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1.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purposes of the present study were (1) to create a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based classification system for septic shoulder arthritis and to show the results of arthroscopic debridement based on the classification in eradicating the infection, and (2) to determine the distribution of the Gächter stages, which are determined on the basis of arthroscopic findings only, in each grade of the novel classification system. METHODS: The present study included 31 patients who underwent arthroscopic debridement for the treatment of acute septic arthritis of the shoulder between January 2001 and December 2015. The mean duration of follow-up was 2.3 years. The included patients were assessed with use of a novel classification system based on preoperative radiographic and MRI findings. MRI findings were classified as Grade I (only synovitis or joint effusion), Grade II (marrow edema in the bare area of the humeral head), Grade III (cartilaginous erosion), Grade IV (osseous erosion), and Grade V (osseous erosion on MRI also observed on radiographs). No changes on radiographs were observed in Grades I to IV. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for interobserver and intraobserver reliability were calculated. RESULTS: The overall reinfection rate was 54.8% (17 of 31). Among patients with Grade-I, II, III, IV, and V involvement, the reinfection rates were 0 of 4, 1 of 6, 2 of 4, 9 of 12, and 5 of 5, respectively. A diverse distribution of Gächter stages were found in each grade of the novel classification system, with the exception of Grade V. The ICCs for interobserver and intraobserver reliability were 0.81 and 0.80 for the novel classification system. The ICCs for interobserver and intraobserver reliability were 0.75 and 0.78 for Gächter stages. CONCLUSIONS: This novel classification system for the grading of acute shoulder infections on the basis of radiographs and MRI allows preoperative grading of septic arthritis to be performed objectively. Patients who were classified as Grade III or higher in the novel classification system had higher reinfection rates than those who were classified as Grade I or II and required more aggressive treatment to eradicate the infection.

2.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 29(6): 1096-1103, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurologic problems after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) have been reported, but there are a lack of studies regarding which nerve(s) are damaged and the outcomes for the patients who had neurologic complications after RTSA. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and outcomes of neurologic deficit after RTSA and to evaluate the correlation between nonanatomic rearrangement of the shoulder joint and neurologic complications after RTSA. We hypothesized that the neurologic deficit was associated with excessive distalization or lateralization of the humerus after RTSA. METHODS: RTSA was performed on 182 consecutive shoulders with cuff tear arthropathy. Comparative analysis was performed on 34 shoulders with (group 1) and 148 shoulders without (group 2) neurologic deficit. RESULTS: The mean follow-up period in the study was 58.5 months (range: 24-124). The mean age was 71.5 ± 7.7 years in group 1 and 73.1 ± 7.2 years in group 2. Neurologic deficit after RTSA was found in 34 shoulders (19%). The mean postoperative acromiohumeral distance was 34.1 ± 11.0 mm in group 1 and 29.4 ± 7.6 mm in group 2 (P = .015). Significant differences in terms of postoperative distalization of the humerus were seen between group 1 (24.5 ± 9.4 mm) and group 2 (20.5 ± 8.3 mm) (P = .009). The most common forms of neurologic deficit after RTSA were axillary nerve (41.2%) and radial nerve (15%) injuries. Thirty shoulders (88%) had neuropraxia, and 4 shoulders (12%) had axonotmesis. By conservative treatment, all patients with neurologic complications achieved complete recovery without any additional surgery; the mean recovery period was 7.4 months (range: 2-38 months). CONCLUSION: Neurologic deficit occurred in 19% of patients who underwent RTSA, and it was significantly correlated with humeral distalization after surgery. Axillary nerve was mostly involved, and all patients with neurologic deficit achieved complete recovery without any additional surgery.

