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1.
Arch Iran Med ; 23(11): 801-812, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been widespread since late December 2019, with several symptoms related to the upper and lower respiratory system. However, its cardiac manifestations are less frequently studied. We aimed to analyze the available COVID-19 data on acute cardiac injury, using troponin and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels. METHODS: We performed a systematic review on Medline/PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases until March 25, 2020. Relevant records reporting the incidence of acute cardiac injury as well as troponin and BNP levels were collected from published peer-reviewed articles with further analysis according to the clinical status of the patients (severe, non-severe, and death). RESULTS: Eleven records of 1394 individuals were included. The mean age of patients with acute cardiac injury was 56.6 ± 33.4 years (males: 54.3%). The incidence of acute cardiac injury was 15% (95% CI: 11, 20%). Further analysis revealed that dead or severe patients had significantly higher percentages of myocardial injury, compared to non-severe ones (peer-reviewed: 44%, 95% CI: 16, 74% vs. 24%, 95% CI: 15, 34% vs. 5%, 95% CI: 1, 12%, respectively). Mean total troponin was 10.23 pg/mL (95% CI: 5.98, 14.47), while 13% (95% CI: 8%, 18%) of patients had elevated levels. Mean BNP was 216.74 pg/mL (95% CI: 3.27, 430.20). CONCLUSION: Acute cardiac injury in COVID-19 patients is more frequent than what was expected at the beginning of the outbreak. Meanwhile, further studies are needed to investigate the utility of cardiac biomarkers as diagnostic and prognostic tools for long-term cardiac complications of this infection.

2.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225425

RESUMO

Embryogenesis is regarded the 'miracle of life', yet numerous aspects of this process are not fully understood. As the embryo grows in the mother's womb, immune components, stem cells and microenvironmental cues cooperate among others to promote embryonic development. Evidently, these key players are frequently associated with transplantation failure and tumor growth. While the fields of transplantation and cancer biology do not overlap, both can be viewed from the perspective of an embryo. As an 'unrejected transplant' and a 'benign tumor', lessons from embryonic development may reveal features of transplants and tumors that have been overlooked. Therefore, eavesdropping at these natural complex events during pregnancy may inspire more durable approaches to arrest transplant rejection or cancer progression.

3.
J Pediatr Nurs ; 56: 70-79, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186866

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus, known as 2019-nCoV or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused an epidemic with high mortality and morbidity since December 2019, in Wuhan, China. The infection has now been transmitted to more than 210 countries worldwide and caused more than 200,000 deaths. Similar to other coronaviruses such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), SARS-CoV-2 appears to less commonly affect pediatrics and to cause less severe disease along with fewer symptoms compared to adults. Available data suggest that the pediatric population is just as likely as adults to become infected with SARS-CoV-2. However, they may be asymptotic or have milder symptoms than adults; they can be potential carriers of the disease. This article reviews the present understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the pediatric age group in comparison with MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV.

4.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-12, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is rapidly growing due to high level of contagiousness. Different measures have been taken to slow the spread of the virus. Appropriate use of personal protective equipment (PPE) is one of these key measures. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated adherence of the general public to use of PPE and their knowledge regarding the rationale behind their use. METHODS: Two samples were chosen from public places (a subway station and a city store) in Tehran, Iran, one of the countries affected by COVID-19. Individuals were observed for appropriate use of PPE and interviewed regarding their knowledge on some basic self-protection information. RESULTS: Approximately, half of the 431 participants did not take any measures to ensure hand hygiene, while those who did not use respiratory protection were far fewer. A considerable number of individuals, however, did not use these PPE correctly. On the other hand, there was a gap in the knowledge of the general public regarding different aspects of protective measures. The majority of the participants were receptive towards education on preventive measurements through public media. CONCLUSION: Education is an important aspect in containing the COVID-19 pandemic, as it directly increases adherence of the general public to protective measures.

