about possible human health consequences of living in a mining-impacted area.


Assuntos
Ouro , Metais Pesados/urina , Mineração/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Arsênico/urina , Cádmio/urina , California , Dieta , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Environ Int ; 127: 412-419, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954728

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are among the most persistent and pervasive global environmental contaminants. Their toxic and endocrine-disrupting properties have made them a focus of concern for breast cancer. Our objective was to evaluate the risk of breast cancer associated with serum PBDE levels in a case-control study nested within the California Teachers Study. METHODS: Participants were 902 women with invasive breast cancer (cases) and 936 with no such diagnosis (controls) who provided 10 mL of blood and were interviewed between 2011 and 2015. Blood samples were collected from cases an average of 35 months after diagnosis. PBDEs were measured in serum using automated solid phase extraction and gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry. Statistical analyses were restricted to the three congeners with detection frequencies ≥75%: 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), 2,2',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-100), and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-153). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each BDE congener, adjusting for serum lipids and other potential confounders. RESULTS: The OR for each of the three BDE congeners was close to unity with a CI that included one. Analyses stratified by menopausal status, tumor hormone responsiveness, BMI, and changes in body weight yielded similarly null results. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide no evidence that serum levels of BDE-47, BDE-100 or BDE-153 are associated with breast cancer risk. These results should be interpreted in the context of study limitations which include the reliance on PBDE measurements that may not represent pre-diagnostic, early-life or chronic exposures and a lack of information on genetic polymorphisms and other factors which may affect endogenous estrogen levels.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Disruptores Endócrinos/sangue , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Adulto , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Extração em Fase Sólida
10.
Ann Epidemiol ; 32: 35-42, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846276

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine if secondhand smoke (SHS) is associated with elevated risk of type II diabetes among California teachers. We also aim to determine if overall and central obesity are mediators or effect modifiers of this association. METHODS: Using data from the California Teachers Study, conducted in 1995-2013 in California public schools, we obtained information on SHS exposure among 39,887 lifetime nonsmokers. The association between SHS and incident diabetes after 17 years of follow-up was assessed using Cox regression models. The mediation and modification effects of BMI and waist circumference on this association were tested. RESULTS: At baseline, 70.2% of the nonsmokers reported exposure to SHS. Higher intensity, duration, and intensity-years of exposure to SHS were associated with higher multivariate adjusted risk of incident diabetes in a dose-response manner (hazard ratio = 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.48 for highest quartile vs. lowest quartile of exposure; P = .001 for trend). Participant's waist circumference (measured 2 years after baseline) could explain greater than 50% of the association between SHS and diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: SHS exposure is associated with increased risk of type II diabetes among nonsmokers of California teachers with obesity being a potentially important mediator but not an effect modifier for this association.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Massa Corporal , California/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura
11.
Environ Health ; 17(1): 83, 2018 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Per- and poly- fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a large family of synthetic chemicals, some of which are mammary toxicants and endocrine disruptors. Their potential as breast carcinogens is unclear. Our objective was to evaluate the risk of breast cancer associated with serum PFAS concentrations in a nested case-control study within the California Teachers Study. METHODS: Participants were 902 women with invasive breast cancer (cases) and 858 with no such diagnosis (controls) who provided 10 mL of blood and were interviewed during 2011-2015, an average of 35 months after case diagnosis. PFASs were measured using automated online SPE-HPLC-MS/MS methods. Statistical analyses were restricted to six PFASs with detection frequencies ≥ 95%: PFOA (Perfluorooctanoic acid), PFNA (Perfluorononanoic acid), PFUnDA (Perfluoroundecanoic acid), PFHxS (Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid), PFOS (Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid), and MeFOSAA (2-(N-Methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) acetic acid. