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2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(8): 1346-1354, 2021 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation is one of the most common infectious complications after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) and may result in significant morbidity and mortality. Primary prophylaxis with letermovir demonstrated a reduction in clinically significant CMV infections (CS-CMVi) in clinical trials of CMV-seropositive HCT recipients. This study aims at exploring the effect of primary letermovir prophylaxis in this population on the incidence and outcomes of refractory or resistant CMV infections. METHODS: This is a single-center, retrospective cohort study of 537 consecutive CMV-seropositive allogeneic HCT recipients cared for between March 2016 and October 2018. Baseline demographics, HCT characteristics, CMV infections, treatment, and mortality data were collected from the electronic medical record. CMV outcomes were defined according to the recently standardized definitions for clinical trials. Characteristics and outcomes were assessed according to receipt of primary letermovir prophylaxis. RESULTS: Of 537 patients identified, 123 received letermovir for primary prophylaxis during the first 100 days after HCT; 414 did not. In a multivariate analysis, primary prophylaxis with letermovir was associated with reductions in CS-CMVi (hazard ratio [HR] 0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16-0.41), CMV end-organ disease (HR 0.23; 95% CI, 0.10-0.52), refractory or resistant CMV infection (HR 0.15; 95% CI, 0.04-0.52), and nonrelapse mortality at week 48 (HR 0.55; 95% CI, 0.32-0.93). There was neither resistant CMV nor CMV-related mortality in the primary letermovir prophylaxis group. CONCLUSIONS: Primary letermovir prophylaxis effectively prevents refractory or resistant CMV infections and decreases nonrelapse mortality at week 48, as well as CS-CMVi and CMV disease after allogeneic HCT.


Assuntos
Citomegalovirus , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Acetatos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Quinazolinas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplantados
3.
Cancer ; 127(10): 1598-1605, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A myeloablative conditioning regimen can be safely given to older patients and those with comorbidities without increasing nonrelapse mortality (NRM) by fractionating the dose of intravenous busulfan. How this approach compares in efficacy with traditional, nonfractionated, lower dose regimens is unknown. METHODS: Outcomes were compared in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome who received either myeloablative, fractionated busulfan (f-Bu) dosed to achieve an area under the curve of 20,000 µmol per minute (f-Bu20K) over 2 weeks (n = 84) or a standard, nonfractionated, lower busulfan dose regimen of 16,000 µmol per minute (Bu16K) over 4 days (n = 78). Both groups also received fludarabine 40 mg/m2 intravenously for 4 days. Graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis was tacrolimus and methotrexate. Patients in the Bu16K group who had unrelated donors also received antithymocyte globulin. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. RESULTS: Roughly one-half of the patients were aged >65 years, approximately 40% had poor-risk cytogenetics, approximately 40% of those with AML were not in complete remission, and approximately 40% had a comorbidity index >3. At 2 years, progression-free survival was significantly improved in the f-Bu20K group compared with the Bu16K group (45% vs 24%, respectively; hazard ratio [HR], 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8; P = .004). This was because of a significant reduction in progression (34% vs 59%, respectively; HR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.8; P = .003) without any increase in NRM (21% vs 15%, respectively; HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.7-3; P = .3), which resulted in improved overall survival (51% vs 31%, respectively; HR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.3-0.9; P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: A myeloablative, fractionated busulfan regimen reduces relapse and improves survival without increasing NRM in older patients with AML and myelodysplastic syndrome.