5.
Int Rev Immunol ; : 1-42, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236682

RESUMO

Several risk factors are known to be involved in the initiation and development of gastric cancer. Among them, H. pylori is one of the most prominent with multiple virulence factors contributing to its pathogenicity. In this study, we have discussed an interesting immunological cycle exploring the interplay between H. pylori, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), tryptophan, arginine, and the metabolites of these two amino acids in the development of gastric cancer. AHR is a ligand-activated transcription factor which acts as a regulator for a diverse set of genes and has various types of exogenous and endogenous ligands. The tryptophan metabolite, kynurenine, is one of these ligands that can interact with AHR, leading to immune suppression and subsequently, susceptibility to gastric cancer. On the other hand, H. pylori downregulates the expression of AHR and AHR repressor (AHRR), leading to increased inflammatory cytokine production. A metabolite of the kynurenine pathway, xanthurenic acid, is a potent inhibitor of a terminal enzyme in the synthetic pathway of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). BH4, itself, is a cofactor in the process of nitric oxide (NO) production from arginine that has been shown to have immune-enhancing properties. Arginine has also been evidenced to have anti-tumoral function through inducing apoptosis in gastric cell lines; however, controversy exists regarding the anti-tumor role of arginine and BH4, since they are also associated with increased NO production, subsequently promoting tumor angiogenesis. Hence, although several synergistic connections result in immunity improvement, these correlations can also act as a double-edged sword, promoting tumor development. This emphasizes on the need for further investigations to better understand this complex interplay.

6.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; : 1-9, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191807

RESUMO

Introduction: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders, is characterized by early-onset impairments in social-communication, repetitive behaviors, and restrictive interests. Areas covered: Although still unknown, there are some pieces of evidence suggesting altered immune function in the etiology of ASD. This review aims to summarize studies linking Natural Killer (NK) cells to ASD by searching through databases like MEDLINE and Scopus up to October 2020. NK cells play important roles in the innate immune system and immune regulation. As parts of the immune system, they interact with the neural system as well. Immune dysregulations such as autoimmunity and improper immune responses to both internal and external stimulations, especially in early developmental stages of the brain, may induce neurodevelopmental disorders. NK cells' dysfunction in children with ASD as well as their parents have been highlighted in many studies. Expert opinion: Changes in the frequency, gene expressions, cytotoxicity features, and receptors of NK cells are reported in children with ASD. Immune therapy for children with ASD with immune abnormality has shown promising results. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the exact role of NK cells in the pathogenesis of ASD providing future treatment options for these children.

7.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241928, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a crucial role in the survival, differentiation, growth, and plasticity of the central nervous system (CNS). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex syndrome that affects CNS function. Evidence indicates that changes in peripheral levels of BDNF may interfere with stress. However, the results are mixed. This study investigates whether blood levels of BDNF in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are different. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search in the major electronic medical databases from inception through September 2019 and identified Observational studies that measured serum levels of BDNF in patients with PTSD compared to controls without PTSD. RESULTS: 20 studies were eligible to be included in the present meta-analysis. Subjects with PTSD (n = 909) showed lower BDNF levels compared to Non-PTSD controls (n = 1679) (SMD = 0.52; 95% confidence interval: 0.18 to 0.85). Subgroup meta-analyses confirmed higher levels of BDNF in patients with PTSD compared to non-PTSD controls in plasma, not serum, and in studies that used sandwich ELISA, not ELISA, for BDNF measurement. Meta-regressions showed no significant effect of age, gender, NOS, and sample size. CONCLUSIONS: PTSD patients had increased serum BDNF levels compared to healthy controls. Our finding of higher BDNF levels in patients with PTSD supports the notion that PTSD is a neuroplastic disorder.

8.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 131: 110738, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152914

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can be considered as the most important current global issue, as it has caused the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, which has resulted in high mortality and morbidity rates all around the world. Although scientists are trying to discover novel therapies and develop and evaluate various previous treatments, at the time of writing this paper, there was no definite therapy and vaccine for COVID-19. So, as COVID-19 has called ideas for treatment, controlling, and diagnosis, we discussed the application of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Cas13 (CRISPR/Cas13) as a treatment of COVID-19, which received less attention compared with other potential therapeutic options.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Edição de Genes , Terapia Genética/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , RNA Viral/genética , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Associadas a CRISPR/farmacologia , Sequência Conservada , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/genética , RNA Guia/genética , RNA Viral/antagonistas & inibidores
9.
Curr Pharm Des ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238863

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may lead to severe disease in some cases, leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure, and death. This severe phenotype seems to be associated with a cytokine storm and immune dysregulation. Increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and CD14+CD16+ inflammatory monocytes, lymphopenia, and decreased levels of regulatory T cells are some of the immunological features that are seen in patients with SARS-CoV-2. As the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 is influenced by both viral virulence and dysregulated inflammatory response, a combination therapy approach using antiviral drugs plus anti-inflammatory treatments, such as corticosteroids, monoclonal antibodies against the IL-6 and IL-1ß pathways, and JAK inhibitors are under clinical trials.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087035

RESUMO

Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected millions of people, which led to death especially in older cases with underlying diseases. Meanwhile pediatric patients with inherited defects of T cell should potentially be prone to viral diseases. Herein, we report an infant with combined immunodeficiency who died because of COVID-19.

