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1.
Epigenomics ; 2019 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536415

RESUMO

Aim: Cigarette smoking influences DNA methylation genome wide, in newborns from pregnancy exposure and in adults from personal smoking. Whether a unique methylation signature exists for in utero exposure in newborns is unknown. Materials & methods: We separately meta-analyzed newborn blood DNA methylation (assessed using Illumina450k Beadchip), in relation to sustained maternal smoking during pregnancy (9 cohorts, 5648 newborns, 897 exposed) and adult blood methylation and personal smoking (16 cohorts, 15907 participants, 2433 current smokers). Results & conclusion: Comparing meta-analyses, we identified numerous signatures specific to newborns along with many shared between newborns and adults. Unique smoking-associated genes in newborns were enriched in xenobiotic metabolism pathways. Our findings may provide insights into specific health impacts of prenatal exposure on offspring.

2.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 128, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is protective against many long-term diseases, yet the mechanisms involved are unknown. Leptin gene (LEP) is reported to be associated with body mass index (BMI). On the other hand, breastfeeding duration has been found to be associated with DNA methylation (DNAm) of the LEP gene. Therefore, epigenetic regulation of LEP may represent the mechanism underlying the protective effect of breastfeeding duration against obesity. METHODS: In the Isle of Wight Birth Cohort, peripheral blood DNAm at 23 cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites (CpGs) in the LEP locus in 10-year-old (n = 297) samples and 16 CpGs in 18-year-old (n = 305) samples, were generated using the Illumina Infinium MethylationEPIC and HumanMethylation450 Beadchips respectively and tested for association with breastfeeding duration (total and exclusive) using linear regression. To explore the association between breastfeeding durations and genome-wide DNAm, epigenome-wide association studies (EWASs) and differential methylation region (DMR) analyses were performed. BMI trajectories spanning the first 18 years of life were used as the outcome to test the association with breastfeeding duration (exposure) using multi-nominal logistic regression. Mediation analysis was performed for significant CpG sites. RESULTS: Both total and exclusive breastfeeding duration were associated with DNAm at four LEP CpG sites at 10 years (P value < 0.05), and not at 18 years. Though no association was observed between breastfeeding duration and genome-wide DNAm, DMR analyses identified five significant differentially methylated regions (Sidak adjusted P value < 0.05). Breastfeeding duration was also associated with the early transient overweight trajectory. Furthermore, DNAm of LEP was associated with this trajectory at one CpG site and early persistent obesity at another, though mediation analysis was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding duration is associated with LEP methylation at age 10 years and BMI trajectory. LEP DNAm is also significantly associated with BMI trajectories throughout childhood, though sample sizes were small. However, mediation analysis did not demonstrate that DNAm of LEP explained the protective effect of breastfeeding against childhood obesity.

3.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 97, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with adverse offspring health outcomes across their life course. We hypothesize that DNA methylation is a potential mediator of this relationship. METHODS: We examined the association of prenatal maternal smoking with offspring blood DNA methylation in 2821 individuals (age 16 to 48 years) from five prospective birth cohort studies and perform Mendelian randomization and mediation analyses to assess whether methylation markers have causal effects on disease outcomes in the offspring. RESULTS: We identify 69 differentially methylated CpGs in 36 genomic regions (P value < 1 × 10-7) associated with exposure to maternal smoking in adolescents and adults. Mendelian randomization analyses provided evidence for a causal role of four maternal smoking-related CpG sites on an increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease or schizophrenia. Further mediation analyses showed some evidence of cg25189904 in GNG12 gene mediating the effect of exposure to maternal smoking on schizophrenia-related outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: DNA methylation may represent a biological mechanism through which maternal smoking is associated with increased risk of psychiatric morbidity in the exposed offspring.