3.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 29(1): 86-94, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) is a widely accepted treatment for irreparable massive rotator cuff tear (mRCT) and cuff tear arthropathy (CTA), but its impact on activities of daily living (ADLs) remains unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 77 patients (age range, 54-87 years; follow-up range, 36.1-120.3 months) with irreparable mRCT and CTA treated by medialized RSA between 2008 and 2015. Ten activities considered essential for daily living were selected and scored from 0 to 3. RESULTS: The mean visual analog scale scores during motion and University of California at Los Angeles and Constant scores significantly improved at final follow-up (all P < .001). Active forward flexion, external rotation at the side, and internal rotation to the posterior (IRp) were 92.5%, 79.6%, and 48.4% of the contralateral side, respectively, at final follow-up. Active forward flexion and external rotation at the side recovered within 6 months after surgery, similar to the level at final follow-up, but IRp did not reach the preoperative status until final follow-up. ADLs with mean scores of less than 2.0 at final follow-up were "wash the opposite shoulder," "wash the opposite axilla," "use a back pocket," "manage the toilet," and "wash the back" (only 36.4% of patients were able to wash their back at final follow-up). CONCLUSIONS: RSA for irreparable mRCT and CTA showed satisfactory clinical outcomes. However, IRp was associated with a limited range compared with the other shoulder motions; therefore, all ADLs associated with internal rotation demonstrated lower recovery rates than expected.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Artroplastia do Ombro , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Artropatia de Ruptura do Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Articulação do Ombro/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroplastia do Ombro/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rotação , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/fisiopatologia , Artropatia de Ruptura do Manguito Rotador/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Arthroscopy ; 36(2): 411-418, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883709

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate preoperative diagnostic rates for panlabral tear using imaging studies or physical examinations and to evaluate clinical outcomes after arthroscopic stabilization procedures with 2 different patient surgical positions. METHODS: Patients who underwent arthroscopic stabilization for recurrent anterior shoulder instability with panlabral tear and were followed up for at least 2 years were included. A panlabral tear was defined as labral tear involving at least 270° of the glenoid surface on arthroscopic examination. All patients underwent preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging or MR arthrography and physical examinations including anterior apprehension, posterior jerk, and compressive rotation tests. The clinical outcomes were assessed by the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Rowe, and visual analog scale for pain scores, and recurrence rate. According to patient position during surgery, patients were divided into group I (beach chair position) and group II (lateral decubitus position). RESULTS: Forty-eight patients (24 in group I and 24 in group II) were enrolled. Preoperative MR imaging or MR arthrography detected only 18.8% of panlabral tears. No patient had positive findings on all 3 physical examination tests for panlabral tear. Clinical outcomes were significantly improved after operation (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score: 58.4 ± 6.2 preoperatively, 85.2 ± 6.4 at the final, P < .001; Rowe score: 49.0 ± 12.2 preoperatively, 86.8 ± 9.1 at the final, P < .001) and postoperative recurrence was occurred in 1patient (2%). No differences were found in clinical outcomes and recurrence rate (4% vs 0%) according to patient positioning, despite the larger number of suture anchors used in group II (6.2 ± 1.5 in group I, 7.6 ± 1.1 in group II, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: It remained difficult to preoperatively diagnose panlabral tear using standard physical examinations and imaging studies. Nevertheless, arthroscopic stabilization procedures for patients with panlabral tear provided satisfactory clinical outcomes with a low recurrence rate. Patient position during surgery did not alter clinical outcomes and recurrence rate, despite the use of different numbers of suture anchors. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, Retrospective comparative therapeutic trial.

5.
Clin Orthop Surg ; 11(4): 445-452, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788168

RESUMO

Background: Although the instability severity index score (ISIS) is widely used to predict recurrence after arthroscopic anterior instability surgery, its reliability, especially on the weightings and cutoff values, is questionable. The goal of the current retrospective study was to investigate recurrence after arthroscopic capsulolabral reconstruction to evaluate whether each domain of the ISIS has the appropriate predictive power for recurrence by using logistic regression analyses with odds ratios (ORs). Methods: This study included 120 consecutive patients who underwent arthroscopic capsulolabral reconstruction between 2004 and 2016. We retrospectively reviewed patients' preoperative history and radiographs, postoperative recurrence or sensation of instability, and risk factors related to the ISIS. The mean postoperative follow-up was 27.6 months (range, 12 to 96 months; median, 21 months). Twenty-six patients with recurrence or positive apprehension were classified as the recurrence group; 94 patients without any symptoms were classified as the non-recurrence group. Logistic regression analyses with ORs were used to verify the utility of each domain of the ISIS for predicting recurrence. Results: The mean ISIS did not differ significantly between the recurrence and non-recurrence groups (4.3 ± 1.8 vs. 3.4 ± 2.1 points; p = 0.063). Among the domains of ISIS, factors related to bone defects, the presence of a Hill-Sachs lesion and glenoid bone loss had the lowest ORs (0.77 and 0.38, respectively). Conclusions: Not all ISIS domains accurately predicted recurrence after arthroscopic capsulolabral reconstruction. The ISIS may not be a proper reference for determining Latarjet procedure in patients with anterior shoulder instability.