4.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 56(6): 1316-1324, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398094

RESUMO

Steroids remain the initial therapy for acute graft-vs.-host disease (AGVHD). Strategies to improve response and minimize steroid exposure are needed. We report results of a randomized, adaptive, Bayesian-designed, phase II trial of prednisone with or without extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) as an initial therapy for patients with newly diagnosed AGVHD. The primary endpoint was success at day 56 defined as: alive, in remission, achieving AGVHD response without additional therapy, and on <1 mg/kg at day 28 and <0.5 mg/kg on day 56 of steroids. Eighty-one patients were randomized to the ECP arm (n = 51) or steroids alone (n = 30). Median age was 54 years (range: 17-75); 90% had grade II AGVHD and 10% had grades III and IV AGVHD, with skin (85%), upper (22%)/lower (22%) gastrointestinal, and liver (10%) involvement. The ECP arm had a higher probability of success (0.815) and exceeded the predefined threshold for determining the investigational arm promising. ECP was potentially more beneficial than steroids-alone in skin-only AGVHD (response rate: 72% vs. 57%, respectively) than for visceral-organ AGVHD (47% vs. 43%, respectively). The addition of ECP to steroids may result in higher GVHD response as initial therapy for AGVHD, especially for patients with skin-only involvement.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Fotoferese , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
5.
Acta Haematol ; 144(1): 74-81, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604096

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients not in remission and beyond first or second complete remission are considered allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) candidates. We present 361 patients who underwent SCT from matched related or unrelated donors between 2005 and 2013. The purpose was to identify a subgroup of patients with active disease at the time of transplant that benefit. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used for univariate and multivariate analyses to predict overall survival (OS). Variables considered were age, sex, SWOG cytogenetic risk group, bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) blast percentage, regimen intensity, and type of AML. At a median of 26 months after transplantation, OS, progression-free survival (PFS), non-relapse mortality, and relapse rates were 26, 24, 23, and 48%, respectively. In a univariate analysis, risk cytogenetics (p < 0.001) and BM blasts >4% (p = 0.006) or any blasts in PB (p < 0.001) indicated worse OS. In a multivariate analysis, patients with <5% BM blasts or absence of circulating blasts and good or intermediate risk cytogenetics had significantly superior OS (46%), PFS (44%), and disease progression at 3 years. Based on these findings, patients not in remission with good or intermediate risk cytogenetics and low blast counts should be considered for SCT.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/patologia , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Biópsia , Análise Citogenética , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/diagnóstico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Cytometry A ; 99(9): 899-909, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342071

RESUMO

Signal intensity measured in a mass cytometry (CyTOF) channel can often be affected by the neighboring channels due to technological limitations. Such signal artifacts are known as spillover effects and can substantially limit the accuracy of cell population clustering. Current approaches reduce these effects by using additional beads for normalization purposes known as single-stained controls. While effective in compensating for spillover effects, incorporating single-stained controls can be costly and require customized panel design. This is especially evident when executing large-scale immune profiling studies. We present a novel statistical method, named CytoSpill that independently quantifies and compensates the spillover effects in CyTOF data without requiring the use of single-stained controls. Our method utilizes knowledge-guided modeling and statistical techniques, such as finite mixture modeling and sequential quadratic programming, to achieve optimal error correction. We evaluated our method using five publicly available CyTOF datasets obtained from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), C57BL/6J mouse bone marrow, healthy human bone marrow, chronic lymphocytic leukemia patient, and healthy human cord blood samples. In the PBMCs with known ground truth, our method achieved comparable results to experiments that incorporated single-stained controls. In datasets without ground-truth, our method not only reduced spillover on likely affected markers, but also led to the discovery of potentially novel subpopulations expressing functionally meaningful, cluster-specific markers. CytoSpill (developed in R) will greatly enhance the execution of large-scale cellular profiling of tumor immune microenvironment, development of novel immunotherapy, and the discovery of immune-specific biomarkers. The implementation of our method can be found at https://github.com/KChen-lab/CytoSpill.git.


