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1.
J Theor Biol ; 531: 110895, 2021 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499915

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV -2), a causative agent of COVID-19 disease, poses a significant threat to public health. Since its outbreak in December 2019, Wuhan, China, extensive collection of diverse data from cell culture and animal infections as well as population level data from an ongoing pandemic, has been vital in assessing strategies to battle its spread. Mathematical modelling plays a key role in quantifying determinants that drive virus infection dynamics, especially those relevant for epidemiological investigations and predictions as well as for proposing efficient mitigation strategies. We utilized a simple mathematical model to describe and explain experimental results on viral replication cycle kinetics during SARS-CoV-2 infection of animal and human derived cell lines, green monkey kidney cells, Vero-E6, and human lung epithelium cells, A549-ACE2, respectively. We conducted cell infections using two distinct initial viral concentrations and quantified viral loads over time. We then fitted the model to our experimental data and quantified the viral parameters. We showed that such cellular tropism generates significant differences in the infection rates and incubation times of SARS-CoV-2, that is, the times to the first release of newly synthesised viral progeny by SARS-CoV-2-infected cells. Specifically, the rate at which A549-ACE2 cells were infected by SARS-CoV-2 was 15 times lower than that in the case of Vero-E6 cell infection and the duration of latent phase of A549-ACE2 cells was 1.6 times longer than that of Vero-E6 cells. On the other hand, we found no statistically significant differences in other viral parameters, such as viral production rate or infected cell death rate. Since in vitro infection assays represent the first stage in the development of antiviral treatments against SARS-CoV-2, discrepancies in the viral parameter values across different cell hosts have to be identified and quantified to better target vaccine and antiviral research.

2.
J Virol ; : JVI0097721, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468175

RESUMO

Here we examine in-silico the infection dynamics and interactions of two ZIKV genomes: one is the full-length ZIKV genome (WT) and the other is one of the naturally occurring defective viral genomes (DVG), which can replicate in the presence of WT genome, appears under high MOI passaging conditions and carries a deletion encompassing part of the structural and NS1 protein-coding region. Ordinary differential equations (ODE) were used to simulate the infection of cells by virus particles and intra-cellular replication of the WT and DVG genomes that produces these particles. For each virus passage in Vero and C6/36 cell cultures, rates of the simulated processes were fitted to two types of observations: virus titer data and the assembled haplotypes of the replicate passage samples. We studied the consistency of the model with the experimental data across all passages of infection in each cell type separately, as well as sensitivity of model's parameters. We also determined which simulated processes of the virus evolution are most important for adaptation of the WT and DVG interplay in these two disparate cell culture environments. Our results demonstrate that in majority of passages, the rates of DVG-production are higher in the C6/36 cells compared to Vero cells, which might result in tolerance and therefore drive persistence of the mosquito vector in the context of ZIKV infection. Additionally, the model simulations showed slower accumulation of infected cells under higher activation of the DVG associated processes, which indicates potential role of DVGs in virus attenuation. Importance. One of ideas on lessening Zika pathogenicity is addition of its natural or engineered defective virus genomes (DVG: have no pathogenicity) to the infection pool: DVG is redirecting the wild type (WT) associated virus development resources to its own maturation. The presented here mathematical model, attuned to the data from interplays between Zika WT viruses and their natural DVG in mammalian and mosquito cells, provides evidence that loss of uninfected cells is attenuated by the DVG development processes. This model enabled us to estimate rates of the virus development processes in the WT/DVG interplay, determine the key processes, and show that the key processes are faster in mosquito cells than in mammalian ones. In general, the presented model and its detailed study suggest in what important virus development processes the therapeutically efficient DVG might compete with WT: this may help in assembling engineered DVGs for ZIKV and other flaviviruses.

