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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11849, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413293

RESUMO

This pilot study compares symptoms of depression and risk factors amongst Syrian refugees and low-income Lebanese mothers accessing a primary care centre in Beirut between January and June 2018. Women who gave birth in the previous two years or who were currently pregnant were included in the study. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Arabic Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Correlations between EPDS score and sociodemographic and mental health variables were analysed using Pearson's coefficient and ANOVA. 35 Syrian and 25 Lebanese women were recruited, 15 of whom were pregnant. EPDS scores were high in the whole group (mean 16.12 (SD 7.72), n = 60). Scores were higher amongst Syrian refugees than Lebanese mothers (17.77, SD 7.66 vs, 13.80, SD 7.34, p < 0.05). Illegal residence (p < 0.001), domestic violence (p < 0.05) and a history of mental illness (p < 0.01) were associated with higher scores. This pilot study demonstrates high rates of symptoms of depression amongst mothers in this population. Symptoms were particularly prevalent amongst Syrian refugees; three-quarters were 'probably depressed' and would warrant psychiatric assessment. This highlights the importance of improved mental healthcare for refugee mothers, the importance of addressing the social determinants of maternal mental health and further research into the effects of depression on these women and their children.

2.
Psychol Med ; : 1-13, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal depression during pregnancy increases the risk for adverse developmental outcomes in children. However, the underpinning biological mechanisms remain unknown. We tested whether depression was associated with levels of and change in the inflammatory state during pregnancy, if early pregnancy overweight/obesity or diabetes/hypertensive pregnancy disorders accounted for/mediated these effects, and if depression added to the inflammation that typically accompanies these conditions. METHODS: We analyzed plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and glycoprotein acetyls at three consecutive stages during pregnancy, derived history of depression diagnoses before pregnancy from Care Register for Healthcare (HILMO) (N = 375) and self-reports (N = 347) and depressive symptoms during pregnancy using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale completed concurrently to blood samplings (N = 295). Data on early pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and diabetes/hypertensive pregnancy disorders came from medical records. RESULTS: Higher overall hsCRP levels, but not change, during pregnancy were predicted by history of depression diagnosis before pregnancy [HILMO: mean difference (MD) = 0.69 standard deviation (s.d.) units; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.26-1.11, self-report: MD = 0.56 s.d.; 95% CI 0.17-0.94] and higher depressive symptoms during pregnancy (0.06 s.d. per s.d. increase; 95% CI 0.00-0.13). History of depression diagnosis before pregnancy also predicted higher overall glycoprotein acetyls (HILMO: MD = 0.52 s.d.; 95% CI 0.12-0.93). These associations were not explained by diabetes/hypertensive disorders, but were accounted for and mediated by early pregnancy BMI. Furthermore, in obese women, overall hsCRP levels increased as depressive symptoms during pregnancy increased (p = 0.006 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS: Depression is associated with a proinflammatory state during pregnancy. These associations are mediated by early pregnancy BMI, and depressive symptoms during pregnancy aggravate the inflammation related to obesity.

3.
Diabetologia ; 62(8): 1412-1419, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214738

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Maternal obesity in pregnancy is associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality rate in the offspring. We aimed to determine whether maternal obesity is also associated with increased incidence of type 2 and type 1 diabetes in the offspring, independently of maternal diabetes as a candidate mechanistic pathway. METHODS: Birth records of 118,201 children from 1950 to 2011 in the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank were linked to Scottish Care Information-Diabetes, the national register for diagnosed diabetes in Scotland, to identify incident and prevalent type 1 and type 2 diabetes up to 1 January 2012. Maternal BMI was calculated from height and weight measured at the first antenatal visit. The effect of maternal obesity on offspring outcomes was tested using time-to-event analysis with Cox proportional hazards regression to compare outcomes in offspring of mothers in underweight, overweight or obese categories of BMI, compared with offspring of women with normal BMI. RESULTS: Offspring of obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) and overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2) mothers had an increased hazard of type 2 diabetes compared with mothers with normal BMI, after adjustment for gestation when weight was measured, maternal history of diabetes before pregnancy, maternal history of hypertension, age at delivery, parity, socioeconomic status, and sex of the offspring: HR 3.48 (95% CI 2.33, 5.06) and HR 1.39 (1.06, 1.83), respectively. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Maternal obesity is associated with increased incidence of type 2 diabetes in the offspring. Evidence-based strategies that reduce obesity among women of reproductive age and that might reduce the incidence of diabetes in their offspring are urgently required.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2548, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186427