4.
Hypertension ; 74(2): 375-383, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230546

RESUMO

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are associated with low birth weight, shorter gestational age, and increased risk of maternal and offspring cardiovascular diseases later in life. The mechanisms involved are poorly understood, but epigenetic regulation of gene expression may play a part. We performed meta-analyses in the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics Consortium to test the association between either maternal HDP (10 cohorts; n=5242 [cases=476]) or preeclampsia (3 cohorts; n=2219 [cases=135]) and epigenome-wide DNA methylation in cord blood using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. In models adjusted for confounders, and with Bonferroni correction, HDP and preeclampsia were associated with DNA methylation at 43 and 26 CpG sites, respectively. HDP was associated with higher methylation at 27 (63%) of the 43 sites, and across all 43 sites, the mean absolute difference in methylation was between 0.6% and 2.6%. Epigenome-wide associations of HDP with offspring DNA methylation were modestly consistent with the equivalent epigenome-wide associations of preeclampsia with offspring DNA methylation (R2=0.26). In longitudinal analyses conducted in 1 study (n=108 HDP cases; 550 controls), there were similar changes in DNA methylation in offspring of those with and without HDP up to adolescence. Pathway analysis suggested that genes located at/near HDP-associated sites may be involved in developmental, embryogenesis, or neurological pathways. HDP is associated with offspring DNA methylation with potential relevance to development.

5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(2): 624-625, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213285
6.
Genome Res ; 29(7): 1057-1066, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160375

RESUMO

Germline mutations in fundamental epigenetic regulatory molecules including DNA methyltransferase 3 alpha (DNMT3A) are commonly associated with growth disorders, whereas somatic mutations are often associated with malignancy. We profiled genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in DNMT3A c.2312G > A; p.(Arg771Gln) carriers in a large Amish sibship with Tatton-Brown-Rahman syndrome (TBRS), their mosaic father, and 15 TBRS patients with distinct pathogenic de novo DNMT3A variants. This defined widespread DNA hypomethylation at specific genomic sites enriched at locations annotated as genes involved in morphogenesis, development, differentiation, and malignancy predisposition pathways. TBRS patients also displayed highly accelerated DNA methylation aging. These findings were most marked in a carrier of the AML-associated driver mutation p.Arg882Cys. Our studies additionally defined phenotype-related accelerated and decelerated epigenetic aging in two histone methyltransferase disorders: NSD1 Sotos syndrome overgrowth disorder and KMT2D Kabuki syndrome growth impairment. Together, our findings provide fundamental new insights into aberrant epigenetic mechanisms, the role of epigenetic machinery maintenance, and determinants of biological aging in these growth disorders.

7.
Eur Respir J ; 54(1)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073081

RESUMO

Previous reports link differential DNA methylation (DNAme) to environmental exposures that are associated with lung function. Direct evidence on lung function DNAme is, however, limited. We undertook an agnostic epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) on pre-bronchodilation lung function and its change in adults.In a discovery-replication EWAS design, DNAme in blood and spirometry were measured twice, 6-15 years apart, in the same participants of three adult population-based discovery cohorts (n=2043). Associated DNAme markers (p<5×10-7) were tested in seven replication cohorts (adult: n=3327; childhood: n=420). Technical bias-adjusted residuals of a regression of the normalised absolute ß-values on control probe-derived principle components were regressed on level and change of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and their ratio (FEV1/FVC) in the covariate-adjusted discovery EWAS. Inverse-variance-weighted meta-analyses were performed on results from discovery and replication samples in all participants and never-smokers.EWAS signals were enriched for smoking-related DNAme. We replicated 57 lung function DNAme markers in adult, but not childhood samples, all previously associated with smoking. Markers not previously associated with smoking failed replication. cg05575921 (AHRR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor)) showed the statistically most significant association with cross-sectional lung function (FEV1/FVC: pdiscovery=3.96×10-21 and pcombined=7.22×10-50). A score combining 10 DNAme markers previously reported to mediate the effect of smoking on lung function was associated with lung function (FEV1/FVC: p=2.65×10-20).Our results reveal that lung function-associated methylation signals in adults are predominantly smoking related, and possibly of clinical utility in identifying poor lung function and accelerated decline. Larger studies with more repeat time-points are needed to identify lung function DNAme in never-smokers and in children.