Assuntos
Leucócitos Mononucleares , Animais , Biomarcadores , Análise por Conglomerados , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
8.
Blood Adv ; 4(7): 1296-1306, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236526

RESUMO

At our center, we observed a series of patients who developed transudative refractory ascites secondary to noncirrhotic, non-veno-occlusive disease (VOD)-related portal hypertension after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Patients were considered to have idiopathic portal hypertension-related refractory ascites (IRA) if they developed ascites secondary to intrahepatic portal hypertension (serum ascites albumin gradient ≥1.1 g/dL or hepatic venous pressure gradient [HVPG] >5 mm Hg), but did not meet the clinical criteria for classical VOD/sinusoidal obstructive syndrome (SOS) and did not have any alternate etiology of portal hypertension. From our institutional database, we identified 40 patients who developed IRA after allo-HSCT between 2004 and 2018. The patients' median age at the time of allo-HSCT was 54 years (range, 21-73 years). The median time to development of IRA after allo-HSCT was 80 days (range, 16-576 days). The median number of paracentesis was 3 (range, 1-11), and 15 (38%) patients had an intraperitoneal catheter placed for continued drainage of the rapidly accumulating ascites. Portal pressures were measured in 19 patients; 6 (15%) had moderate portal hypertension (HVPG 6-9 mm Hg), and 13 (33%) had severe portal hypertension (HVPG ≥ 10 mm Hg). Liver biopsy was performed in 24 patients. None of the patients met the criteria for classical VOD/SOS (clinical/histological) or cirrhosis (histological). The cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality was 63%, and the median survival duration after the development of the IRA was 7 months (range, 0.8-125.6 months). IRA is a poorly understood and often fatal complication of allo-HSCT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva , Ascite/etiologia , Ascite/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/etiologia , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/terapia , Humanos , Incidência
9.
Cancer ; 126(10): 2193-2205, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There have been concerns regarding increased peritransplantation complications, especially severe acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), in patients with prior use of checkpoint inhibitors (CPI) before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). METHODS: The authors performed a retrospective study of 43 patients with acute myeloid leukemia and/or myelodysplastic syndromes who were treated with an antiprogrammed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) (32 patients) or anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) (9 patients) blockade or both (2 patients) prior to HSCT with the primary outcome of aGVHD by day 100 after HSCT. Outcome analyses were stratified by GVHD prophylaxis as use of post-HSCT cyclophosphamide (PTCy) (22 patients) or not (non-PTCy) (21 patients). RESULTS: The PTCy group demonstrated a trend toward lower grade 3 to 4 aGVHD when compared with the non-PTCy group (5% vs 22%), although the rates of grade 2 to 4 aGVHD were comparable (49% vs 56%). The interval between CPI and HSCT did not appear to impact the incidence of aGVHD. However, a higher incidence of grade 3 to 4 aGVHD was observed in patients who received >4 treatments of CPI prior to HSCT if they were not given PTCy as GVHD prophylaxis (43% vs 12%). Matched control analyses using patients with no prior use of CPI confirmed the increase in grade 3 to 4 aGVHD with those agents. However, that increased risk was limited to patients who did not receive PTCy and was not observed in patients who received PTCy as GVHD prophylaxis. Despite persistent improvement in GVHD with the use of PTCy, disease control was not compromised and progression-free survival at 1 year was found to be superior for patients treated with PTCy compared with those not receiving PTCy among patients with prior use of CPI (55% vs 22%). CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study indicated that HSCT with prior use of CPI appears feasible in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and/or myelodysplastic syndromes and the use of PTCy as GVHD prophylaxis improves outcomes.