3.
Science ; 373(6554): 541-547, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326236

RESUMO

Repurposing drugs as treatments for COVID-19, the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has drawn much attention. Beginning with sigma receptor ligands and expanding to other drugs from screening in the field, we became concerned that phospholipidosis was a shared mechanism underlying the antiviral activity of many repurposed drugs. For all of the 23 cationic amphiphilic drugs we tested, including hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, amiodarone, and four others already in clinical trials, phospholipidosis was monotonically correlated with antiviral efficacy. Conversely, drugs active against the same targets that did not induce phospholipidosis were not antiviral. Phospholipidosis depends on the physicochemical properties of drugs and does not reflect specific target-based activities-rather, it may be considered a toxic confound in early drug discovery. Early detection of phospholipidosis could eliminate these artifacts, enabling a focus on molecules with therapeutic potential.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Lipidoses/induzido quimicamente , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Células A549 , Animais , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/toxicidade , COVID-19/virologia , Cátions , Chlorocebus aethiops , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Tensoativos/química , Tensoativos/farmacologia , Tensoativos/toxicidade , Células Vero , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
FEBS J ; 288(17): 5148-5162, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864728

RESUMO

Small linear motifs targeting protein interacting domains called PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1 (PDZ) have been identified at the C terminus of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) proteins E, 3a, and N. Using a high-throughput approach of affinity-profiling against the full human PDZome, we identified sixteen human PDZ binders of SARS-CoV-2 proteins E, 3A, and N showing significant interactions with dissociation constants values ranging from 3 to 82 µm. Six of them (TJP1, PTPN13, HTRA1, PARD3, MLLT4, LNX2) are also recognized by SARS-CoV while three (NHERF1, MAST2, RADIL) are specific to SARS-CoV-2 E protein. Most of these SARS-CoV-2 protein partners are involved in cellular junctions/polarity and could be also linked to evasion mechanisms of the immune responses during viral infection. Among the binders of the SARS-CoV-2 proteins E, 3a, or N, seven significantly affect viral replication under knock down gene expression in infected cells. This PDZ profiling identifying human proteins potentially targeted by SARS-CoV-2 can help to understand the multifactorial severity of COVID19 and to conceive effective anti-coronaviral agents for therapeutic purposes.


Assuntos
COVID-19/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Domínios PDZ/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/virologia , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/genética , Humanos , Cinesina/genética , Miosinas/genética , Ligação Proteica/genética , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas/genética , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 13/genética , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Proteínas Viroporinas/genética , Internalização do Vírus , Replicação Viral/genética , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/genética
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2290, 2021 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863888

RESUMO

Arthropod-borne viruses pose a major threat to global public health. Thus, innovative strategies for their control and prevention are urgently needed. Here, we exploit the natural capacity of viruses to generate defective viral genomes (DVGs) to their detriment. While DVGs have been described for most viruses, identifying which, if any, can be used as therapeutic agents remains a challenge. We present a combined experimental evolution and computational approach to triage DVG sequence space and pinpoint the fittest deletions, using Zika virus as an arbovirus model. This approach identifies fit DVGs that optimally interfere with wild-type virus infection. We show that the most fit DVGs conserve the open reading frame to maintain the translation of the remaining non-structural proteins, a characteristic that is fundamental across the flavivirus genus. Finally, we demonstrate that the high fitness DVG is antiviral in vivo both in the mammalian host and the mosquito vector, reducing transmission in the latter by up to 90%. Our approach establishes the method to interrogate the DVG fitness landscape, and enables the systematic identification of DVGs that show promise as human therapeutics and vector control strategies to mitigate arbovirus transmission and disease.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Vírus Defeituosos/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecção por Zika virus/tratamento farmacológico , Zika virus/genética , Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Biologia Computacional , Evolução Molecular Direcionada , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Aptidão Genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Células Vero , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
6.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(2): e1009110, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556143

