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2.
Hum Immunol ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706743

RESUMO

Severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) is described by the absolute neutrophil counts less than 500 cells/mm3, bacterial infections, and an arrest of neutrophil differentiation. So, effective strategies for improving the function and lifespan of the existing neutrophils in these patients are necessary. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have supportive effects on neutrophils. Recently, it was determined that MSCs exert their effects, mostly by secreting soluble factors and exosomes. So, in this study, neutrophils were isolated from the bloodstream of healthy donors and SCN patients and cultured with medium, MSC-exosomes or MSC-conditioned media (MSC-CM). Then, the effects of the two treatments on neutrophil respiratory burst, apoptosis and phagocytosis percentage were assessed using nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) assay, annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) and Giemsa staining, respectively. Both treatments could significantly augment respiratory burst of neutrophils from SCN patients and healthy donors. But, only CM could significantly enhance phagocytosis index. About the lifespan of neutrophils, only exosomes could significantly enhance it in both groups. Based on these results, both exosomes and CM derived from MSCs could be attractive candidates for rescuing SCN patients from serious infections.

3.
Immunol Lett ; 216: 70-78, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is the most severe form of primary immunodeficiency disorders that is characterized by impaired early T lymphocyte differentiation and is variably associated with abnormal development of other lymphocyte lineages. SCID can be caused by mutations in more than 20 different genes. Molecular diagnosis in SCID patients contributes to genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis, treatment modalities, and overall prognosis. In this cohort, the clinical, laboratory and genetic data related to Iranian SCID patients were comprehensively evaluated and efficiency of stepwise sequencing methods approach based on immunophenotype grouping was investigated METHODS: Clinical and laboratory data from 242 patients with SCID phenotype were evaluated. Molecular genetic analysis methods including Sanger sequencing, targeted gene panel and whole exome sequencing were performed on 62 patients. RESULTS: Mortality rate was 78.9% in the cohort with a median follow-up of four months. The majority of the patients had a phenotype of T-NK-B+ (34.3%) and the most severe clinical manifestation and highest mortality rate were observed in T-NK-B- SCID cases. Genetic mutations were confirmed in 50 patients (80.6%), of which defects in recombination-activating genes (RAG1 and RAG2) were found in 16 patients (32.0%). The lowest level of CD4+ and CD8+ cells were observed in patients with ADA deficiency (p = 0.026) and IL2RG deficiency (p = 0.019), respectively. CONCLUSION: Current findings suggest that candidate gene approach based on patient's immunophenotype might accelerate molecular diagnosis of SCID patients. Candidate gene selection should be done according to the frequency of disease-causing genes in different populations. Targeted gene panel, WES and WGS methods can be used for the cases which are not diagnosed using this method.

4.
J Clin Exp Neuropsychol ; 41(10): 987-1000, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405320

RESUMO

Extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, in particular cognitive impairments, can be present in the absence of clinical liver dysfunction. Executive memory, attention, and concentration are cognitive domains that are most frequently affected. Microstructural and functional changes in cortical gray matter and basal ganglia associate these neuropsychiatric changes in early HCV infection. No study has covered the relationship between imaging features of HCV-related cognitive impairment and HCV pathology. Herein we summarize evidence suggesting a direct pathology of HCV in microglia, astrocytes, and microvascular endothelial cells, and a neuroinflammatory response in HCV-related cognitive decline. Lipoproteins and their receptors mediate HCV infectivity in the central nervous system and confer susceptibility to HCV-related cognitive decline. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy has revealed changes compatible with reactive gliosis and microglial activation in basal ganglia, frontal and occipital white matter, in the absence of cirrhosis or hepatic encephalopathy. Similarly, diffusion imaging shows evidence of structural disintegrity in the axonal fibers of white matter tracts associated with temporal and frontal cortices. We also discuss the cognitive benefits and side-effects of the two most popular therapeutic protocols interferon-based therapy and interferon-free therapy using direct acting anti-virals. Evidences support a network-based pattern of disruption in functional connectivity in HCV patients and a common neuronal substrate for HCV-related and interferon-therapy-associated cognitive decline. These evidences might help identify patients who benefit from either interferon-based or interferon-free treatment regimen.