6.
Am J Sports Med ; 47(14): 3483-3490, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: All-suture anchors are increasingly being used in rotator cuff repair. However, there are debates on the micromotion of all-suture anchors. PURPOSE: To perform rotator cuff repair on patients with rotator cuff tears and different shoulder bone mineral densities (BMDs) and investigate (1) where the anchor is located under the cortex, (2) if there is any anchor migration settling during follow-up, and (3) if structural outcome differs according to shoulder BMD. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated 88 patients who underwent arthroscopic single-row repair for small- to medium-sized rotator cuff tears (age [mean ± SD], 58.8 ± 7.1 years) from 712 cases of rotator cuff tendon repair between November 2015 and February 2018. Inclusion criteria were as follows: use of an all-suture anchor; preoperative shoulder BMD; and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) conducted preoperatively, 2 days after surgery, and 10 months after surgery. Patients were excluded from the study if they underwent open rotator cuff repair (n = 118), got surgery with a double-row technique (n = 178), underwent surgery with anchors other than the all-suture type (n = 273), received anchor insertion in sites other than the greater tuberosity owing to concomitant procedures such as biceps tenodesis and subscapularis repair (n = 29), did not take preoperative shoulder BMD (n = 15), had more than a large-size tear (n = 6), and were lost to follow-up (n = 5). After compression of the all-suture anchor during surgery, the strands were pulled multiple times to ensure that the anchor was fixed onto the bone with appropriate tension. BMD was measured before surgery. Depth to anchor (DA), anchor settling, and repaired rotator cuff integrity were measured with MRI. Patients were categorized into 3 groups: group A (BMD, <0.4 g/cm2; n = 31), group B (BMD, 0.4-0.6 g/cm2; n = 32), and group C (BMD, >0.6 g/cm2; n = 25). A total of 65 patients had follow-up MRI. On the basis of rotator cuff tendon integrity, patients were categorized into either a sufficient thickness group (group S, Sugaya classification grade II or lower; n = 44) or an insufficient thickness group (group I, Sugaya classification grade III or higher; n = 21). RESULTS: On time-zero MRI, the DA differed significantly among groups (group A, 3.62 ± 2.02 mm; group B, 5.18 ± 2.13 mm; group C, 6.30 ± 3.34 mm) (P = .001). The DA was deeper in patients with a higher BMD at time zero (r = 0.374; P = .001), but the DA did not differ at follow-up MRI (mean, 10.3 months after surgery). On follow-up MRI, anchor settling tended to increase with deeper time-zero DA (r = 0.769; P < .001). Anchor settling was significantly different among groups (group A, 1.33 ± 1.08 mm; group B, 2.78 ± 1.99 mm; group C, 3.81 ± 2.19 mm) (P = .001). The proportion of patients with sufficient thickness in each group did not show a statistical difference (group A, 70.8%; group B, 72.7%; group C, 57.9%) (P = .550). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this study confirmed that the postoperative site of anchor insertion in arthroscopic single-row rotator cuff repair with all-suture anchors was located farther from the cortex in patients with higher shoulder BMD and closer to the subcortical bone in patients with lower BMD. On follow-up MRI, no further settling occurred past a certain distance from the cortex, and there was no significant difference in anchor depth or integrity of the rotator cuff tendon based on shoulder BMD. Therefore, minimal settling in the all-suture anchor did not show clinical significance.