RESUMO

Epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation (DNAm), are among the mechanisms allowing integration of genetic and environmental factors to shape cellular function. While many studies have investigated either environmental or genetic contributions to DNAm, few have assessed their integrated effects. Here we examine the relative contributions of prenatal environmental factors and genotype on DNA methylation in neonatal blood at variably methylated regions (VMRs) in 4 independent cohorts (overall n = 2365). We use Akaike's information criterion to test which factors best explain variability of methylation in the cohort-specific VMRs: several prenatal environmental factors (E), genotypes in cis (G), or their additive (G + E) or interaction (GxE) effects. Genetic and environmental factors in combination best explain DNAm at the majority of VMRs. The CpGs best explained by either G, G + E or GxE are functionally distinct. The enrichment of genetic variants from GxE models in GWAS for complex disorders supports their importance for disease risk.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , DNA/sangue , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudos de Coortes , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Genótipo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
5.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0216157, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246973

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The optimal surgical approach for caesarean section is uncertain in women with very severe obesity (body mass index (BMI) >40kg/m2). We aimed to assess maternal and surgical predictors of surgical site skin infection (SSSI) in very severely obese women and to undertake an exploratory evaluation of clinical outcomes in women with a supra-panniculus transverse compared to an infra-panniculus transverse skin incision. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using a retrospective cohort design, case-records were reviewed of very severely obese women with a singleton pregnancy delivered by caesarean between August 2011 and December 2015 (n = 453) in two maternity hospitals in Scotland. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine predictors for SSSI. Outcomes were compared between women who had a supra-panniculus transverse compared to infra-panniculus transverse skin incision. RESULTS: Lower maternal age was predictive of SSSI, with current smoking status and longer wound open times being marginally significant. Maternal BMI, suture method and material demonstrated univariate associations with SSSI but were not independent predictors. Women with a supra-panniculus transverse skin incision were older (32.9 (4.4), vs. 30.6 (5.7), p = 0.002), had higher BMI (49.2 (7.1), vs. 43.3 (3.3), p<0.001), shorter gestation at delivery (days) (267.7 (14.9), vs. 274.8 (14.5), p<0.001) and higher prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (42.6% vs. 21.9%, p = 0.002). SSSI rates did not differ between supra-panniculus transverse (13/47; 27.7%) and infra-panniculus transverse (90/406; 22.2%; p = 0.395) skin incisions. CONCLUSION: SSSI rates are high in very severely obese women following caesarean section, regardless of location of skin incision.

6.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 104: 89-99, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826632

RESUMO

Background Maternal early pregnancy overweight (body mass index [BMI] 25.0-29.9 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) are associated with mental and physical health adversities in the offspring. Prenatal programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been put forward as one of the mechanisms that may play pathophysiological role. However, evidence linking maternal overweight and obesity with offspring HPA-axis activity is scarce. We studied if maternal early pregnancy BMI is associated with diurnal salivary cortisol, a marker of HPA-axis activity, in young adult offspring. Methods At a mean age of 25.3 (standard deviation [SD) = 0.6) years, 653 Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study participants collected saliva samples for cortisol analyses, at awakening, 15 and 30 min thereafter, 10:30AM, 12:00PM, 5:30PM and at bedtime. Maternal BMI was calculated from weight and height verified by a measurement in the first antenatal clinic visit before 12 weeks of gestation derived from healthcare records. Results Per each one kg/m2 higher maternal early pregnancy BMI offspring diurnal average salivary cortisol was -1.4% (95% CI:-2.6, -0.2, pFDR = 0.033) lower, at awakening it was -2.4% (95% CI:-4.0, -0.7, pFDR = 0.025) lower and the morning average salivary cortisol was -2.0% (95% CI:-3.4, -0.5, pFDR=0.017) lower. These associations were independent of the offspring's own young adulthood BMI, and other important covariates. Conclusion Our findings show that young adult offspring born to mothers with higher early pregnancy BMI show lower average levels of diurnal cortisol, especially in the morning. Whether these findings reflect prenatal programming of the offspring HPA-axis activity warrants further investigation.