5.
Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 14(15): 2083-2100, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368405

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer is one of the most common causes of mortality throughout the world. Unfortunately, chemotherapy has failed to cure advanced cancers developing multidrug resistance (MDR). Moreover, it has critical side effects because of nonspecific toxicity. Thanks to specific silencing of oncogenes and MDR-associated genes, nano-siRNA drugs can be a great help address the limitations of chemotherapy. Here, we review the current advances in nanoparticle-mediated siRNA delivery strategies such as polymeric- and lipid-based systems, rigid nanoparticles and nanoparticles coupled to specific ligand systems. Nanoparticle-based codelivery of anticancer drugs and siRNA targeting various mechanisms of MDR is a cutting-edge strategy for ovarian cancer therapy, which is completely discussed in this review.

6.
Immunotherapy ; 11(14): 1231-1251, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422725

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells are among the significant components of innate immune system and they have come to the first line of defense against tumor cells developing inside the body. CD56lo/CD16+ NK cells are highly cytotoxic and CD56hi NK cells can produce cytokines and perform a regulatory function. Specific features of NK cells have made them a unique choice for cancer immunotherapy. Simple interventions like cytokine-injection to boost the internal NK cells were the first trials to target these cells. Nowadays, many other types of intervention are under investigation, such as adoptive NK cell immunotherapy. In this paper, we will discuss the biology and function of NK cells in cancer immunosurveillance and therapeutic approaches against cancer via using NK cells.

7.
Immunol Lett ; 215: 48-59, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442542

RESUMO

Regulatory B cells (Bregs) are immune-modulating cells that affect the immune system by producing cytokines or cellular interactions. These cells have immunomodulatory effects on the immune system by cytokine production. The abnormalities in Bregs could be involved in various disorders such as autoimmunity, chronic infectious disease, malignancies, allergies, and primary immunodeficiencies are immune-related scenarios. Ongoing investigation could disclose the biology and the exact phenotype of these cells and also the assigned mechanisms of action of each subset, as a result, potential therapeutic strategies for treating immune-related anomalies. In this review, we collect the findings of human and mouse Bregs and the therapeutic efforts to change the pathogenicity of these cells in diverse disease.

8.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 47(5): 491-498, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) is characterized by increased susceptibility to weakly virulent mycobacteria (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin [BCG] vaccines and environmental mycobacteria), Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Candida spp. and Salmonella spp. The aim of this study is to evaluate clinical features and immunological findings of MSMD patients with interleukin 12 receptor beta 1 (IL12Rß1) deficiency. METHODS: Among 117 screened patients with BCG infection following vaccination, 23 suspected MSMD subjects were recruited to this study by the exclusion of severe combined immunodeficiencies and chronic granulomatous diseases. Flow cytometric assessment for surface expression of IL12Rß1 was performed. Moreover, the clinical and immunological data from the patients was evaluated. RESULTS: A significant decrease (less than 1%) in the surface expression of IL12Rß1 was reported in six cases which showed a significant increase in the count of lymphocytes (p=0.009) and CD8+ T cells (p=0.008) as compared to MSMD subjects with normal expression of surface IL12Rß1. The frequency of disseminated BCGosis (50% vs. 20%, p=0.29), recurrent infection (83.3% vs. 40%, p=0.14) and salmonellosis (33.3% vs. 0.0%, p=0.07) was higher in IL12Rß1 deficient subjects than IL12Rß1 sufficient individuals. CONCLUSION: MSMD patients with childhood onset of mycobacteriosis (mostly after BCG vaccination) and recurrent salmonellosis could be evaluated for IL12Rß1 expression with flow cytometry for punctual diagnosis.

9.
Cytokine ; 123: 154740, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the search for the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), inflammatory markers have emerged as potential candidates. The present meta-analysis was performed on studies examining circulating concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines in people with ASD compared with control subjects without ASD. METHODS: We identified potentially eligible studies by systematically searching electronic databases from inception to February 2018. RESULTS: Twenty-five studies with a total of 1754 participants (1022 patients with ASD and 732 control subjects) were included in the mate-analysis; 4 for interferon (IFN)-α, 9 for interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist (Ra), 9 for IL-4, 6 for IL-5, 3 for IL-9, 14 for IL-10, 7 for IL-13, and 6 for transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß. We found a moderate decrease in plasma levels of IL-10 (SMD = -0.59) and a small decrease in serum levels of IL-1Ra (SMD = -0.25) in patients with ASD. On the contrary, serum IL-5 levels were slightly increased (SMD = 0.26) in these patients. We conducted meta-regression analyses to investigate the possible effect of moderatos on the effect size (ES) of difference in mean levels of IL-10. Difference in the mean age between patients and controls showed a negative influence on the ES and was able to explain about 0.4 of total between-study variance. In contrast, latitude exerted a positive effect on the ES and explained a lower proportion (0.1) of total between-study variance. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis provides evidence for the lower concentration of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-1Ra in autistic patients compared with control subjects. Also, meta-regression analyses point to the interaction of latitude, age, and gender with peripheral alterations of associated anti-inflammatory cytokines.