RESUMO

Defective viral genomes (DVGs) are truncated and/or rearranged viral genomes produced during virus replication. Described in many RNA virus families, some of them have interfering activity on their parental virus and/or strong immunostimulatory potential, and are being considered in antiviral approaches. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by Aedes spp. that infected millions of humans in the last 15 years. Here, we describe the DVGs arising during CHIKV infection in vitro in mammalian and mosquito cells, and in vivo in experimentally infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. We combined experimental and computational approaches to select DVG candidates most likely to have inhibitory activity and showed that, indeed, they strongly interfere with CHIKV replication both in mammalian and mosquito cells. We further demonstrated that some DVGs present broad-spectrum activity, inhibiting several CHIKV strains and other alphaviruses. Finally, we showed that pre-treating Aedes aegypti with DVGs prevented viral dissemination in vivo.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Febre de Chikungunya/transmissão , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , Vírus Defeituosos/genética , Genoma Viral , Replicação Viral , Animais , Febre de Chikungunya/imunologia , Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus Chikungunya/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia
7.
bioRxiv ; 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501440

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infection of human cells is initiated by the binding of the viral Spike protein to its cell-surface receptor ACE2. We conducted an unbiased CRISPRi screen to uncover druggable pathways controlling Spike protein binding to human cells. We found that the protein BRD2 is an essential node in the cellular response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. BRD2 is required for ACE2 transcription in human lung epithelial cells and cardiomyocytes, and BRD2 inhibitors currently evaluated in clinical trials potently block endogenous ACE2 expression and SARS-CoV-2 infection of human cells. BRD2 also controls transcription of several other genes induced upon SARS-CoV-2 infection, including the interferon response, which in turn regulates ACE2 levels. It is possible that the previously reported interaction between the viral E protein and BRD2 evolved to manipulate the transcriptional host response during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Together, our results pinpoint BRD2 as a potent and essential regulator of the host response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and highlight the potential of BRD2 as a novel therapeutic target for COVID-19.

8.
Science ; 370(6521)2020 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060197

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a grave threat to public health and the global economy. SARS-CoV-2 is closely related to the more lethal but less transmissible coronaviruses SARS-CoV-1 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Here, we have carried out comparative viral-human protein-protein interaction and viral protein localization analyses for all three viruses. Subsequent functional genetic screening identified host factors that functionally impinge on coronavirus proliferation, including Tom70, a mitochondrial chaperone protein that interacts with both SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b, an interaction we structurally characterized using cryo-electron microscopy. Combining genetically validated host factors with both COVID-19 patient genetic data and medical billing records identified molecular mechanisms and potential drug treatments that merit further molecular and clinical study.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Vírus da SARS/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/metabolismo , Sequência Conservada , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/genética , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Humanos , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica
9.
Cell ; 182(3): 685-712.e19, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645325

RESUMO

The causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has infected millions and killed hundreds of thousands of people worldwide, highlighting an urgent need to develop antiviral therapies. Here we present a quantitative mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics survey of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Vero E6 cells, revealing dramatic rewiring of phosphorylation on host and viral proteins. SARS-CoV-2 infection promoted casein kinase II (CK2) and p38 MAPK activation, production of diverse cytokines, and shutdown of mitotic kinases, resulting in cell cycle arrest. Infection also stimulated a marked induction of CK2-containing filopodial protrusions possessing budding viral particles. Eighty-seven drugs and compounds were identified by mapping global phosphorylation profiles to dysregulated kinases and pathways. We found pharmacologic inhibition of the p38, CK2, CDK, AXL, and PIKFYVE kinases to possess antiviral efficacy, representing potential COVID-19 therapies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Células A549 , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19 , Células CACO-2 , Caseína Quinase II/antagonistas & inibidores , Caseína Quinase II/metabolismo , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Fosfoinositídeo-3 Quinase/farmacologia , Fosforilação , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Células Vero , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
10.
Viruses ; 12(5)2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429277