7.
Arthroscopy ; 35(12): 3211-3218, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708353

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical and structural outcomes of arthroscopic side-to-side repair of large U-shaped full-thickness rotator cuff tears (FTRCTs) by assessing the functional score of the patients and the integrity of the tendon repair using magnetic resonance imaging with a minimum follow-up duration of 2 years. METHODS: In this case series, 59 consecutive patients who underwent arthroscopic side-to-side repair of large U-shaped FTRCTs, with a minimum follow-up duration of 2 years (range 25 to 72 months), were retrospectively enrolled. The mean patient age was 58.6 years. Patients' functional scores and integrity of the tendon repairs were evaluated. RESULTS: The mean visual analog scale score improved from 5.7 ± 2.1 preoperatively to 2.4 ± 1.3 postoperatively (P < .001). The mean range of motion (forward flexion) improved from 152.7° ± 11.4° to 164.5° ± 9.5° (P < .001). The mean Constant-Murley score improved from 57.3 ± 7.2 preoperatively to 77.8 ± 6.9 postoperatively (P < .001). Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging examinations demonstrated cuff integrity with a retear rate of 54.2%. The retear rate of patients who underwent anchor fixation to the medial row (45%) was significantly lower than that of patients who underwent simple side-to-side repair (73.7%) (P = .039). The University of California at Los Angeles shoulder rating and Constant-Murley scores were not significantly different between the healed and retear groups (P = .639 and P = .863, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Arthroscopic side-to-side repair of large U-shaped FTRCTs demonstrated satisfactory clinical outcomes. However, the retear rate was higher than expected when simple side-to-side fixation was performed without footprint fixation. Therefore, medial row fixation is recommended if arthroscopic side-to-side repair is performed. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III, comparative therapeutic trial.

8.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 28(12): 2317-2325, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no standard to determine the most appropriate method of operation for the treatment of acute septic arthritis of the shoulder joint. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 57 patients who underwent arthroscopic or open débridement for acute shoulder infection between 2001 and 2015. Arthroscopic débridement was performed in 27 patients, and open débridement in 30 patients. According to the presence of bone erosion and/or marginal erosion of cartilage of the humeral head on plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images, the cases were classified into 3 groups (group 1, n = 23, without erosions in x-ray and MRI; group 2, n = 21, erosions seen in MRI but not in x-ray; and group 3, n = 13, with erosions seen in both x-ray and MRI). RESULTS: The arthroscopic group had a reinfection rate of 55.6% (15/27), and the open group had a reinfection rate of 16.7% (5/30). The reinfection rates in the arthroscopic and the open groups were 10% (1/10) and 15.4% (2/13) in group 1; 75% (9/12) and 11.1% (1/9) in group 2; and 100% (5/5) and 25% (2/8) in group 3, respectively. At the last follow-up, the mean University of California at Los Angeles score and the average time until normalization of white blood cell, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein in the open group showed superior results in the open group (all P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: When preoperative MRI showed bone and/or cartilage erosion of humeral head, the reinfection rate after arthroscopic débridement was above 75%. Therefore, if preoperative MRI showed erosions, open débridement is more likely to be appropriate than arthroscopic débridement.


Assuntos
Artrite Infecciosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Artrite Infecciosa/cirurgia , Desbridamento/métodos , Cabeça do Úmero/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Ombro/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artrite Infecciosa/sangue , Artroscopia , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pré-Operatório , Radiografia , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ombro , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc ; 27(12): 4005-4013, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410527

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes between single on-lay and double on-lay subpectoral biceps tenodesis (SPBT) using all-suture type anchor in patients with concomitant long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) lesions and rotator cuff tears. METHODS: The study included 130 patients who underwent SPBT using all-suture type anchor and arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Single and double anchor on-lay fixations were performed in 69 patients (group A) and 61 patients (group B), respectively. In 16 patients of group A and 36 patients of group B, a metallic wire was embedded at tenodesis site and difference of wire location pre-and postoperatively was measured using simple radiography. RESULTS: In both groups, the mean visual analogue scale (VAS) score during motion, the mean UCLA and constant scores significantly improved at the last follow-up (all p < 0.001). These scores were not significantly different between two groups. However, postoperatively, a significant difference was observed in the incidence of cosmetic deformity between two groups (p = 0.019). The cosmetic deformity was noted in 9 (13.0%) patients (Popeye deformity 7.2% and biceps softening 5.8%) in group A and 1 (1.6%) patient (Popeye deformity) in group B. In the subgroup analysis on biceps migration after the surgery, the mean migration distance of metal wire was 2.5 ± 3.0 mm in group A and 1.9 ± 2.6 mm in group B (n.s.). No patient had migration of > 10 mm. CONCLUSIONS: SPBT using all-suture type anchor was a favorable treatment option for lesions of the LHBT with rotator cuff tear. The clinical relevance of this study is the finding that double on-lay fixation with all-suture type anchor would result less cosmetic deformity than the single on-lay fixation for those who need subpectoral biceps tenodesis. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.