10.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 74: 105689, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neutrophils are short-lived cells of the innate immune system that have an important role in defending against pathogens by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, effective strategies for increasing neutrophil's viability and function may be beneficial, especially in many conditions such as infections and immunodeficiency diseases. Some studies suggest using multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and MSC-conditioned media (MSC-CM) for this aim. But, there is no study on using MSC-derived exosomes for improving neutrophil's viability and function. So, we examined the effects of MSC-exosomes and also MSC-CM on neutrophil's function and survival and compared them with each other. METHODS: Exosomes and CM were isolated from human adipose tissue MSCs. Exosomes were characterized, and the protein content of them was determined. Neutrophils were isolated from five healthy donors, and the effects of the two independent treatments (exosomes and conditioned media) on neutrophil's apoptosis were measured by Annexin V-PI method, then neutrophil's function was evaluated using NBT and phagocytosis assays. RESULTS: It was recognized that exosomes decreased neutrophils apoptosis and increased their phagocytosis capacity. The conditioned media augmented neutrophil's phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, but it couldn't decrease neutrophil's apoptosis. DISCUSSION: Briefly, we concluded that MSC-exosomes augment neutrophil's viability more than their function while MSC-CM increase neutrophil's function more than the survival. This report showed that the use of MSC-exosomes and CM might be useful for increasing immunity by improving neutrophil's function and survival.

11.
Immunol Invest ; 48(8): 860-874, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185757

RESUMO

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are inevitable elements for immunity development and antibody production. TLRs are in close interaction with Bruton's tyrosine kinase which has been found mutated and malfunctioned in the prototype antibody deficiency disease named X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). TLRs' ability was evaluated to induce transcription of TLR-negative regulators, including suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1), interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 3 (IRAK-M), tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3, A20), and Ring finger protein 216 (RNF216), and Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and Interferon-α (IFN-α) production via Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and CpG-A oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-A ODN). Measured by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), meaningfully increased transcripts of SOCS1 and RNF216 were found in XLA peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Also, TLR inductions of XLA have led to similar downregulations in the regulator's transcription which was different from that in healthy donors. Cytokine measurement by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed a significant lower TNF-α production both before and after LPS. By selected molecules in this study, TLRs' potential defectiveness range expands TLRs expression, downstream signaling, and cytokine production. The results show new potential elements that could play a part in TLRs defect and pathogenesis of agammaglobulinemia as well.

12.
Fetal Pediatr Pathol ; : 1-8, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232672

RESUMO

Objective: Pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus (PSLE) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disorder of unknown origin. PTPN22 gene polymorphisms have been associated with SLE in different populations. We investigated the associations of the rs2476601, rs1217414, rs33996649, rs1276457, and rs1310182 SNPs in the PTPN22 gene with PSLE. Materials and methods: 55 PSLE patients and 93 healthy controls were recruited. SNPs were genotyped by the real-time PCR allelic discrimination method. Results: We found that the PTPN22 polymorphisms rs1310182 A allele (p = 0.01, OR = 1.92 95% CI = 1.16-3.18), and rs1310182 AA genotype with (p < 0.001) and rs12760457 TT (p = 0.046) were associated with PSLE. No significant associations were found between other SNPs and PSLE. Conclusions: The PTPN22 rs1310182 A allele and rs1310182 AA genotype were associated with PSLE and may be a possible genetic marker for susceptibility to PSLE. However, further investigation would be required to elucidate the mechanistic role of this association.

13.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 15(7): 689-691, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157571
14.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 180(1): 52-63, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyper-immunoglobulin M (HIGM) syndrome is a rare heterogeneous group of primary immunodeficiency disorders characterized by low or absent serum levels of IgG and IgA along with normal or elevated serum levels of IgM. METHODS: Clinical and immunological data were collected from the 75 patients' medical records diagnosed in Children's Medical Center affiliated to Tehran University Medical Sciences and other Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran. Among 75 selected patients, 48 patients (64%) were analyzed genetically using targeted and whole-exome sequencing. RESULTS: The ratio of male to female was 2.9:1. The median age at the onset of the disease, time of diagnosis, and diagnostic delay were 10.5, 50, and 24 months, respectively. Pneumonia and lower respiratory tract infections (61.3%) were the most common complications. Responsible genes were identified in 35 patients (72.9%) out 48 genetically analyzed patients. Cluster of differentiation 40 ligand gene was the most mutated gene observed in 24 patients (68.5%) followed by activation-induced cytidine deaminase gene in 7 patients, lipopolysaccharide-responsive and beige-like anchor (1 patient), nuclear factor-kappa-B essential modulator (1 patient), phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 (1 patient), and nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1 (1 patient) genes. Nineteen (25.3%) patients died during the study period, and pneumonia was the major cause of death occurred in 6 (31.6%) patients. CONCLUSION: Physicians in our country should carefully pay attention to respiratory tract infections and pneumonia, particularly in patients with a positive family history. Further investigations are required for detection of new genes and pathways resulting in HIGM phenotype.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência com Hiper-IgM/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência com Hiper-IgM/etiologia , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Criança , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Irã (Geográfico) , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Mutação , Avaliação de Sintomas , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Cell Physiol ; 234(12): 22386-22399, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081218