8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1893, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015461

RESUMO

Birthweight is associated with health outcomes across the life course, DNA methylation may be an underlying mechanism. In this meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies of 8,825 neonates from 24 birth cohorts in the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics Consortium, we find that DNA methylation in neonatal blood is associated with birthweight at 914 sites, with a difference in birthweight ranging from -183 to 178 grams per 10% increase in methylation (PBonferroni < 1.06 x 10-7). In additional analyses in 7,278 participants, <1.3% of birthweight-associated differential methylation is also observed in childhood and adolescence, but not adulthood. Birthweight-related CpGs overlap with some Bonferroni-significant CpGs that were previously reported to be related to maternal smoking (55/914, p = 6.12 x 10-74) and BMI in pregnancy (3/914, p = 1.13x10-3), but not with those related to folate levels in pregnancy. Whether the associations that we observe are causal or explained by confounding or fetal growth influencing DNA methylation (i.e. reverse causality) requires further research.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Genoma Humano , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Ilhas de CpG , DNA/genética , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Feto , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/genética
9.
Allergy ; 74(6): 1166-1175, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30762239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of allergic sensitization has a major influence on the development and course of common childhood conditions such as asthma and rhinitis. The etiology of allergic sensitization is poorly understood, and its underlying biological mechanisms are not well established. Several studies showed that DNA methylation (DNAm) at some CpGs is associated with allergic sensitization. However, no studies have focused on the critical adolescence period. METHODS: We assessed the association of pre- and postadolescence genome-wide DNAm with allergic sensitization against indoor, outdoor and food allergens, using linear mixed models. We hypothesized that DNAm is associated with sensitization in general, and with poly-sensitization status, and these associations are age- and gender-specific. We tested these hypotheses in the IoW cohort (n = 376) and examined the findings in the BAMSE cohort (n = 267). RESULTS: Via linear mixed models, we identified 35 CpGs in IoW associated with allergic sensitization (at false discovery rate of 0.05), of which 33 were available in BAMSE and replicated with respect to the direction of associations with allergic sensitization. At the 35 CpGs except for cg19210306 on C13orf27, a reduction in methylation among atopic subjects was observed, most notably for cg21220721 and cg11699125 (ACOT7). DNAm at cg10159529 was strongly correlated with expression of IL5RA in peripheral blood (P-value = 6.76 × 10-20 ). Three CpGs (cg14121142, cg23842695, and cg26496795) were identified in IoW with age-specific association between DNAm and allergic sensitization. CONCLUSION: In adolescence, the status of allergic sensitization was associated with DNAm differentiation and at some CpGs the association is likely to be age-specific.

10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2062-2074, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms, including methylation, can contribute to childhood asthma. Identifying DNA methylation profiles in asthmatic patients can inform disease pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify differential DNA methylation in newborns and children related to childhood asthma. METHODS: Within the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics consortium, we performed epigenome-wide meta-analyses of school-age asthma in relation to CpG methylation (Illumina450K) in blood measured either in newborns, in prospective analyses, or cross-sectionally in school-aged children. We also identified differentially methylated regions. RESULTS: In newborns (8 cohorts, 668 cases), 9 CpGs (and 35 regions) were differentially methylated (epigenome-wide significance, false discovery rate < 0.05) in relation to asthma development. In a cross-sectional meta-analysis of asthma and methylation in children (9 cohorts, 631 cases), we identified 179 CpGs (false discovery rate < 0.05) and 36 differentially methylated regions. In replication studies of methylation in other tissues, most of the 179 CpGs discovered in blood replicated, despite smaller sample sizes, in studies of nasal respiratory epithelium or eosinophils. Pathway analyses highlighted enrichment for asthma-relevant immune processes and overlap in pathways enriched both in newborns and children. Gene expression correlated with methylation at most loci. Functional annotation supports a regulatory effect on gene expression at many asthma-associated CpGs. Several implicated genes are targets for approved or experimental drugs, including IL5RA and KCNH2. CONCLUSION: Novel loci differentially methylated in newborns represent potential biomarkers of risk of asthma by school age. Cross-sectional associations in children can reflect both risk for and effects of disease. Asthma-related differential methylation in blood in children was substantially replicated in eosinophils and respiratory epithelium.