RESUMO

Mathematical models of in vitro viral kinetics help us understand and quantify the main determinants underlying the virus-host cell interactions. We aimed to provide a numerical characterization of the Zika virus (ZIKV) in vitro infection kinetics, an arthropod-borne emerging virus that has gained public recognition due to its association with microcephaly in newborns. The mathematical model of in vitro viral infection typically assumes that degradation of extracellular infectious virus proceeds in an exponential manner, that is, each viral particle has the same probability of losing infectivity at any given time. We incubated ZIKV stock in the cell culture media and sampled with high frequency for quantification over the course of 96 h. The data showed a delay in the virus degradation in the first 24 h followed by a decline, which could not be captured by the model with exponentially distributed decay time of infectious virus. Thus, we proposed a model, in which inactivation of infectious ZIKV is gamma distributed and fit the model to the temporal measurements of infectious virus remaining in the media. The model was able to reproduce the data well and yielded the decay time of infectious ZIKV to be 40 h. We studied the in vitro ZIKV infection kinetics by conducting cell infection at two distinct multiplicity of infection and measuring viral loads over time. We fit the mathematical model of in vitro viral infection with gamma distributed degradation time of infectious virus to the viral growth data and identified the timespans and rates involved within the ZIKV-host cell interplay. Our mathematical analysis combined with the data provides a well-described example of non-exponential viral decay dynamics and presents numerical characterization of in vitro infection with ZIKV.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Replicação Viral , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia , Zika virus/fisiologia , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cinética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Células Vero , Carga Viral , Zika virus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
Nature ; 583(7816): 459-468, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353859

RESUMO

A newly described coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has infected over 2.3 million people, led to the death of more than 160,000 individuals and caused worldwide social and economic disruption1,2. There are no antiviral drugs with proven clinical efficacy for the treatment of COVID-19, nor are there any vaccines that prevent infection with SARS-CoV-2, and efforts to develop drugs and vaccines are hampered by the limited knowledge of the molecular details of how SARS-CoV-2 infects cells. Here we cloned, tagged and expressed 26 of the 29 SARS-CoV-2 proteins in human cells and identified the human proteins that physically associated with each of the SARS-CoV-2 proteins using affinity-purification mass spectrometry, identifying 332 high-confidence protein-protein interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and human proteins. Among these, we identify 66 druggable human proteins or host factors targeted by 69 compounds (of which, 29 drugs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, 12 are in clinical trials and 28 are preclinical compounds). We screened a subset of these in multiple viral assays and found two sets of pharmacological agents that displayed antiviral activity: inhibitors of mRNA translation and predicted regulators of the sigma-1 and sigma-2 receptors. Further studies of these host-factor-targeting agents, including their combination with drugs that directly target viral enzymes, could lead to a therapeutic regimen to treat COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Animais , Antivirais/classificação , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Clonagem Molecular , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Células HEK293 , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Espectrometria de Massas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ligação Proteica , Biossíntese de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Domínios Proteicos , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Receptores sigma/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2 , Proteínas Ligases SKP Culina F-Box/metabolismo , Células Vero , Proteínas Virais/genética
12.
J Virol ; 93(18)2019 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270226