RESUMO

Triple-negative (TN) tumors are a subtype of breast cancer with aggressive behaviors and limited targeted therapies. Microarray studies were not concerned with interactions and functional relations of dysregulated transcripts. Here, we aimed to conduct integrative strategy to analyze gene and miRNA available microarray data as well as bioinformatic analyses to catch a more inclusive picture of pivotal dysregulated transcripts and their interactions in TN tumors. Several online datasets and offline bioinformatic tools were used to detect differentially expressed (DE) transcripts, both protein and nonprotein coding, in TN compared with non-TN tumors and their functional and molecular interactions. Sixteen upregulated and 58 downregulated genes with a log fold change higher or equal to | 2 | were identified, including nine transcription factors. Coexpression network revealed EN1 as a hub gene, moreover Kaplan-Meier plotter survival analysis indicated that it was an appropriate prognostic marker for TN patients with breast cancer. Functional annotation analysis of protein-protein interaction network showed FOXM1 as an upexpressed and ESR1 as a downexpressed hub genes are suitable targets as far as antitumor protein therapy is concerned in TN breast cancers. The consensus analysis of two microRNA datasets revealed seven DE miRNAs. The gene-transcriptional factor (TF)-miRNA network revealed mir-135b and mir-29b are the hub nodes and involved in feedback loops with GATA3. This study suggests that dysregulated TFs and miRNAs have pivotal roles in regulation of TN oncotranscriptomic profile and might become both biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

16.
Acta Biomed ; 90(2): 221-227, 2019 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As cytokines, including interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor beta 1(TGF-ß1) seem to contribute towards the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure (CHF), this study was performed to assess the associations of certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of these genes in a case control study. METHODS: This investigation was carried out to determine the frequency of alleles, genotypes and haplotypes of TGF-ß1 and IL-10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 57 Iranian patients with CHF compared with 140 healthy subjects using polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers method. RESULTS: Results of the analyzed data divulged a negative association for both TGF-ß1 GC genotype at codon 25 (P=0.047) and CT genotype at codon 10 (P=0.018) and CHF proneness. Although, TGF-ß1 CC genotype at codon 10 was found to be positively associated with CHF (P=0.011). Moreover, the frequency of IL-10 (-1082, -819, -592) ATA haplotype and TGF-ß1 (codon 10, codon 25) TG haplotype were significantly lower in the patients group (P=0.004 and P=0.040, respectively), while TGF-ß1 (codon 10, codon 25) CG haplotype was overrepresented in patients with CHF (P=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Cytokine gene polymorphisms might affect vulnerability to CHF. Particular genotypes and haplotypes in IL-10 and TGF-ß1 genes could render individuals more susceptible to CHF.

17.
Immunotherapy ; 11(9): 831-850, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094257

RESUMO

Neuroblastoma (NB) is a common and deadly malignancy mostly observed in children. Evolution of therapeutic options for NB led to the addition of immunotherapeutic modalities to the previously recruited chemotherapeutic options. Molecular studies of the NB cells resulted in the discovery of many tumor-associated genes and antigens such as MYCN gene and GD2. MYCN gene and GD2 surface antigen are two of the most practical discoveries regarding immunotherapy of neuroblastoma. The GD2 antigen has been targeted in many animal and human studies including Phase III clinical trials. Even though these antigens have changed the face of pediatric neuroblastoma, they do not take as much credit in immunotherapy of adult-onset neuroblastoma. Monoclonal antibodies have been designed to detect this antigen on the surface of NB tumor cells. Despite bettering the outcomes for NB patients, current therapies still fail in many cases. Studies are underway to discover more specific tumor-associated antigens and more effective treatment options. In the current narrative, immunotherapy of NB - from emerging of this therapeutic backbone in NB to the latest discoveries regarding this malignancy - has been reviewed.