Assuntos
Âncoras de Sutura , Tenodese/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Estética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Traumatismos dos Tendões/cirurgia , Escala Visual Analógica
10.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 28(12): 2334-2342, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapidly destructive arthropathy (RDA) of the shoulder is rare. Consequently, there are very few studies that have reported the characteristic findings of this disease. This study aimed to analyze the clinical, radiographic, and histologic features of patients with RDA of the shoulder. METHODS: In total, 9 cases (8 patients) were enrolled in this study. All patients were elderly women, with a mean age of 72.7 years (range, 57-78 years). The mean duration of symptoms was 4.1 months (range, 1.2-5.9 months). Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty and total shoulder arthroplasty were performed in 5 cases with massive rotator cuff tears and 4 without them, respectively. RESULTS: The mean duration of radiologically evident joint destruction after negative results on radiography was 3.1 months (range, 1.0-5.9 months). On plain radiography, humeral head flattening and collapse that appeared like cut grass were observed (100%). Relatively good preservation of the glenoid with a normal joint space was observed in 7 cases, whereas glenoid erosion was observed in 2 (22.2%). T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed a subchondral fracture (100%) of low signal intensity with associated bone marrow edema. Histologically, chronic inflammation of the synovium and osteocytes in the lacunae, as well as callus formation, were observed along the subchondral fracture. CONCLUSION: Flattening and collapse of the humeral head within an average of 4 months of symptom onset are characteristic of RDA of the shoulder. Bone marrow edema, joint effusion, and subchondral fracture on magnetic resonance imaging and fracture fragments and callus formation on histopathologic analysis were observed. Glenoid erosion was observed in 2 cases with arthrosis progression.


Assuntos
Doenças da Medula Óssea/diagnóstico por imagem , Edema/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Artropatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Artropatias/patologia , Articulação do Ombro/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Ombro/patologia , Idoso , Artroplastia do Ombro , Doenças da Medula Óssea/complicações , Edema/complicações , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/complicações , Fraturas Ósseas/patologia , Cavidade Glenoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Cabeça do Úmero/diagnóstico por imagem , Artropatias/complicações , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia
11.
Arthroscopy ; 35(8): 2284-2292, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350085

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify the difference in postoperative perianchor bone reactions in different groups of patients who underwent rotator cuff tear repairs with all-suture-, bioabsorbable screw-, and PEEK (polyether ether ketone)-type suture anchors. Furthermore, the rate of rotator cuff retear and its association with perianchor bone reactions based on the different anchors used were investigated. Moreover, their impact on the clinical outcome of patients was examined. METHODS: The study included 213 patients who underwent arthroscopic single-row repair and were divided into 3 groups according to the suture anchor used: all-suture (n = 137), biodegradable (n = 36), and PEEK (n = 40) anchor groups. The clinical outcomes and magnetic resonance imaging findings were evaluated at a mean follow-up of 9.6 months. The perianchor bone reaction at the anchor site was categorized according to grades. Patients were classified based on repair integrity into the healed and retear groups with Sugaya type I to III and Sugaya type IV to V, respectively. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences in Constant scores and retear rates were observed between the groups (P = .934 and P = .548, respectively). Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the total number of perianchor cysts formed postoperatively was 23 (10.8% [23 of 213 patients]). Moreover, the proportions of perianchor cysts were 8.8%, 16.7%, and 12.5% in the all-suture-type, bioabsorbable-, and PEEK-type anchor groups, respectively (P = .485). In the retear group, the incidence rate was significantly increased with higher grades of perianchor bone reaction (P = .001). The tear size and perianchor bone reaction were found to be independent factors that affected the incidence of retear. CONCLUSIONS: Perianchor cyst formation was observed in 10.8% of cases after the use of suture anchors for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. No significant differences were observed among all-suture-type, bioabsorbable-type, and PEEK-type anchors in terms of visual analog scale and Constant scores, retear rates, and perianchor bone reactions. However, the retear rate was associated with a greater perianchor cystic reaction and larger tear size. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, retrospective comparative trial.