8.
Bone ; 121: 267-276, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735797

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the skeletal effects of the first all-female trans-Antarctic traverse. METHODS: Six women (mean ±â€¯SD, age 32 ±â€¯3 years, height 1.72 ±â€¯0.07 m, body mass 72.8 ±â€¯4.0 kg) hauled 80 kg sledges over 1700 km in 61 days from coast-to-coast across the Antarctic. Whole-body areal bone mineral density (aBMD) (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and tibial volumetric BMD (vBMD), geometry, microarchitecture and estimated mechanical properties (high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography) were assessed 39 days before (pre-expedition) and 15 days after the expedition (post-expedition). Serum and plasma markers of bone turnover were assessed pre-expedition, and 4 and 15 days after the expedition. RESULTS: There were reductions in trunk (-2.6%), ribs (-5.0%) and spine (-3.4%) aBMD from pre- to post-expedition (all P ≤ 0.046); arms, legs, pelvis and total body aBMD were not different (all P ≥ 0.075). Tibial vBMD, geometry, microarchitecture and estimated mechanical properties at the metaphysis (4% site) and diaphysis (30% site) were not different between pre- and post-expedition (all P ≥ 0.082). Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase was higher 15 days post- than 4 days post-expedition (1.7 µg∙l-1, P = 0.028). Total 25(OH)D decreased from pre- to 4 days post-expedition (-36 nmol∙l-1, P = 0.008). Sclerostin, procollagen 1 N-terminal propeptide, C-telopeptide cross-links of type 1 collagen and adjusted calcium were unchanged (all P ≥ 0.154). CONCLUSION: A decline in aBMD of the axial skeleton may be due to indirect and direct effects of prolonged energy deficit. We propose that weight-bearing exercise was protective against the effects of energy deficit on tibial vBMD, geometry, microarchitecture and strength.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684643

RESUMO

Maternal obesity is the most common metabolic disturbance in pregnancy affecting >1 in 5 women in some countries. Babies born to obese women are heavier with more adiposity at birth, and are vulnerable to obesity and metabolic disease across the lifespan suggesting offspring health is 'programmed' by fetal exposure to an obese intra-uterine environment. The placenta plays a major role in dictating the impact of maternal health on prenatal development. Maternal obesity impacts the function of integral placental receptors and transporters for glucocorticoids and nutrients, key drivers of fetal growth, though mechanisms remain poorly understood. This review aims to summarise current knowledge in this area, and considers the impact of obesity on the epigenetic machinery of the placenta at this vital juncture in offspring development. Further research is required to advance understanding of these areas in the hope that the trans-generational cycle of obesity can be alleviated.

10.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2019 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30688183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Synthetic glucocorticoids, to enhance fetal maturation, are a standard treatment when preterm birth before 34 gestational weeks is imminent. While morbidity- and mortality-related benefits may outweigh potential neurodevelopmental harms in children born preterm (<37 gestational weeks), this may not hold true when pregnancy continues to term (⩾37 gestational weeks). We studied the association of antenatal betamethasone exposure on child mental health in preterm and term children. METHODS: We included 4708 women and their children, born 2006-2010, from the Prediction and Prevention of Pre-eclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction Study with information on both antenatal betamethasone treatment and child mental and behavioral disorders from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register from the child's birth to 31 December 2016. Additional follow-up data on mother-reported psychiatric problems and developmental milestones were available for 2640 children at 3.5 (s.d. = 0.07) years-of-age. RESULTS: Of the children, 187 were born preterm (61 betamethasone-exposed) and 4521 at term (56 betamethasone-exposed). The prevalence of any mental and behavioral, psychological development, emotional and behavioral, and comorbid disorders was higher in the betamethasone-exposed, compared to non-exposed children [odds ratio 2.76 (95% confidence interval 1.76-4.32), 3.61 (2.19-5.95), 3.29 (1.86-5.82), and 6.04 (3.25-11.27), respectively]. Levels of psychiatric problems and prevalence of failure to meet the age-appropriate development in personal-social skills were also higher in mother-reports of betamethasone-exposed children. These associations did not vary significantly between preterm and term children. CONCLUSIONS: Antenatal betamethasone exposure may be associated with mental health problems in children born preterm and in those who end up being born at term.