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs), estimating the breast cancer risk associated with each PFAS. RESULTS: For all cases of invasive breast cancer, none of the adjusted ORs were statistically significant but marginally significant ORs < 1.0 were observed for PFUnDA and PFHxS (p-trend = 0.08). Adjusted ORs < 1.0 for PFUnDA and PFHxS were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) among the 107 cases with hormone-negative tumors but not the 743 with hormone-positive tumors. CONCLUSION: Overall, these findings do not provide evidence that serum PFAS levels measured after diagnosis are related to breast cancer risk. The few inverse associations found may be due to chance or may be artifacts of study design. Future studies should incorporate information about genetic susceptibility, endogenous estrogen levels, and measurements of PFASs prior to diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Risco , Adulto Jovem
12.
Birth Defects Res ; 110(17): 1314-1321, 2018 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30328285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer is increased in those with birth defects, including those with congenital heart disease (CHD). Lymphoma risk is increased in children with CHD. This study analyzes the effect of CHD and CHD severity on childhood cancer risk. METHODS: We analyzed cancer risk in a population-based cohort of children with and without CHD born between 1988 and 2004 by linking data from the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program with data from the California Cancer Registry. We compared cancer risk in children with and without CHD, excluding children with chromosomal anomalies. RESULTS: Of >3 million children in the birth cohort, 65,585 had birth defects (2%), 25,981 with CHD. Cancer occurred in 4,781 (0.15%) children, 43 (0.17%) with CHD. Cancer risk in CHD was increased (hazard ratio [HR]) 2.63, 95% CI: 1.95, 3.55). Leukemia was the most common cancer in those without CHD (1,722/4,738, 36%), central nervous system tumors were second (1,073/4,738, 23%), and lymphoma third (410/4,738, 9%). Among children with CHD, lymphoma and leukemia occurred with the same frequency (12/43, 28% for each). HR for lymphoma was 8.37 (CI: 4.71, 14.86) with CHD versus without. HR for leukemia was 2.05 (CI: 1.16, 3.61) with CHD versus without. CHD complexity was higher in lymphoma (3, interquartile range [IQR]: 2-3) than those with leukemia (1, IQR, 1-2; p < .02). CONCLUSION: Cancer risk is increased in children with CHD. Lymphoma risk is increased in CHD and is correlated with more complex CHD. These results suggest a shared developmental origin for CHD and lymphoma may be present.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Linfoma/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , California , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
Am J Ind Med ; 61(10): 831-841, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30101524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemicals in nail products have been linked to numerous health concerns. METHODS: We recruited Vietnamese-American nail salon owners and workers in California and randomized salons into an intervention or control group. Owners in the intervention group received training and then provided education to workers in their salons on best practices to reduce workplace chemical exposures. Methyl methacrylate (MMA), toluene, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) were measured using personal air monitors worn by workers during the work-shift. RESULTS: We enrolled 77 salons (37 intervention and 40 control) and 200 workers. There was no significant intervention effect between the two groups. However, MMA and TVOCs were higher for workers who used gel polish and acrylic nails as well as in busy salons. CONCLUSIONS: Although the intervention did not show reductions in chemical levels, identifying worker tasks and salon characteristics that predict chemical levels can inform future interventions to reduce exposures.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Indústria da Beleza/educação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Ensino , Adulto , Americanos Asiáticos , California , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metilmetacrilato , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Tolueno , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Local de Trabalho
14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(1): 277-287, 2018 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29198103