11.
Respir Res ; 19(1): 156, 2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30134983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathophysiological role of SERPINA1 in respiratory health may be more strongly determined by the regulation of its expression than by common genetic variants. A family based study of predominantly smoking adults found methylation at two Cytosine-phosphate-Guanine sites (CpGs) in SERPINA1 gene to be associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease risk. The objective of this study was to confirm the association of lung function with SERPINA1 methylation in general population samples by testing a comprehensive set of CpGs in the SERPINA gene cluster. We considered lung function level and decline in adult smokers from three European population-based cohorts and lung function level and growth in tobacco-smoke exposed children from a birth cohort. METHODS: DNA methylation using Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450 k and EPIC beadchips and lung function were measured at two time points in 1076 SAPALDIA, ECRHS and NFBC adult cohort participants and 259 ALSPAC children. Associations of methylation at 119 CpG sites in the SERPINA gene cluster (PP4R4-SERPINA13P) with lung functions and circulating alpha-1-antitripsin (AAT) were assessed using multivariable cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models. RESULTS: Methylation at cg08257009 in the SERPINA gene cluster, located 32 kb downstream of SERPINA1, not annotated to a gene, was associated with FEV1/FVC at the Bonferroni corrected level in adults, but not in children. None of the methylation signals in the SERPINA1 gene showed associations with lung function after correcting for multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS: The results do not support a role of SERPINA1 gene methylation as determinant of lung function across the life course in the tobacco smoke exposed general population exposed.

12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 142(3): 765-772, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30040975

RESUMO

It has become clear that early life (including in utero exposures) is a key window of vulnerability during which environmental exposures can alter developmental trajectories and initiate allergic disease development. However, recent evidence suggests that there might be additional windows of vulnerability to environmental exposures in the parental generation before conception or even in previous generations. There is evidence suggesting that information of prior exposures can be transferred across generations, and experimental animal models suggest that such transmission can be conveyed through epigenetic mechanisms. Although the molecular mechanisms of intergenerational and transgenerationational epigenetic transmission have yet to be determined, the realization that environment before conception can alter the risks of allergic diseases has profound implications for the development of public health interventions to prevent disease. Future research in both experimental models and in multigenerational human cohorts is needed to better understand the role of intergenerational and transgenerational effects in patients with asthma and allergic disease. This will provide the knowledge basis for a new approach to efficient intervention strategies aimed at reducing the major public health challenge of these conditions.

13.
J Med Genet ; 55(7): 497-504, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29574422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genomic imprinting results from the resistance of germline epigenetic marks to reprogramming in the early embryo for a small number of mammalian genes. Genetic, epigenetic or environmental insults that prevent imprints from evading reprogramming may result in imprinting disorders, which impact growth, development, behaviour and metabolism. We aimed to identify genetic defects causing imprinting disorders by whole-exome sequencing in families with one or more members affected by multilocus imprinting disturbance. METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing was performed in 38 pedigrees where probands had multilocus imprinting disturbance, in five of whom maternal variants in NLRP5 have previously been found. RESULTS: We now report 15 further pedigrees in which offspring had disturbance of imprinting, while their mothers had rare, predicted-deleterious variants in maternal effect genes, including NLRP2, NLRP7 and PADI6. As well as clinical features of well-recognised imprinting disorders, some offspring had additional features including developmental delay, behavioural problems and discordant monozygotic twinning, while some mothers had reproductive problems including pregnancy loss. CONCLUSION: The identification of 20 putative maternal effect variants in 38 families affected by multilocus imprinting disorders adds to the evidence that maternal genetic factors affect oocyte fitness and thus offspring development. Testing for maternal-effect genetic variants should be considered in families affected by atypical imprinting disorders.

14.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(3): 917-925, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29342293

RESUMO

Context: Small for gestational age (SGA) can be the result of fetal growth restriction, which is associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality. Mechanisms that control prenatal growth are poorly understood. Objective: The aim of the current study was to gain more insight into prenatal growth failure and determine an effective diagnostic approach in SGA newborns. We hypothesized that one or more copy number variations (CNVs) and disturbed methylation and sequence variants may be present in genes associated with fetal growth. Design: A prospective cohort study of subjects with a low birth weight for gestational age. Setting: The study was conducted at an academic pediatric research institute. Patients: A total of 21 SGA newborns with a mean birth weight below the first centile and a control cohort of 24 appropriate-for-gestational-age newborns were studied. Interventions: Array comparative genomic hybridization, genome-wide methylation studies, and exome sequencing were performed. Main Outcome Measures: The numbers of CNVs, methylation disturbances, and sequence variants. Results: The genetic analyses demonstrated three CNVs, one systematically disturbed methylation pattern, and one sequence variant explaining SGA. Additional methylation disturbances and sequence variants were present in 20 patients. In 19 patients, multiple abnormalities were found. Conclusion: Our results confirm the influence of a large number of mechanisms explaining dysregulation of fetal growth. We concluded that CNVs, methylation disturbances, and sequence variants all contribute to prenatal growth failure. These genetic workups can be an effective diagnostic approach in SGA newborns.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
15.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(20): 4067-4085, 2017 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29016858