RESUMO

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerged arbovirus, a member of the Togaviridae family. It circulates through mosquito vectors mainly of the Aedes family and a mammalian host. CHIKV causes chikungunya fever, a mild to severe disease characterized by arthralgia, with some fatal outcomes described. In the past years, several outbreaks mainly caused by enhanced adaptation of the virus to the vector and ineffective control of the contacts between infected mosquito populations and the human host have been reported. Vaccines represent the best solution for the control of insect-borne viruses, including CHIKV, but are often unavailable. We designed live attenuated CHIKVs by applying a rational genomic design based on multiple replacements of synonymous codons. In doing so, the virus mutational robustness (capacity to maintain phenotype despite introduction of mutations to genotype) is decreased, driving the viral population toward deleterious evolutionary trajectories. When the candidate viruses were tested in the insect and mammalian hosts, we observed overall strong attenuation in both and greatly diminished signs of disease. Moreover, we found that the vaccine candidates elicited protective immunity related to the production of neutralizing antibodies after a single dose. During an experimental transmission cycle between mosquitoes and naive mice, vaccine candidates could be transmitted by mosquito bite, leading to asymptomatic infection in mice with compromised dissemination. Using deep-sequencing technology, we observed an increase in detrimental (stop) codons, which confirmed the effectiveness of this genomic design. Because the approach involves hundreds of synonymous modifications to the genome, the reversion risk is significantly reduced, rendering the viruses promising vaccine candidates.IMPORTANCE Chikungunya fever is a debilitating disease that causes severe pain to the joints, which can compromise the patient's lifestyle for several months and even in some grave cases lead to death. The etiological agent is chikungunya virus, an alphavirus transmitted by mosquito bite. Currently, there are no approved vaccines or treatments against the disease. In our research, we developed novel live attenuated vaccine candidates against chikungunya virus by applying an innovative genomic design. When tested in the insect and mammalian host, the vaccine candidates did not cause disease, elicited strong protection against further infection, and had low risk of reversion to pathogenic phenotypes.


Assuntos
Vírus Chikungunya/genética , Vacinas Atenuadas/genética , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Febre de Chikungunya/genética , Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/metabolismo , Chlorocebus aethiops , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Mutação , Células Vero , Vacinas Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
13.
J Virol ; 93(6)2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30567991

RESUMO

Bunyaviruses have a tripartite negative-sense RNA genome. Due to the segmented nature of these viruses, if two closely related viruses coinfect the same host or vector cell, it is possible that RNA segments from either of the two parental viruses will be incorporated into progeny virions to give reassortant viruses. Little is known about the ability of tick-borne phleboviruses to reassort. The present study describes the development of minigenome assays for the tick-borne viruses Uukuniemi phlebovirus (UUKV) and Heartland phlebovirus (HRTV). We used these minigenome assays in conjunction with the existing minigenome system of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) phlebovirus (SFTSV) to assess the abilities of viral N and L proteins to recognize, transcribe, and replicate the M segment-based minigenome of a heterologous virus. The highest minigenome activity was detected with the M segment-based minigenomes of cognate viruses. However, our findings indicate that several combinations utilizing N and L proteins of heterologous viruses resulted in M segment minigenome activity. This suggests that the M segment untranslated regions (UTRs) are recognized as functional promoters of transcription and replication by the N and L proteins of related viruses. Further, virus-like particle assays demonstrated that HRTV glycoproteins can package UUKV and SFTSV S and L segment-based minigenomes. Taken together, these results suggest that coinfection with these viruses could lead to the generation of viable reassortant progeny. Thus, the tools developed in this study could aid in understanding the role of genome reassortment in the evolution of these emerging pathogens in an experimental setting.IMPORTANCE In recent years, there has been a large expansion in the number of emerging tick-borne viruses that are assigned to the Phlebovirus genus. Bunyaviruses have a tripartite segmented genome, and infection of the same host cell by two closely related bunyaviruses can, in theory, result in eight progeny viruses with different genome segment combinations. We used genome analogues expressing reporter genes to assess the abilities of Phlebovirus nucleocapsid protein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase to recognize the untranslated region of a genome segment of a related phlebovirus, and we used virus-like particle assays to assess whether viral glycoproteins can package genome analogues of related phleboviruses. Our results provide strong evidence that these emerging pathogens could reassort their genomes if they were to meet in nature in an infected host or vector. This reassortment process could result in viruses with new pathogenic properties.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral/genética , Phlebovirus/genética , Animais , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/virologia , Linhagem Celular , Mesocricetus , Filogenia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Carrapatos/virologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética
14.
Curr Opin Virol ; 33: 74-80, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30099321

RESUMO

Particles containing degenerate forms of the viral genome which interfere with virus replication and are non-replicative per se are known as defective interfering particles (DIPs). DIPs are likely to be produced upon infection by any virus in vitro and in nature. Until recently, roles of these non-viable particles as members of a multi-component viral system have been overlooked. In this review, we cover the most recent studies that shed light on critical roles of DIPs during the course of infection, including: the modulation of virus replication, innate immune responses, disease outcome and virus persistence, as well as the evolution of the viral population. Together, these reports allow us to conceive a more complete picture of the virion population, and highlight the fact that DIPs are not a negligible subset of this population but instead can greatly influence the fate of infection.