Assuntos
Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/administração & dosagem , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Terapia Combinada , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Neuro Oncol ; 22(8): 1214-1225, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recurrent pediatric medulloblastoma and ependymoma have a grim prognosis. We report a first-in-human, phase I study of intraventricular infusions of ex vivo expanded autologous natural killer (NK) cells in these tumors, with correlative studies. METHODS: Twelve patients were enrolled, 9 received protocol therapy up to 3 infusions weekly, in escalating doses from 3 × 106 to 3 × 108 NK cells/m2/infusion, for up to 3 cycles. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was obtained for cellular profile, persistence, and phenotypic analysis of NK cells. Radiomic characterization on pretreatment MRI scans was performed in 7 patients, to develop a non-invasive imaging-based signature. RESULTS: Primary objectives of NK cell harvest, expansion, release, and safety of 112 intraventricular infusions of NK cells were achieved in all 9 patients. There were no dose-limiting toxicities. All patients showed progressive disease (PD), except 1 patient showed stable disease for one month at end of study follow-up. Another patient had transient radiographic response of the intraventricular tumor after 5 infusions of NK cell before progressing to PD. At higher dose levels, NK cells increased in the CSF during treatment with repetitive infusions (mean 11.6-fold). Frequent infusions of NK cells resulted in CSF pleocytosis. Radiomic signatures were profiled in 7 patients, evaluating ability to predict upfront radiographic changes, although they did not attain statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated feasibility of production and safety of intraventricular infusions of autologous NK cells. These findings support further investigation of locoregional NK cell infusions in children with brain malignancies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Neoplasias Cerebelares , Ependimoma , Células Matadoras Naturais/transplante , Meduloblastoma , Adolescente , Neoplasias Encefálicas/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Neoplasias Cerebelares/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Neoplasias Cerebelares/terapia , Criança , Ependimoma/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Ependimoma/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intraventriculares , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Masculino , Meduloblastoma/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Meduloblastoma/terapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia
11.
Cancer ; 126(10): 2183-2192, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the well-defined role of minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for RUNX1/RUNX1T1 and CBFB-MYH11 transcripts in core binding factor (CBF) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after intensive chemotherapy, there has been a paucity of data assessing the utility of MRD monitoring at and after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). METHODS: Patients with CBF AML who underwent HSCT in complete remission (first or second) from January 2007 through December 2018 were included in this analysis. RESULTS: MRD by polymerase chain reaction at HSCT was assessed in 50 of 76 patients, and 44 (88%) had evidence of MRD (MRDpos). MRDpos patients had 3-year overall survival (OS) and leukemia-free survival (LFS) rates of 69.3% and 66.3%, respectively. Six MRD-negative patients had 3-year OS and LFS rates of 100% and 100%, respectively. Thirty-five of the 70 evaluable patients (50%) had a day +100 MRD assessment by RT-PCR, and 14 (40%) were MRDpos. The presence of MRD by RT-PCR on day +100 was not associated with lower estimates of LFS (75% vs 82.2%; P = .3) but was associated with a higher relapse incidence, although the difference did not reach statistical significance (27.6% vs 9.7%; P = .2). CONCLUSIONS: Durable complete remissions can be achieved in patients with CBF AML with HSCT even if they are MRDpos by RT-PCR at HSCT. The clinical impact of frequent MRD monitoring for identifying a group at high risk for early relapse and then for determining the best time point for therapeutic interventions to prevent impending relapse warrants investigation in prospectively designed clinical trials.


Assuntos
Fatores de Ligação ao Core/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Neoplasia Residual/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Adulto , Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Subunidade beta de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Neoplasia Residual/genética , Neoplasia Residual/terapia , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Prognóstico , Proteína 1 Parceira de Translocação de RUNX1/genética , Transplante Homólogo
12.
J R Stat Soc Ser C Appl Stat ; 68(2): 461-474, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105345

RESUMO

A sequentially adaptive Bayesian design is presented for a clinical trial of cord blood derived natural killer cells to treat severe hematologic malignancies. Given six prognostic subgroups defined by disease type and severity, the goal is to optimize cell dose in each subgroup. The trial has five co-primary outcomes, the times to severe toxicity, cytokine release syndrome, disease progression or response, and death. The design assumes a multivariate Weibull regression model, with marginals depending on dose, subgroup, and patient frailties that induce association among the event times. Utilities of all possible combinations of the nonfatal outcomes over the first 100 days following cell infusion are elicited, with posterior mean utility used as a criterion to optimize dose. For each subgroup, the design stops accrual to doses having an unacceptably high death rate, and at the end of the trial selects the optimal safe dose. A simulation study is presented to validate the design's safety, ability to identify optimal doses, and robustness, and to compare it to a simplified design that ignores patient heterogeneity.