RESUMO

Pre-pregnancy maternal obesity is associated with adverse offspring outcomes at birth and later in life. Individual studies have shown that epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation could contribute. Within the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) Consortium, we meta-analysed the association between pre-pregnancy maternal BMI and methylation at over 450,000 sites in newborn blood DNA, across 19 cohorts (9,340 mother-newborn pairs). We attempted to infer causality by comparing the effects of maternal versus paternal BMI and incorporating genetic variation. In four additional cohorts (1,817 mother-child pairs), we meta-analysed the association between maternal BMI at the start of pregnancy and blood methylation in adolescents. In newborns, maternal BMI was associated with small (<0.2% per BMI unit (1 kg/m2), P < 1.06 × 10-7) methylation variation at 9,044 sites throughout the genome. Adjustment for estimated cell proportions greatly attenuated the number of significant CpGs to 104, including 86 sites common to the unadjusted model. At 72/86 sites, the direction of the association was the same in newborns and adolescents, suggesting persistence of signals. However, we found evidence for acausal intrauterine effect of maternal BMI on newborn methylation at just 8/86 sites. In conclusion, this well-powered analysis identified robust associations between maternal adiposity and variations in newborn blood DNA methylation, but these small effects may be better explained by genetic or lifestyle factors than a causal intrauterine mechanism. This highlights the need for large-scale collaborative approaches and the application of causal inference techniques in epigenetic epidemiology.


Assuntos
Herança Materna/genética , Obesidade/complicações , Resultado da Gravidez/genética , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Herança Materna/fisiologia , Mães , Gravidez/fisiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo
16.
BMC Pulm Med ; 17(1): 54, 2017 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28320365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic variations in peripheral blood have potential as biomarkers for disease. This systematic review assesses the association of lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with DNA methylation profiles in peripheral blood from population-based studies. METHODS: Online databases Medline, Embase, and Web of Science were searched. Google Scholar was searched to identify grey literature. After removing duplicate articles, 1155 articles were independently screened by two investigators. Peer reviewed reports on population-based studies that examined peripheral blood DNA methylation in participants with measured lung function (FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio) or known COPD status were selected for full-text review. Six articles were suitable for inclusion. Information regarding study characteristics, designs, methodologies and conclusions was extracted. A narrative synthesis was performed based on published results. RESULTS: Three of the six articles assessed the association of COPD with DNA methylation, and two of these also included associations with lung function. Overall, five reports examined the association of lung function with DNA methylation profiles. Five of the six articles reported 'significant' results. However, no consistent CpG sites were identified across studies for COPD status or lung function values. CONCLUSIONS: DNA methylation patterns in peripheral blood from individuals with reduced lung function or COPD may be different to those in people with normal lung function. However, this systematic review did not find any consistent associations of lung function or COPD with differentially methylated CpG sites. Large studies with a longitudinal design to address reverse causality may prove a more fruitful area of research. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO 2016: CRD42016037352 .


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Testes de Função Respiratória
17.
Vaccine ; 34(51): 6493-6501, 2016 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27866770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccinations have been suggested to be associated with increased risk of allergic diseases. Tetanus vaccination is one of the most frequently administered vaccines as a part of wound management and was also found to be associated with increased serum IgE levels. We hypothesized that the vaccination modifies the risk of allergic diseases through epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation. METHOD: Data on tetanus vaccination between 10 and 18years of age was collected from a birth cohort established on the Isle of Wight UK in 1989. DNA methylation data were collected from individuals at different ages (at birth [n=30], age 10 [n=34], age 18 [n=245] and during pregnancy [n=121]) using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450K array. Firstly, we performed an epigenome-wide screening to identify cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites (CpGs) associated with tetanus vaccination in 18-year-olds. Secondly, we tested their association with asthma, allergic sensitization, eczema, serum IgE and pulmonary lung function (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and FEF25-75%). We then described changes in the methylation of the selected CpG sites over age, and by vaccination status. RESULTS: Tetanus vaccination was found to be associated with decreased methylation of cg14472551 (p value 0.5×10-5, FDR-adjusted p value 2.1×10-4) and increased methylation of cg01669161 (p value 0.0007, FDR-adjusted p value 0.014). Both CpGs, in turn, were associated with decreased risk of asthma at 18years of age. Cg14472551 is located in an intron of KIAA1549L, whose protein binds to a B-cell commitment transcription factor; cg01669161 is located between an antisense regulator of the proteasome assembly chaperone PSMG3, and TFAMP1, a pseudogene. Increased methylation of cg01669161 was also associated with decreased serum IgE levels. CONCLUSION: DNA methylation changes following tetanus vaccination may offer a novel prospect to explain a differential occurrence of asthma in adolescence.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/prevenção & controle , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Toxoide Tetânico/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nat Commun ; 6: 8086, 2015 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26323243