Assuntos
Vírus Defeituosos/genética , Genética Populacional , Replicação Viral , Vírus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus/genética , Evolução Molecular , Dinâmica Populacional , Vírus/imunologia
15.
J Virol ; 92(13)2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29695422

RESUMO

Bunyaviruses pose a significant threat to human health, prosperity, and food security. In response to viral infections, interferons (IFNs) upregulate the expression of hundreds of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), whose cumulative action can potently inhibit the replication of bunyaviruses. We used a flow cytometry-based method to screen the ability of ∼500 unique ISGs from humans and rhesus macaques to inhibit the replication of Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus (BUNV), the prototype of both the Peribunyaviridae family and the Bunyavirales order. Candidates possessing antibunyaviral activity were further examined using a panel of divergent bunyaviruses. Interestingly, one candidate, ISG20, exhibited potent antibunyaviral activity against most viruses examined from the Peribunyaviridae, Hantaviridae, and Nairoviridae families, whereas phleboviruses (Phenuiviridae) largely escaped inhibition. Similar to the case against other viruses known to be targeted by ISG20, the antibunyaviral activity of ISG20 is dependent upon its functional RNase activity. Through use of an infectious virus-like particle (VLP) assay (based on the BUNV minigenome system), we confirmed that gene expression from all 3 viral segments is strongly inhibited by ISG20. Using in vitro evolution, we generated a substantially ISG20-resistant BUNV and mapped the determinants of ISG20 sensitivity/resistance. Taking all the data together, we report that ISG20 is a broad and potent antibunyaviral factor but that some bunyaviruses are remarkably ISG20 resistant. Thus, ISG20 sensitivity/resistance may influence the pathogenesis of bunyaviruses, many of which are emerging viruses of clinical or veterinary significance.IMPORTANCE There are hundreds of bunyaviruses, many of which cause life-threatening acute diseases in humans and livestock. The interferon (IFN) system is a key component of innate immunity, and type I IFNs limit bunyaviral propagation both in vitro and in vivo Type I IFN signaling results in the upregulation of hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), whose concerted action generates an "antiviral state." Although IFNs are critical in limiting bunyaviral replication and pathogenesis, much is still unknown about which ISGs inhibit bunyaviruses. Using ISG-expression screening, we examined the ability of ∼500 unique ISGs to inhibit Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus (BUNV), the prototypical bunyavirus. Using this approach, we identified ISG20, an interferon-stimulated exonuclease, as a potent inhibitor of BUNV. Interestingly, ISG20 possesses highly selective antibunyaviral activity, with multiple bunyaviruses being potently inhibited while some largely escape inhibition. We speculate that the ability of some bunyaviruses to escape ISG20 may influence their pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Vírus Bunyamwera/patogenicidade , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/prevenção & controle , Exonucleases/farmacologia , Genoma Viral , Interferons/metabolismo , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/metabolismo , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/virologia , Exonucleases/genética , Exorribonucleases , Células HeLa , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos
16.
mSphere ; 2(3)2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28680969