11.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 126(3): 681-690, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571278

RESUMO

This paper reports the metabolic energy changes in six women who made the first unsupported traverse of Antarctica, covering a distance of 1,700 km in 61 days, hauling sledges weighing up to 80 kg. Pre- and postexpedition, measurements of energy expenditure and substrate utilization were made on all six members of the expedition over a 36-h period in a whole body calorimeter. During the study, subjects were fed an isocaloric diet: 50% carbohydrate, 35% fat, and 15% protein. The experimental protocol contained pre- and postexpedition measurement, including periods of sleep, rest, and three periods of standardized stepping exercise at 80, 100, and 120 steps/min. A median (interquartile range) decrease in the lean and fat weight of the subjects of 1.4 (1.0) and 4.4 (1.8) kg, respectively (P < 0.05) was found, using air-displacement plethysmography. No statistically significant difference was found between pre- and postexpedition values for sleeping or resting metabolic rate, nor for diet-induced thermogenesis. A statistically significant difference was found in energy expenditure between the pre- and postexpedition values for exercise at 100 [4.7 (0.23) vs. 4.4 (0.29), P < 0.05] and 120 [5.7 (0.46) vs. 5.5 (0.43), P < 0.05] steps/min; a difference that disappeared when the metabolic rate values were normalized to body weight. The group was well matched for the measures studied. Whereas a physiological change in weight was seen, the lack of change in metabolic rate measures supports a view that women appropriately nourished and well prepared can undertake polar expeditions with a minimal metabolic energy consequence. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first study on the metabolic energy consequences for women undertaking expeditionary polar travel. The results show that participant selection gave a "well-matched" group, particularly during exercise. Notwithstanding this, individual differences were observed and explored. The results show that appropriately selected, trained, and nourished women can undertake such expeditions with no change in their metabolic energy requirements during rest or while undertaking moderate exercise over a sustained period of time.

12.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17621, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514870

RESUMO

Urinary concentrations of the major progesterone (P4) metabolite pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PDG) are used to confirm ovulation. We aimed to determine whether automated immunoassay of urinary P4 was as efficacious as PDG to confirm ovulation. Daily urine samples from 20 cycles in 14 healthy women in whom ovulation was dated by ultrasound, and serial weekly samples from 21 women in whom ovulation was unknown were analysed. Daily samples were assayed by two automated P4 immunoassays (Roche Cobas and Abbott Architect) and PDG ELISA. Serial samples were assayed for P4 by Architect and PDG by ELISA. In women with detailed monitoring of ovulation, median (95% CI) luteal phase increase was greatest for PDG, 427% (261-661), 278% (187-354) for P4 Architect and least for P4 Cobas, 146% (130-191), p < 0.0001. Cobas P4 also showed marked inaccuracy in serial dilution. Similar ROC AUCs were observed for individual threshold values and two-sample percent rise analyses for P4 Architect and PDG (both >0.92). In serial samples classified as (an)ovulatory by PDG, P4 Architect gave ROC AUC 0.95 (95% CI 0.89 to 1.01), with sensitivity and specificity for confirmation of ovulation of 0.90 and 0.91 at a cutoff of 1.67 µmol/mol. Automated P4 may potentially be as efficacious as PDG ELISA but research from a range of clinical settings is required.

13.
Physiol Rep ; 6(21): e13905, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30381902

RESUMO

The relationship between autonomic function and recovery following prolonged arduous exercise in women has not been examined. We undertook an exploratory study that aimed to examine the temporal change in linear and nonlinear measures of heart rate variability (HRV) following prolonged arduous exercise in the form of first all-female (mean age 32.7 ± 3.1 years) team to attempt an unassisted Antarctic traverse. HRV analysis was performed before and 1, 4, and 15 days postexpedition. The traverse was completed in 61 days. There was a significant paired reduction in heart rate, LnLF, LF:HF, DFAα1 between baseline and 15 days postexercise in the same environment. Conversely, RMSSD, LnHF and HFnu, SD1:SD2, and SampEn significantly increased. DFAα2 levels significantly fell from baseline to Day 1 postexercise. In conclusion, we observed a significant latent increase in relative parasympathetic dominance and RR interval irregularity at 15 days post prolonged arduous exercise, versus pre-exercise baseline, in a group of very fit and healthy adult women.