12.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 20(1): 270, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is difficult to diagnose the pathology of the long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) clinically. This study aimed to determine the diagnostic value of standard non-enhancing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting LHBT pathology and identify the most useful diagnostic signs on MRI. METHODS: A total of 554 patients with preoperative 3-Tesla (3 T) MRI who underwent arthroscopic surgery for rotator cuff tears were retrospectively enrolled. Abnormal signs of LHBT on MRI included diameter change, contour irregularity, and alteration of signal intensity. Arthroscopic findings were classified according to tear progress and used as a reference standard: Type I, normal tendon; Type II, hourglass-shaped hypertrophic tendon with fraying extending into the bicipital groove; Type III, partial tear involving less than 50% of tendon width at the intraarticular region without fraying in the bicipital groove; Type IV, partial tear involving more than 50% of tendon width and extending into the bicipital groove; and Type V, complete tear (cutoff) of the tendon. Using receiver operating characteristic, prediction accuracies of MRI findings were assessed compared to those of arthroscopic findings. RESULTS: Arthroscopic findings showed LHBT pathology in 124 (22.4%) cases. High diagnostic efficacy was achieved when 'at least 2 abnormal signs' was set as diagnostic criteria (sensitivity: 77.9%; specificity: 93.7%; positive predictive value: 76.3%). Types II and III lesions showed the highest sensitivities (36.8 and 66.7%, respectively) in abnormal alteration of signal intensity in the parasagittal view while Type IV showed the highest sensitivity (82.3%) in diameter change in axial view. Interobserver agreements were substantial to almost perfect, with kappa value of 0.69-0.81. CONCLUSIONS: The standard non-enhancing 3 T MRI had a high diagnostic value in preoperative detection of LHBT pathology. Its accuracy was increased when diagnostic criterion was set as '2 or more abnormal signs (diameter change, contour irregularity, and alteration of signal intensity)'. The single diagnostic sign with the highest sensitivity was alteration of signal intensity in the parasagittal view.


Assuntos
Artroscopia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Manguito Rotador/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Manguito Rotador/patologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Articulação do Ombro/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Ombro/patologia , Articulação do Ombro/cirurgia
13.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 28(9): 1707-1715, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have assessed the outcomes of staged bilateral arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR). This study aimed to determine the influencing factors related to the outcomes of patients who underwent staged bilateral ARCR and to verify an optimal interval for performing the second rotator cuff repair in staged bilateral ARCR. METHODS: We analyzed 166 shoulders that underwent staged bilateral ARCR. The average interval between the first- and second-side surgical procedures was 21.9 ± 19.7 months. The minimum follow-up period was 2 years. RESULTS: Clinical outcomes and retear rates were not significantly different according to the order of surgical procedures, sex, arm dominance, age, and tear size (P > .05 for all). The cutoff value for the optimal interval between the first and second surgical procedures for the University of California, Los Angeles score and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score was 9 months, with the area under the curve equal to 0.815 (P < .001) for the University of California, Los Angeles score and 0.806 (P < .001) for the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score. The group with an interval of 9 months or less between the first- and second-side surgical procedures showed significantly inferior clinical outcomes and a higher retear rate (35%) compared with the group with an interval greater than 9 months (retear rate, 10%) (P < .05). CONCLUSION: Staged bilateral ARCR resulted in significant improvements in clinical outcomes regardless of the order of surgical procedures, sex, arm dominance, age, and tear size. To optimize clinical outcomes of staged bilateral ARCR, second-side surgery should be delayed until 9 months after the first-side surgical procedure.