13.
J Infect Dis ; 219(6): 898-907, 2019 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30295846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients cause substantial morbidity and mortality. CMV cell-mediated immunity (CMV-CMI) can be determined by levels of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production using an enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) CMV assay (T-SPOT.CMV assay). In this study, we evaluated the ability of this assay to predict the outcome of low-level CMV reactivation in HCT recipients. METHODS: We followed 55 HCT recipients with low-level CMV reactivation up to 8 weeks from enrollment. Progression to clinically significant CMV infection (CS-CMVi) was defined as a CMV load >1000 IU/mL or > 500 IU/mL in patients receiving matched related/autologous or matched unrelated transplants, respectively, and initiation of antiviral treatment. RESULTS: Progression to CS-CMVi occurred in 31 (56%) of the HCT recipients. Spot counts of CMV-specific pp65 and IE1 antigens were significantly lower in patients who had CS-CMVi than in patients who did not. On multivariate analysis, the ELISPOT CMV responses and steroids use were the only predictors of progression to CS-CMVi. CONCLUSIONS: A strong association between low CMV-CMI and progression to CS-CMVi was observed in HCT recipients. The implementation of serial monitoring of CMV-CMI may identify patients at risk of progression to CS-CMVi that require antiviral therapy.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Citomegalovirus/fisiologia , ELISPOT , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Interferon gama/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Transplantados , Carga Viral , Ativação Viral
14.
Genome Res ; 28(4): 432-447, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29567676

RESUMO

The cancer-risk-associated rs6983267 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and the accompanying long noncoding RNA CCAT2 in the highly amplified 8q24.21 region have been implicated in cancer predisposition, although causality has not been established. Here, using allele-specific CCAT2 transgenic mice, we demonstrate that CCAT2 overexpression leads to spontaneous myeloid malignancies. We further identified that CCAT2 is overexpressed in bone marrow and peripheral blood of myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) patients. CCAT2 induces global deregulation of gene expression by down-regulating EZH2 in vitro and in vivo in an allele-specific manner. We also identified a novel non-APOBEC, non-ADAR, RNA editing at the SNP locus in MDS/MPN patients and CCAT2-transgenic mice. The RNA transcribed from the SNP locus in malignant hematopoietic cells have different allelic composition from the corresponding genomic DNA, a phenomenon rarely observed in normal cells. Our findings provide fundamental insights into the functional role of rs6983267 SNP and CCAT2 in myeloid malignancies.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/genética , Doenças Mieloproliferativas-Mielodisplásicas/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Mieloproliferativas-Mielodisplásicas/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Edição de RNA/genética
17.
Blood ; 131(11): 1248-1257, 2018 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29386198

RESUMO

We investigated the impact of donor-recipient HLA-DPB1 matching on outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with in vivo T-cell depletion using antithymocyte globulin (ATG) for patients with hematological malignancies. All donor-recipient pairs had high-resolution typing for HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1, HLA-DPB1, and HLA-DRB3/4/5 and were matched at HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and HLA-DRB1. HLA-DPB1 mismatches were categorized by immunogenicity of the DPB1 matching using the DPB T-cell epitope tool. Of 1004 donor-recipient pairs, 210 (21%) were DPB1 matched, 443 (44%) had permissive mismatches, 184 (18%) had nonpermissive mismatches, in graft-versus-host (GVH) direction, and 167 (17%) had nonpermissive mismatches in host-versus-graft (HVG) direction. Compared with HLA-DPB1 permissive mismatched pairs, nonpermissive GVH mismatched pairs had the highest risk for grade II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) (hazard ratio [HR], 1.4; P = .01) whereas matched pairs had the lowest risk (HR, 0.5; P < .001). Grade III to IV aGVHD was only increased with HLA-DPB1 nonpermissive GVH mismatched pairs (HR, 2.3; P = .005). The risk for disease progression was lower with any HLA-DPB1 mismatches, permissive or nonpermissive. However, the favorable prognosis of HLA-DPB1 mismatches on disease progression was observed only in peripheral blood stem cell recipients who were in the intermediate-risk group by the Disease Risk Index (HR, 0.4; P = .001) but no other risk groups. Our results suggest avoidance of nonpermissive GVH HLA-DPB1 mismatches for lowering the risk for grade II to IV and III to IV aGVHD. Permissive or nonpermissive HVG HLA-DPB1 mismatches may be preferred over HLA-DPB1 matches in the intermediate-risk patients to decrease the risk for disease progression.