14.
Lancet ; 392(10161): 2266-2267, 2018 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30496117
15.
Pediatr Res ; 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30305694

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Maternal overweight/obesity and comorbid hypertensive disorders and gestational diabetes associate with neurodevelopmental delay in the offspring in childhood. We hypothesize that these maternal conditions associate also with the offspring regulatory behavior problems and impact on neurodevelopment via the offspring regulatory behavior. METHODS: A number of 3117 women of the PREDO Study filled in a questionnaire on regulatory behavior problems at the child's mean age of 16.9 days and 2116 of them a questionnaire on developmental milestones at the child's mean age of 42.2 months. Data on maternal BMI and comorbid disorders come from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. RESULTS: Offspring of overweight/obese mothers in comparison to normal weight mothers had higher levels of regulatory behavior problems and 22% (95% confidence interval 5-42%) higher odds of having problems on multiple domains of behavioral regulation at the mean age of 16.9 days. Offspring regulatory behavior problems partially mediated the association between maternal overweight/obesity and developmental milestones comprising communication, gross motor, fine motor, problem solving, and personal/social domains of development. Comorbid disorders did not associate with offspring regulatory behavior problems. CONCLUSION: Regulatory behavior problems of the offspring have prenatal origins and partially mediate the effects of maternal overweight/obesity on offspring neurodevelopment.

16.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; : 1-11, 2018 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30306807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ingestion of organophosphorus (OP) insecticides is associated with acute hyperglycaemia. We conducted a prospective study to determine whether glucose dysregulation on admission associated with ingestion of OP insecticides or other pesticides is sustained to hospital discharge or to 3-12 months later. METHODS: We recruited participants to two similar studies performed in parallel in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, and Chittagong, Bangladesh, following hospitalisation for OP insecticide, herbicide or other pesticide self-poisoning. Two-hour 75 g oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) was performed after recovery from the acute poisoning, at around the time of discharge. In Sri Lanka, a four time-point OGTT for area-under-the-curve (AUC), C-peptide and homeostatic modelling of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was undertaken, repeated after 1 year. In Bangladesh, a 2-h OGTT for glucose was undertaken and repeated after 3 months in participants with initial elevated 2-h glucose. We compared glucose homeostasis by poison group and adjusted findings for age, BMI and sex. FINDINGS: Seventy-three Sri Lankan and 151 Bangladeshi participants were recruited. We observed higher mean [SD] fasting (4.91 [0.74] vs. 4.66 [0.46] mmol/L, p = .003) and 2-h glucose (7.94 [2.54] vs. 6.71 [1.90] mmol/L, p < .0001) in OP-poisoned groups than pyrethroid, carbamate, herbicide or 'other poison' groups at discharge from hospital. In Sri Lanka, HOMA-IR, glucose and C-peptide AUC were higher in OP than carbamate or herbicide groups. Adjusted analyses remained significant except for fasting glucose. Follow-up analysis included 92 participants. There was no significant difference in OGTT results between OP-poisoned and other participants at follow-up (mean [SD] 2-h fasting glucose 4.67 [0.92] vs. 4.82 [0.62], p = .352; 2-h glucose 6.96 [2.31] mmol/L vs. 6.27 [1.86] mmol/L, p = .225). CONCLUSION: We found in this small prospective study that acute OP insecticide poisoning caused acute glucose dysregulation that was sustained to hospital discharge but had recovered by 3-12 months. Acute glucose dysregulation was related to defects in insulin action and secretion. This study did not address long-term risk of diabetes following acute OP insecticide poisoning, but could provide a power calculation for such a study.