Assuntos
Artroscopia/métodos , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Tempo para o Tratamento , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Recidiva , Escala Visual Analógica
14.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 28(9): 1737-1742, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the amount of blood loss during reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA). The purpose of this study was to investigate blood loss in patients who underwent RTSA for massive irreparable rotator cuff tear (MIRCT) using the hemoglobin (Hb) balance method and total Hemovac amount and to identify predictors of blood transfusion in these patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 121 patients who underwent RTSA for MIRCT. The mean age was 71.2 ± 6.9 years, and 75 were women. Age, sex, body mass index, use of anticoagulants, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status score, comorbidities (eg, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular accident), preoperative Hb level, preoperative hematocrit level, preoperative prothrombin time/international normalized ratio, use of cement, and operative time were evaluated as values predicting blood transfusion. RESULTS: The overall blood loss was 846.6 ± 527.6 mL, which included 346 ± 231.2 mL of intraoperative blood loss and 500.3 ± 196.4 mL of postoperative blood loss. Values predicting blood transfusion were a lower preoperative Hb level (P < .001), hematocrit level (P < .001), hypertension (P = .018), and cerebrovascular accident (P = .008). Receiver operating characteristic analysis identified the following cutoff values for predicting transfusion: preoperative Hb level of 13.5 g/dL (90.3% sensitivity) and hematocrit of 40% (90.3% sensitivity). CONCLUSIONS: RTSA for MIRCT is associated with blood loss during and after surgery. The amount of blood loss should be noted, and blood transfusion could be predicted by calculating the blood loss and predictive values. Lower preoperative Hb level, hematocrit, hypertension, and cerebrovascular accident are predictors of blood transfusion. Blood transfusion should be considered if a patient with preoperative Hb level <13.5 g/dL and hematocrit <40% has a history of hypertension or cerebrovascular accident.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Ombro/métodos , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/estatística & dados numéricos , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Feminino , Hematócrito , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
15.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 477(2): 403-413, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One potential advantage of arthroscopic shoulder surgery over open approaches is accelerated recovery; however, the functional recovery period of daily activities for specific movements after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair has not yet been reported, to our knowledge. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) After arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, when are patients able to perform low-level and high-level front-of-body motion, low-level and high-level behind-the-back motion, strength-related activities, and sports/leisure activities? (2) How do tear size, arm dominance, and retear affect performance of these activities? (3) When does the UCLA score cross above 80% in each UCLA score component (28 points)? METHODS: A 2-year prospective study of 135 patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair was performed (45 in small-sized, 45 in medium-sized, and 45 in large-to-massive-sized groups). The mean age was 60 years. Thirty-one and 104 shoulders were nondominant and dominant shoulders, respectively. Twenty-seven shoulders showed retear on MRI taken 9 months after surgery. We evaluated the functional recovery periods using the questionnaire and the UCLA scores and assessed influencing factors such as tear size, arm dominance, and retear. The patients were asked to fill out a questionnaire at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 24 months after surgery. The questionnaire evaluated front-of-the-body, behind-the-back, general, simple strength-related, and sports/leisure activities. Based on the UCLA evaluation, the functional recovery period was defined as the time required to achieve a score > 80% in each UCLA score component. RESULTS: Patients experienced recovery of low-level and high-level ROM front-of-the-body, high-level ROM behind-the-back, simple strength-related, and sports/leisure activities within 2 ± 1, 3 ± 2, 9 ± 0, 10 ± 2, and 14 ± 3 months, respectively, after surgery. Two patients with large-to-massive tears did not gain the recovery of high-level ROM behind-the-back, simple strength-related, and sports/leisure activities. Patients with large-to-massive tears were delayed from some activities compared with patients with small tears (10 ± 0 versus 7 ± 1 for washing back, p = 0.010; 11 ± 0 versus 10 ± 0 for lifting 5 kg, p = 0.020; 15 ± 0 versus 13 ± 0 for sports/leisure). Arm dominance was not associated with functional recovery. Patients with retears, compared with intact healing, had a longer time to return to washing hair (3 ± 2 versus 3 ± 1, p = 0.007), combing (4 ± 3 versus 2 ± 1, p = 0.002), washing the back (10 ± 3 versus 8 ± 3, p = 0.034), and sports/leisure (15 ± 3 versus 14 ± 3, p = 0.010). UCLA score in 134 patients reached 28 points, corresponding to the functional recovery period at 6 ± 3 months. One patient did not reach > 28 points on the UCLA score. CONCLUSIONS: It took patients an average of 14 months to recover their daily motion after surgery. Tear size and retear affected only the recovery period of high-level motion activities and sports/leisure. This study was believed to serve as a guideline to inform patients about functional recovery after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, therapeutic study.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Artroscopia , Volta ao Esporte , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Idoso , Artroscopia/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Recidiva , Manguito Rotador/diagnóstico por imagem , Manguito Rotador/fisiopatologia , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/diagnóstico , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Arthroscopy ; 35(2): 314-322, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611590