18.
Eur Cytokine Netw ; 30(1): 1-14, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074417

RESUMO

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is the most common cause of acute paralysis in the United States. Campylobacter jejuni is a common trigger for GBS, igniting autoimmunity as a result of molecular mimicry between C. jejuni lipooligosaccharide (LOS) and host gangliosides. Evidence also suggests an active role for cell-mediated and innate immunity in pathogenesis of GBS. Infection alone is not enough for GBS to develop, infection with the same strain might yield different outcomes in different patients. C. jejuni strains with low to absent molecular mimicry to self-antigens can cause full-blown GBS with positive autoantibodies. A role for T helper 17 and IL-17 in acute phase of GBS is also identified. Currently, no biological treatment is validated for severe, ventilation-dependent patients with GBS, who might not benefit from either IVIG or plasma exchange therapy. Use of biologic agents in treatment-resistant GBS, especially anti-IL-17 agents, such as secukinumab, ixekizumab, and brodalumab, is to be hoped. This review covers up-to-date knowledge on autoimmune mechanisms responsible in different subtypes of GBS: acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and acute motor axonal neuropathy; as well as the experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN), a commonly used animal model of GBS.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade/imunologia , Campylobacter jejuni/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/imunologia , Mimetismo Molecular/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/imunologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Gangliosídeos/imunologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/patologia , Humanos , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Camundongos , Células Th17/imunologia
19.
J Psychiatr Res ; 115: 90-102, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) occur in 1.5% of the general population worldwide. Studies suggest that ASD might have more costs than diabetes and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder by 2025. Dysregulation of the cytokine system is well-documented in ASD. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies providing data on circulating concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines in people with ASD compared with control subjects without ASD. METHODS: We identified potentially eligible studies by systematically searching electronic databases from inception to February 2018. RESULTS: Thirty-eight studies with total of 2487 participants (1393 patients with ASD and 1094 control subjects) were included in the meta-analysis; 13 for interferon (IFN)-γ, 17 for interleukin (IL)-1ß, 22 for IL-6, 19 for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, 4 for IL-1α, 6 for IL-2, 4 for IL-7, 8 for IL-8, 14 for IL-12, 3 for IL-15, 12 for IL-17, 3 for IL-18, 3 for IL-2 receptor, 3 for TNF-ß, and 3 for IL-23. We found medium increases in levels of plasma IFN-γ (standardized mean difference, SMD = 0.53) and serum IL-1ß (SMD = 0.56) and small increases in levels of blood IL-1ß (SMD = 0.35), serum IL-6 (SMD = 0.30) and serum TNF-α (SMD = 0.31) for patients with ASD. Meta-regression analyses identified latitude as a negative moderator of the effect size (ES) of difference in mean levels of IFN-γ (R2 = 0.26) and TNF-α (R2 = 0.74). Also, difference in the mean age between patients and controls had a negative interaction with the ES of difference in mean levels of IL-1ß. In contrast, there was a positive effect of the moderator of difference in the proportion of male subjects between patients and controls on the ES of difference in mean levels of IL-1ß. We found no significant alterations in peripheral levels of other pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1α, IL-2, IL-2R, IL-3, IL-7, IL-8, IL-12, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-17, IL-18, IL-23, TBF-ß, and TNFRI/II in patients with ASD. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis provides evidence for higher concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α in autistic patents compared with control subjects. Also, meta-regression analyses point to the interaction of latitude, age, and gender with peripheral alterations of associated pro-inflammatory cytokines.

20.
Int Rev Immunol ; 38(2): 79-91, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931651

RESUMO

Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a novel strategy for treating non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Several studies have shown the promising results of using RIT in NHL, which have led to FDA approval for two RIT agents in treating low grade NHL. In spite of these favorable results in low-grade NHL, most of the aggressive or relapsed/refractory NHL subjects experience relapses following RIT. Although more aggressive treatments such as myeloablative doses of RIT followed by stem cell transplantation appear to be able to provide a longer survival for some patients these approaches are associated with significant treatment-related adverse events and challenging to deliver in most centers. Therefore, it seems reasonable to develop treatment approaches that enhance the efficiency of RIT, while reducing its toxicity. In this paper, novel methods that improve the efficiency of RIT and reduce its toxicity through various mechanisms are reviewed. Further clinical development of these methods could expand the NHL patient groups eligible for receiving RIT, and even extend the use of RIT to new indications and disease groups in future.

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