11.
Rev Neurosci ; 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125340

RESUMO

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has a crucial role in the angiogenesis of various tumors, including glioma. As the levels of VEGF would change in patients with glioma, we conducted the current systematic review and meta-analysis to more clearly determine the VEGF level alterations in different grades of glioma. PubMed and Scopus databases were sensitively searched for all the possible keywords addressing glioma and VEGF. Case-control and cohort studies on human subjects, which measured VEGF levels were eligible to be included in the study. Out of a total number of 3,612 studies, 22 studies were included and 12 studies entered the meta-analysis. This review revealed that serum levels of VEGF in glioma patients were 1.56 pg/dL higher compared to healthy controls (P = 0.05). Besides, immunohistochemistry (IHC) measurement of VEGF in surgical biopsies indicated significant difference in these two groups as well (P = 0.02). Yet, there was not a significant difference between patients with low-grade gliomas (World Health Organization (WHO) grades I-II, LGG) and those with high-grade gliomas (WHO grades III-IV, HGG) (P = 0.43). The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrate that VEGF levels would significantly increase in glioma, and therefore, could be potentially considered as a biomarker for this cancer.

12.
J Immunol Res ; 2020: 4873648, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015197

RESUMO

Genetic studies have illustrated that killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes could participate in various autoimmune disorders. We aimed to clarify the role of KIR genes, HLA ligands, HLA-KIR interactions, and their genotypes in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) susceptibility. The study population was composed of 183 IBD subjects, comprising 100 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, 83 Crohn's disease (CD) patients, and 274 healthy subjects. Polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) was used to evaluate the absence or presence of the 15 KIR genes, 5 HLA class I ligands, and 2 pseudogenes. We did not find any significant difference in allele frequency of KIRs and pseudogenes between IBD patients and healthy controls. In the case of HLA genes, there was a significant difference in HLA-B-Bw4Thr80 frequency between UC patients and healthy controls (P = 0.03, OR = 0.06, 95%CI = 0.008-0.4). Furthermore, we found a significant difference in HLA-C1Asn80 frequency between CD patients and healthy controls (P = 0.04, OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.3-0.8). In the full-array combination of KIR genes, there was no significant frequency difference between UC patients and healthy controls, while two KIR genotypes showed a significant susceptible association with CD. Our data do not support a strong role of NK cells in IBD susceptibility, but it does not rule out a role for KIR variability in IBD patients. However, there are some protective associations such as Bw4 alleles; these associations may be due to the interaction of the alleles to TCRs rather than KIRs.

13.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-17, 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33100253

RESUMO

Since the beginning of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically influenced almost every aspect of human life. Activities requiring human gatherings have either been postponed, cancelled, or held completely virtually. To supplement lack of in-person contact, people have increasingly turned to virtual settings on-line, advantages of which include increased inclusivity and accessibility and reduction of carbon footprint. However, emerging online technologies cannot fully replace, in-person scientific events. In-person meetings are not susceptible to poor internet connectivity problems, and they provide novel opportunities for socialization, creating new collaborations, and sharing ideas. To continue such activities, a hybrid model for scientific events could be a solution offering both in-person and virtual components. While participants can freely choose the mode of their participation, virtual meetings would most benefit those who cannot attend in-person due to the limitations. In-person portions of meetings should be organized with full consideration of prevention and safety strategies including risk assessment and mitigation, venue and environmental sanitation, participant protection and disease prevention, and promoting the hybrid model. This new way of interaction between scholars can be considered as a part of a resilience system which was neglected previously and should become a part of routine practice in scientific community.

14.
Viruses ; 12(11)2020 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105685

RESUMO

The origin of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus causing the COVID-19 pandemic has not yet been fully determined. Despite the consensus about the SARS-CoV-2 origin from bat CoV RaTG13, discrepancy to host tropism to other human Coronaviruses exist. SARS-CoV-2 also possesses some differences in its S protein receptor-binding domain, glycan-binding N-terminal domain and the surface of the sialic acid-binding domain. Despite similarities based on cryo-EM and biochemical studies, the SARS-CoV-2 shows higher stability and binding affinity to the ACE2 receptor. The SARS-CoV-2 does not appear to present a mutational "hot spot" as only the D614G mutation has been identified from clinical isolates. As laboratory manipulation is highly unlikely for the origin of SARS-CoV-2, the current possibilities comprise either natural selection in animal host before zoonotic transfer or natural selection in humans following zoonotic transfer. In the former case, despite SARS-CoV-2 and bat RaTG13 showing 96% identity some pangolin Coronaviruses exhibit very high similarity to particularly the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2. In the latter case, it can be hypothesized that the SARS-CoV-2 genome has adapted during human-to-human transmission and based on available data, the isolated SARS-CoV-2 genomes derive from a common origin. Before the origin of SARS-CoV-2 can be confirmed additional research is required.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Genoma Viral , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Mutação , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Domínios Proteicos , Seleção Genética , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/genética , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011829