RESUMO

In recent years, several newly discovered tick-borne viruses causing a wide spectrum of diseases in humans have been ascribed to the Phlebovirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family. The nonstructural protein (NSs) of bunyaviruses is the main virulence factor and interferon (IFN) antagonist. We studied the molecular mechanisms of IFN antagonism employed by the NSs proteins of human apathogenic Uukuniemi virus (UUKV) and those of Heartland virus (HRTV) and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), both of which cause severe disease. Using reporter assays, we found that UUKV NSs weakly inhibited the activation of the beta interferon (IFN-ß) promoter and response elements. UUKV NSs weakly antagonized human IFN-ß promoter activation through a novel interaction with mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy studies. HRTV NSs efficiently antagonized both IFN-ß promoter activation and type I IFN signaling pathways through interactions with TBK1, preventing its phosphorylation. HRTV NSs exhibited diffused cytoplasmic localization. This is in comparison to the inclusion bodies formed by SFTSV NSs. HRTV NSs also efficiently interacted with STAT2 and impaired IFN-ß-induced phosphorylation but did not affect STAT1 or its translocation to the nucleus. Our results suggest that a weak interaction between STAT1 and HRTV or SFTSV NSs may explain their inability to block type II IFN signaling efficiently, thus enabling the activation of proinflammatory responses that lead to severe disease. Our findings offer insights into how pathogenicity may be linked to the capacity of NSs proteins to block the innate immune system and illustrate the plethora of viral immune evasion strategies utilized by emerging phleboviruses. IMPORTANCE Since 2011, there has been a large expansion in the number of emerging tick-borne viruses that have been assigned to the Phlebovirus genus. Heartland virus (HRTV) and SFTS virus (SFTSV) were found to cause severe disease in humans, unlike other documented tick-borne phleboviruses such as Uukuniemi virus (UUKV). Phleboviruses encode nonstructural proteins (NSs) that enable them to counteract the human innate antiviral defenses. We assessed how these proteins interacted with the innate immune system. We found that UUKV NSs engaged with innate immune factors only weakly, at one early step. However, the viruses that cause more severe disease efficiently disabled the antiviral response by targeting multiple components at several stages across the innate immune induction and signaling pathways. Our results suggest a correlation between the efficiency of the virus protein/host interaction and severity of disease.

17.
J Virol ; 91(16)2017 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28592543

RESUMO

SFTS phlebovirus (SFTSV) is an emerging tick-borne bunyavirus that was first reported in China in 2009. Here we report the generation of a recombinant SFTSV (rHB29NSsKO) that cannot express the viral nonstructural protein (NSs) upon infection of cells in culture. We show that rHB29NSsKO replication kinetics are greater in interferon (IFN)-incompetent cells and that the virus is unable to suppress IFN induced in response to viral replication. The data confirm for the first time in the context of virus infection that NSs acts as a virally encoded IFN antagonist and that NSs is dispensable for virus replication. Using 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), we mapped the 3' end of the N and NSs mRNAs, showing that the mRNAs terminate within the coding region of the opposite open reading frame. We show that the 3' end of the N mRNA terminates upstream of a 5'-GCCAGCC-3' motif present in the viral genomic RNA. With this knowledge, and using virus-like particles, we could demonstrate that the last 36 nucleotides of the NSs open reading frame (ORF) were needed to ensure the efficient termination of the N mRNA and were required for recombinant virus rescue. We demonstrate that it is possible to recover viruses lacking NSs (expressing just a 12-amino-acid NSs peptide or encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein [eGFP]) or an NSs-eGFP fusion protein in the NSs locus. This opens the possibility for further studies of NSs and potentially the design of attenuated viruses for vaccination studies.IMPORTANCE SFTS phlebovirus (SFTSV) and related tick-borne viruses have emerged globally since 2009. SFTSV has been shown to cause severe disease in humans. For bunyaviruses, it has been well documented that the nonstructural protein (NSs) enables the virus to counteract the human innate antiviral defenses and that NSs is one of the major determinants of virulence in infection. Therefore, the use of reverse genetics systems to engineer viruses lacking NSs is an attractive strategy to rationally attenuate bunyaviruses. Here we report the generation of several recombinant SFTS viruses that cannot express the NSs protein or have the NSs open reading frame replaced with a reporter gene. These viruses cannot antagonize the mammalian interferon (IFN) response mounted to virus infection. The generation of NSs-lacking viruses was achieved by mapping the transcriptional termination of two S-segment-derived subgenomic mRNAs, which revealed that transcription termination occurs upstream of a 5'-GCCAGCC-3' motif present in the virus genomic S RNA.