17.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30308528

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the effects of the first all-female transantarctic expedition on hormonal axes pertinent to reproductive and metabolic function. METHODS: Six females (aged 28-36, BMI 24.2 ±0.97 kgm) hauled 80kg sledges 1700km in 61 days. Estimated average energy intake was 20.8 ± 0.103 MJ/day (4970 ±25 kcal/day). Whole and regional body composition was measured by DXA one and two months before and 15 days after, the expedition. Body fat was also estimated by skinfold and bioimpedance immediately before and after the expedition. Basal metabolic and endocrine blood markers and, after 0.25 mg dexamethasone suppression, 1-hour 10 µg Gonadorelin and 1.0 µg ACTH-(1-24) tests were completed, 39-38 days pre- and 4-5 and 15-16 days post-expedition. Cortisol was assessed in hair (monthly average concentrations) and saliva (5-point day curves and two-point diurnal sampling). RESULTS: Average body mass loss was 9.37 ±2.31 kg (p<0.0001), comprising fat mass only; total lean mass was maintained. Basal sex steroids, corticosteroids and metabolic markers were largely unaffected by the expedition except leptin, which decreased during the expedition and recovered after 15 days, a proportionately greater change than body fat. LH reactivity was suppressed prior to and during the expedition, but recovered after 15 days, while FSH did not change during or after the expedition. Cortisol reactivity did not change during or after the expedition. Basal (suppressed) cortisol was 73.25 ±45.23 mmol/L before, 61.66 ± 33.11 mmol/L 5 days post- and 54.43 ±28.60 mmol/L 16 days post-expedition (p=0.67). Hair cortisol was elevated during the expedition.Maintenance of reproductive and HPA axis function in women following an extreme physical endeavor, despite energy deficiency, suggests high female biological capacity for extreme endurance exercise.

18.
Trends Endocrinol Metab ; 29(11): 743-754, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297319

RESUMO

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common metabolic disturbance during pregnancy. The prevalence is rising and correlates with the increase in maternal obesity over recent decades. The etiology of GDM is complex, with genetic and environmental factors implicated in mechanistic and epidemiological studies. GDM begets important short- and long-term health risks for the mother, developing fetus, and offspring. This includes the high likelihood of subsequent maternal type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and possible adverse cardiometabolic phenotypes in the offspring. The most clinically and cost-effective methods of screening for GDM remain uncertain. Whilst treatments with lifestyle and pharmacological interventions have demonstrated short-term benefits, the long-term impact for the offspring of intrauterine exposure to antidiabetic medication remains unclear.

19.
Pediatr Res ; 2018 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal depression complicates a large proportion of pregnancies. Current evidence shows numerous harmful effects on the offspring. Reviews, which include depression, concluded that stress has harmful effects on the offspring's outcomes neuro-cognitive development, temperament traits, and mental disorders. OBJECTIVE: This mini review of recent studies, sought to narrow the scope of exposure and identify studies specifically assessing prenatal depression and offspring neuropsychiatric outcomes. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: The review included longitudinal, cohort, cross-sectional, clinical, quasi-experimental, epidemiological, or intervention study designs published in English from 2014 to 2018. PARTICIPANTS: Study populations included mother-child dyads, mother-father-child triads, mother-alternative caregiver-child triads, and family studies utilizing sibling comparisons. METHODS: We searched PubMED and Web of Science. Study inclusion and data extraction were based on standardized templates. The quality of evidence was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). RESULTS: Thirteen studies examining neuropsychiatric outcomes were included. We judged the evidence to be moderate to high quality. CONCLUSIONS: Our review supports that maternal prenatal depression is associated with neuropsychiatric adversities in children. IMPLICATIONS: Future investigations should unravel the biological underpinnings and target timely interventions as early in pregnancy as possible to prevent offspring neuropsychiatric harms.

20.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 144: 294-301, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30244050

RESUMO

AIMS: Evidence suggests that screening for gestational diabetes (GDM) occurs too late in pregnancy, when changes in glucose metabolism and fetal growth rates can already be detected. In August 2016 NHS Lothian began screening women with risk factors for GDM during early pregnancy (11-13 weeks). We hypothesised that an earlier identification and treatment of dysglycaemia would improve pregnancy outcomes compared to previous standard care. METHODS: We compared management and outcomes for singleton pregnancies with GDM delivering at Royal Infirmary Edinburgh, UK, diagnosed through routine or early screening from 01/01/2015-31/10/2017 (routine screening n = 335, early screening n = 241). RESULTS: Early screening increased the proportion of women diagnosed before 24 weeks' gestation (n = 59/335, 17.6% vs n = 103/241, 42.7%, p < 0.001) but did not change the average monthly rate of diagnosis. Early screening increased the median duration of GDM during pregnancy (71 vs 93 days of gestation, p < 0.001) with no significant changes in the pharmacological management. Early screening improved the primary composite outcome (emergency caesarean section, neonatal hypoglycaemia and macrosomia; n = 138/335, 41.2% vs n = 73/241, 30.3%, adjusted Odds Ratio [95% confidence interval] 0.62 [0.43-0.91]. CONCLUSIONS: There is a role for early screening and management of GDM however it is unclear whether this represents a cost-effective intervention.

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