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ductal breast carcinoma as a heterogeneous disease has different molecular subtypes associated with clinical prognosis and patients' survival. The role of immune system as a consistent part of the tumor microenvironment (TME) has been documented in progression of ductal breast carcinoma. Here, we aimed to describe the important immune cells and the immune system-associated molecules in Ductal Carcinoma In situ (DCIS) and Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) with special emphasis on their associations with different molecular subtypes and patients' prognosis. RESULTS: The immune cells have a dual role in breast cancer (BC) microenvironment depending on the molecular subtype or tumor grade. These cells with different frequencies are present in the TME of DCIS and IDC. The presence of regulatory cells including Tregs, MDSC, Th2, Th17, M2 macrophages, HLADR- T cells, and Tγδ cells is related to more immunosuppressive microenvironment, especially in ER- and TN subtypes. In contrast, NK cells, CTL, Th, and Tfh cells are associated to the anti-tumor activity. These cells are higher in ER+ BC, although in other subtypes such as TN or HER2+ are associated with a favorable prognosis. CONCLUSION: Determining the specific immune response in each subtype could be helpful in estimating the possible behavior of the tumor cells in TME. It is important to realize that different frequencies of immune cells in BC environment likely determine the patients' prognosis and their survival in each subtype. Therefore, elucidation of the distinct immune players in TME would be helpful toward developing targeted therapies in each subtype.

16.
SN Compr Clin Med ; : 1-6, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043252

RESUMO

Since December 2019, the world has been exposed to a novel virus from the coronaviruses family, named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has affected the life of millions people around the world. This global pandemic causes a wide spectrum of clinical manifestation in children, adults, and elderly. One side of the spectrum in children is being asymptomatic and the other side is severe inflammatory symptoms. In this article, we describe the clinical manifestations, genetic background, and immune response of children with COVID-19, who are presented with severe multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS).

18.
J Neuroinflammation ; 17(1): 289, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023629

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia and a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory deficits especially forgetting recent information, recall ability impairment, and loss of time tracking, problem-solving, language, and recognition difficulties. AD is also a globally important health issue but despite all scientific efforts, the treatment of AD is still a challenge. Sleep has important roles in learning and memory consolidation. Studies have shown that sleep deprivation (SD) and insomnia are associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and may have an impact on the symptoms and development. Thus, sleep disorders have decisive effects on AD; this association deserves more attention in research, diagnostics, and treatment, and knowing this relation also can help to prevent AD through screening and proper management of sleep disorders. This study aimed to show the potential role of SD and insomnia in the pathogenesis and progression of AD.

19.
Eur Cytokine Netw ; 31(2): 44-49, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence links COVID-19 severity to hyper-inflammation. Treatment with tocilizumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor, was shown to lead to clinical improvement in patients with severe COVID-19. We, therefore, performed the present systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate whether the circulating levels of IL-6 is a reliable indicator of disease severity among patients affected with COVID-19. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar on April 19, 2020. RESULTS: Eleven studies provided data of IL-6 levels in patients with severe to critical COVID-19 (severe) and patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 (non-severe). The included studies were of moderate to high quality. The mean patients' age was 60.9 years, ranging from 45.2 to 76.7 years in the severe group and 46.8 years, ranging from 37.9 to 61 years, in the nonsevere group. Fifty-two percent were male in the severe group, as compared to 46% in the non-severe group. An overall random effects meta-analysis showed significantly higher serum levels of IL-6 in the severe group than in the non-severe group with a mean difference of +23.1 pg/mL (95% CI: 12.42-33.79) and the overall effect of 4.24 (P-value < 0.001). Meta-regressions showed that neither age nor sex significantly influenced the mean difference of IL-6 between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Meta-analysis and meta-regression reveal a reliable relationship between IL-6 and COVID-19 severity, independent of age and sex. Future research is, however, required to assess the effect of BMI on the pattern of IL-6 production in patients with COVID-19. Also, there might be confounding factors that influence the relationship between IL-6 and COVID-19 severity and remain as yet unknown.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/mortalidade , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Receptores de Interleucina-6/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-6/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Med Virol ; 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880995

RESUMO

There is a consensus that Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) originated naturally from Bat coronaviruses (CoVs), in particular RaTG13. However, the SARS-CoV-2 host tropism/adaptation pattern has significant discrepancies compared to other CoVs, raising questions concerning the proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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