RESUMO

Human-imprinting disorders are congenital disorders of growth, development and metabolism, associated with disturbance of parent of origin-specific DNA methylation at imprinted loci across the genome. Some imprinting disorders have higher than expected prevalence of monozygotic twinning, of assisted reproductive technology among parents, and of disturbance of multiple imprinted loci, for which few causative trans-acting mutations have been found. Here we report mutations in NLRP5 in five mothers of individuals affected by multilocus imprinting disturbance. Maternal-effect mutations of other human NLRP genes, NLRP7 and NLRP2, cause familial biparental hydatidiform mole and multilocus imprinting disturbance, respectively. Offspring of mothers with NLRP5 mutations have heterogenous clinical and epigenetic features, but cases include a discordant monozygotic twin pair, individuals with idiopathic developmental delay and autism, and families affected by infertility and reproductive wastage. NLRP5 mutations suggest connections between maternal reproductive fitness, early zygotic development and genomic imprinting.


Assuntos
Autoantígenos/genética , Síndrome de Beckwith-Wiedemann/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Impressão Genômica/genética , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/genética , Síndrome de Silver-Russell/genética , Aborto Espontâneo/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Simulação por Computador , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Mola Hidatiforme/genética , Infertilidade Feminina/genética , Masculino , Mães , Mutação , Obesidade/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Gravidez , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Neoplasias Uterinas/genética , Adulto Jovem
19.
Mol Cell Probes ; 29(5): 282-90, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26070988

RESUMO

Imprinting disorders (IDs) are a group of congenital diseases affecting growth, development and metabolism. They are caused by changes in the allele-specific regulation ("epigenetic mutation") or in the genomic sequence ("genetic mutation") of imprinted genes. Currently molecular tests in ID patients are generally restricted to single loci classically associated with the disease, but this approach limits diagnostic yield, because of the molecular and clinical heterogeneity between IDs. From the technical point of view, these limitations are aggravated by the lack of standardization in testing methodology, in the DNA sequences tested, and in clinical inclusion criteria prompting testing. However, an increasing number of new studies show that these problems can be addressed by the use of new tests targeting multiple loci and/or a total exome and genome analysis. The rapid development of efficient and high-throughput molecular techniques and their applications in research and diagnostics in the last decade have led to an impressive increase of knowledge on IDs and their basic pathomechanisms. In combination with the improvement of data recording and documentation, the diagnostic strategies are increasingly based on standardized protocols, and thereby provide the backbone for directed counseling, more personalized management, and new therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Epigênese Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Impressão Genômica , Humanos , Mutação
20.
Clin Epigenetics ; 7: 48, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25918558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip is an array-based technology for analysing DNA methylation at approximately 475,000 differentially methylated cytosines across the human genome. Hitherto, the array has been used for case-control studies, where sample numbers can be sufficient to yield statistically robust data on a genome-wide basis. We recently reported an informatic pipeline capable of yielding statistically and biologically significant results using only five cases, which expanded the use of this technology to rare disease studies. However, the clinical application of these technologies requires the ability to perform robust analysis of individual patients. RESULTS: Here we report a novel informatic approach for methylation array analysis of single samples, using the Crawford-Howell t-test. We tested our approach on patients with ultra-rare imprinting disorders with aberrant DNA methylation at multiple locations across the genome, which was previously detected by targeted testing. However, array analysis outperformed targeted assays in three ways: it detected loci not normally analysed by targeted testing, detected methylation changes too subtle to detect by the targeted testing and reported broad and consistent methylation changes across genetic loci not captured by point testing. CONCLUSIONS: This method has potential clinical utility for human disorders where DNA methylation change may be a biomarker of disease.

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