RESUMO

After several decades of widespread use, some per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were phased-out of use due to concerns raised by their persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic properties. Our objective was to evaluate temporal trends in serum PFAS levels among 1257 middle-aged and older California women (ages 40-94) during a four year period, beginning approximately 5-10 years after these phase-outs began. An online SPE-HPLC-MS/MS was used to measure 10 long-chain PFASs in serum from blood collected cross-sectionally during 2011-2015 from a subset of participants in the California Teachers Study. Results from multivariable linear regression analyses indicated that serum concentrations of nearly all PFASs declined on average 10% to 20% per year. Serum levels of perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) did not significantly decline. With the exception of PFHxS, the downward trend in serum concentrations was evident for all PFASs across all ages, although declines were comparatively steeper among the oldest women. These findings suggest that the phase-out of some common PFASs has resulted in reduced human exposures to them. The lack of a decline for PFHxS suggests that these exposures may be ongoing and underscores the importance of continued biomonitoring and research efforts to elucidate current pathways of exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , California , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
15.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(9): 1462-1465, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28864454

RESUMO

Background: Few studies have focused on the relationship of exonic variation with breast cancer and subtypes defined by tumor markers: estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2.Methods: We genotyped 1,764 breast cancer patients and 1,400 controls from the California Teachers Study cohort using the Infinium HumanExome Beadchip. Individual variant and gene-based analyses were conducted for overall breast cancer and by individual tumor marker subtype.Results: No exonic variants or gene-based analyses were statistically significantly associated with breast cancer overall or by ER-, PR-, or HER2-defined subtype.Conclusions: We did not detect any novel statistically significant exonic variants with overall breast cancer risk or by subtype.Impact: Exonic variants in the exome chip may not be associated with overall breast cancer or subtype susceptibility. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(9); 1462-5. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , California , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco
16.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 31(6): 563-572, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28940632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infant leukaemia (IL) is extremely rare with fewer than 150 cases occurring each year in the United States. Little is known about its causes. However, recent evidence supports a role of de novo mutations in IL aetiology. Parental age has been associated with several adverse outcomes in offspring, including childhood cancers. Given the role of older parental age in de novo mutations in offspring, we carried out an analysis of parental age and IL. METHODS: We evaluated the relationship between parental age and IL in a case-control study using registry data from New York, Minnesota, California, Texas, and Washington. Records from 402 cases [219 acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), 131 acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), and 52 other] and 45 392 controls born during 1981-2004 were analysed. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by logistic regression. Estimates were adjusted for infant sex, birth year category, maternal race, state, and mutually adjusted for paternal or maternal age, respectively. RESULTS: Infants with mothers' age ≥40 years had an increased risk of developing AML (OR 4.80, 95% CI 1.80, 12.76). In contrast, paternal age <20 was associated with increased risk of ALL (OR 3.69, 95% CI 1.62, 8.41). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates increased risk of infant ALL in relation to young paternal age. Given record linkage, there is little concern with recall or selection bias, although data are lacking on MLL gene status and other potentially important variables. Parent of origin effects, de novo mutations, and/or carcinogenic exposures may be involved in IL aetiology.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Idade Materna , Idade Paterna , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estatística como Assunto , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Cancer Causes Control ; 28(10): 1027-1032, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28822014

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Hypertension in pregnancy has been associated with decreased future risk of breast cancer in many but not all studies. In the Marin Women's Study, pregnancy-induced hypertension was shown to interact with the T allele of a functional IGF1R gene variant, rs2016347, to result in lower breast density, as well as decreased breast cancer risk. Our objective was to explore these findings in a larger sample of women from the California Teachers Study (CTS). METHODS: The CTS cohort consists of over 130,000 female educators. DNA was available from a nested case-control study, which included 2,030 non-Hispanic white women who developed breast cancer and 1,552 controls. The current study included all participants from the case-control group with a self-reported history of preeclampsia (80 cases/57 controls). RESULTS: Comparing TT to GG genotypes revealed adjusted odds ratios of 0.38 (CI 0.13, 1.14) for all invasive breast cancers, 0.26 (CI 0.07, 0.89) for hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancers, 0.15 (CI 0.04, 0.56) for those with age at first birth (AFB) < 30, and 0.10 (CI 0.02, 0.49) for those with AFB < 30 and HR+ breast cancers. Trend analysis yielded p values of 0.09, 0.03, 0.005, and 0.004 respectively, suggesting a biological effect for each T allele. CONCLUSION: Study findings indicate that the T allele of IGF1R variant rs2016347 is associated with a significant reduction in breast cancer risk in women with a history of preeclampsia, most marked for HR+ breast cancer and in women with AFB < 30.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Receptores de Somatomedina/genética , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Receptor IGF Tipo 1 , Fatores de Risco
19.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 164(1): 139-147, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28365834

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In contrast to other US racial/ethnic groups, Asian Americans (AA) have experienced steadily increasing breast cancer rates in recent decades. To better understand potential contributors to this increase, we examined incidence trends by age and stage among women from seven AA ethnic groups in California from 1988 to 2013, and incidence patterns by subtype and age at diagnosis for the years 2009 through 2013. METHODS: Joinpoint regression was applied to California Cancer Registry data to calculate annual percentage change (APC) for incidence trends. Incidence rate ratios were used to compare rates for AA ethnic groups relative to non-Hispanic whites (NHW). RESULTS: All AA groups except Japanese experienced incidence increases, with the largest among Koreans in 1988-2006 (APC 4.7, 95% CI 3.8, 5.7) and Southeast Asians in 1988-2013 (APC 2.5, 95% CI 0.8, 4.2). Among women younger than age 50, large increases occurred for Vietnamese and other Southeast Asians; among women over age 50, increasing trends occurred in all AA ethnic groups. Rates increased for distant-stage disease among Filipinas (2.2% per year, 95% CI 0.4, 3.9). Compared to NHW, Filipinas and older Vietnamese had higher incidence rates of some HER2+ subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer incidence rates have risen rapidly among California AA, with the greatest increases in Koreans and Southeast Asians. Culturally tailored efforts to increase awareness of and attention to breast cancer risk factors are needed. Given the relatively higher rates of HER2-overexpressing subtypes in some AA ethnicities, research including these groups and their potentially unique exposures may help elucidate disease etiology.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Americanos Asiáticos/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , California/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Programa de SEER
20.
J Pediatr ; 185: 237-240, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28336146

RESUMO

This study investigated the relationship between birth defects and cancer in adolescents and very young adults using California's population-based registries. Although overall cancer risk was elevated among individuals with chromosomal birth defects, this was not observed in those with nonchromosomal birth defects, as was demonstrated previously in younger children.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Adulto Jovem
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