Assuntos
Deleção de Genes , Interferons/metabolismo , Phlebovirus/genética , Phlebovirus/fisiologia , Terminação da Transcrição Genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Replicação Viral , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humanos , Viabilidade Microbiana , Phlebovirus/imunologia , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 10(10): e0005048, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27706161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas has transformed a previously obscure mosquito-transmitted arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family into a major public health concern. Little is currently known about the evolution and biology of ZIKV and the factors that contribute to the associated pathogenesis. Determining genomic sequences of clinical viral isolates and characterization of elements within these are an important prerequisite to advance our understanding of viral replicative processes and virus-host interactions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained a ZIKV isolate from a patient who presented with classical ZIKV-associated symptoms, and used high throughput sequencing and other molecular biology approaches to determine its full genome sequence, including non-coding regions. Genome regions were characterized and compared to the sequences of other isolates where available. Furthermore, we identified a subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA) in ZIKV-infected cells that has antagonist activity against RIG-I induced type I interferon induction, with a lesser effect on MDA-5 mediated action. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The full-length genome sequence including non-coding regions of a South American ZIKV isolate from a patient with classical symptoms will support efforts to develop genetic tools for this virus. Detection of sfRNA that counteracts interferon responses is likely to be important for further understanding of pathogenesis and virus-host interactions.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Interferon Tipo I/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Viral/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Células A549 , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Proteína DEAD-box 58/metabolismo , Surtos de Doenças , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/biossíntese , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Filogenia , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Células Vero , Replicação Viral , Zika virus/genética , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Zika virus/fisiologia
19.
J Virol ; 89(9): 4849-56, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25673721

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Uukuniemi virus (UUKV) is a tick-borne member of the Phlebovirus genus (family Bunyaviridae) and has been widely used as a safe laboratory model to study aspects of bunyavirus replication. Recently, a number of new tick-borne phleboviruses have been discovered, some of which, like severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus and Heartland virus, are highly pathogenic in humans. UUKV could now serve as a useful comparator to understand the molecular basis for the different pathogenicities of these related viruses. We established a reverse-genetics system to recover UUKV entirely from cDNA clones. We generated two recombinant viruses, one in which the nonstructural protein NSs open reading frame was deleted from the S segment and one in which the NSs gene was replaced with green fluorescent protein (GFP), allowing convenient visualization of viral infection. We show that the UUKV NSs protein acts as a weak interferon antagonist in human cells but that it is unable to completely counteract the interferon response, which could serve as an explanation for its inability to cause disease in humans. IMPORTANCE: Uukuniemi virus (UUKV) is a tick-borne phlebovirus that is apathogenic for humans and has been used as a convenient model to investigate aspects of phlebovirus replication. Recently, new tick-borne phleboviruses have emerged, such as severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in China and Heartland virus in the United States, that are highly pathogenic, and UUKV will now serve as a comparator to aid in the understanding of the molecular basis for the virulence of these new viruses. To help such investigations, we have developed a reverse-genetics system for UUKV that permits manipulation of the viral genome. We generated viruses lacking the nonstructural protein NSs and show that UUKV NSs is a weak interferon antagonist. In addition, we created a virus that expresses GFP and thus allows convenient monitoring of virus replication. These new tools represent a significant advance in the study of tick-borne phleboviruses.


Assuntos
Interferons/antagonistas & inibidores , Vírus Uukuniemi/imunologia , Vírus Uukuniemi/fisiologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , DNA Complementar/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Recombinação Genética , Genética Reversa , Vírus Uukuniemi/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética
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