Assuntos
Cadeias HLA-DRB1 , Neoplasias Hematológicas , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Teste de Histocompatibilidade , Depleção Linfocítica , Linfócitos T , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Aloenxertos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/metabolismo , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/mortalidade , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/patologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Hematológicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hematológicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
18.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 24(7): 1514-1520, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29448058

RESUMO

We studied if the inclusion of early post-stem cell transplantation (SCT) minimal residual disease (MRD) assessments improved prognostication in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Two hundred sixty-nine AML patients in morphological complete remission (CR) who underwent a first SCT were included if they had evaluable pre-SCT MRD assessment by multiparametric flow cytometry. Post-SCT MRD assessments were performed at days +30, +100, and +180. The primary outcome was 1-year relapse incidence (RI). Of 269 patients in CR, 83 (30.8%) had detectable MRD pre-SCT. Post-SCT, during routine disease assessment time points, 9 of 241 evaluable patients (3.7%) at day +30, 6 of 191 evaluable patients (3.1%) at day +100, and 4 of 133 evaluable patients (3%) at day +180 were MRD positive while in CR. MRD positivity at day +30 predicted the highest risk of relapse at 1 year (group 1, 1-year RI 78%). Among MRD-negative patients at day +30, either adverse risk category by European Leukemia Net (ELN) or intermediate risk who were aged ≥60 years and/or pre-SCT MRD-positive represented the intermediate-risk group (group 2, 1-year RI 29%). The remaining patients represented the low-risk group (group 3, 1-year RI 5%). For patients in CR beyond day +30 post-SCT, detectable MRD at any time point predicted impending relapse within 2 months. Early post-SCT MRD assessment-combined with pre-SCT MRD assessment, ELN risk category, and age-improves risk stratification for relapse in AML patients post-transplant. Studies aimed at preventing impending relapse in this high-risk population are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Neoplasia Residual/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasia Residual/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Cytotherapy ; 19(5S): S1-S2, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28473050
20.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 23(8): 1359-1366, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28506845

RESUMO

We previously showed the safety of using cord blood (CB) expanded ex vivo in cocultures with allogeneic mesenchymal precursor cells (MPC) after myeloablative conditioning with faster recovery of neutrophils and platelets compared with historical controls. Herein, we report the transplantation outcomes of 27 patients with hematologic cancers who received 1 CB unit expanded ex vivo with MPCs in addition to an unmanipulated CB (MPC group) after reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC). The results in this group were compared with 51 historical controls who received 2 unmanipulated CB units (control group). The analyses were stratified for 2 RIC treatment groups: (1) total body irradiation 200 cGy + cyclophosphamide + fludarabine) (TCF), and (2) fludarabine + melphalan (FM). Coculture of CB with MPCs led to an expansion of total nucleated cells by a median factor of 12 and of CD34+ cells by a median factor of 49. In patients in whom engraftment occurred, the median time to neutrophil engraftment was 12 days in the MPC group, as compared with 16 days in controls (P = .02). The faster neutrophil engraftment was observed in both RIC groups. The cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment on day 26 was 75% with expansion versus 50% without expansion in patients who received FM as the RIC regimen (P = .03). Incidence of neutrophil engraftment was comparable in MPC and control groups if treated with TCF (82% versus 79%, P = .40). Transplantation of CB units expanded with MPCs is safe and effective with faster neutrophil engraftment even after RIC regimens.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Neoplasias Hematológicas , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Neutrófilos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Idoso , Aloenxertos , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/sangue , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Melfalan/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vidarabina/administração & dosagem , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados , Irradiação Corporal Total
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