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The present study investigates the intra-articular findings and clinical outcomes after arthroscopic surgery in patients after age 40 with chronic anterior shoulder instability. METHODS: Fifty patients older than 40 years who underwent arthroscopic stabilization for recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation were analyzed. RESULTS: The mean age at the time of surgery was 44.8 years (range, 40-72 years), and the mean duration of follow-up was 45 months (range, 28-150 months). The mean visual analog scale score for pain with motion significantly improved from 4.1 preoperatively to 1.7 at the last follow-up (P < .001). The range of motion in the affected shoulder revealed limitations of 9.4° in forward flexion and 17.8° in external rotation compared with the unaffected shoulder. Both the Constant and Rowe scores significantly improved (P < .001 and P < .001, respectively). Recurrence, which includes dislocation and subluxation, occurred in 14% postoperatively. Anteroinferior labral lesion was seen in 92% of patients. Associated lesions included superior labrum anterior to posterior lesion (22%), midsubstance capsular tear (10%), and Hill-Sachs lesion (92%). Rotator cuff tears were found in 18%-partial-thickness tear in 10% and full-thickness tear, which was repaired with suture anchor, in 8%. Among the intra-articular lesions, there was no significant relation with recurrent instability or functional outcome as a single factor. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with chronic anterior shoulder instability who were older than 40 years, the clinical results after arthroscopic surgery showed statistically significant improvement with good muscle strength recovery. The quality of labral lesion, size of the Hill-Sachs lesion, and glenoid defect showed positive correlation with the number of preoperative dislocation. The intra-articular pathologies were varied, however no single articular lesion had significant impact on the recurrence rate. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, case series.


Assuntos
Artroscopia , Instabilidade Articular/cirurgia , Luxação do Ombro/cirurgia , Articulação do Ombro/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Lesões de Bankart/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Instabilidade Articular/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular , Período Pós-Operatório , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Recidiva , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/etiologia , Escápula/fisiopatologia , Luxação do Ombro/fisiopatologia , Articulação do Ombro/fisiopatologia , Âncoras de Sutura , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 28(2): 237-243, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30337266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotator cuff tear and glenohumeral osteoarthritis are 2 common diseases, but there are few studies about their clinical correlation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of mild glenohumeral osteoarthritis on the clinical outcome after large to massive rotator cuff repair. METHODS: This study included 146 patients who underwent rotator cuff repair for large to massive tears and were available for follow-up at a minimum of 2 years. Of the patients, 74 had mild glenohumeral osteoarthritis (group A) and 72 did not have glenohumeral osteoarthritis (group B). RESULTS: The mean visual analog scale score during motion, mean University of California at Los Angeles score, and mean Constant score were 1.8, 30.2, and 87.4, respectively, in group A and 2.0, 30.8, and 89.2, respectively, in group B at final follow-up. The retear rates were 31.1% (23 of 74 patients) in group A and 25.0% (18 of 72 patients) in group B. The osteoarthritis progression rates were 12.1% (9 of 74) in group A and 13.8% (10 of 72) in group B. However, in group A, the osteoarthritis progression rates were 26.1% (6 of 23) for retear cases and 5.9% (3 of 51) for healed cases. There was a significant difference in the progression rates between retear and healed cases in group A (odds ratio, 5.65; P = .022). CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant differences in clinical outcomes between patients with and without glenohumeral osteoarthritis before surgery and during final follow-up. The progression of osteoarthritis in large to massive rotator cuff tears is relatively low. However, it is significantly higher in patients with retears in whom osteoarthritis is present.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite/complicações , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/complicações , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Dor de Ombro/etiologia , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite/fisiopatologia , Medição da Dor , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Recidiva , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/fisiopatologia , Articulação do Ombro/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 28(4): 731-741, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503179

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that a new method considering the humeral head would distinguish rotator cuff tears (RCTs) and osteoarthritis (OA) better than the critical shoulder angle (CSA). METHODS: A total of 1011 patients were tested in this study and divided into 4 groups: those with RCTs (n = 493), those with OA (n = 73), those with anterior instability (n = 361), and those with adhesive capsulitis (n = 84). The CSA and new radiologic parameters including the humeral head were measured in the true anterior-to-posterior view: the Y angle connecting the lower end of the glenoid (LG), the center of the humeral head (CH), and the upper end of the glenoid (UG); the G angle connecting UG, CH, and the lateral tip of the acromion; the YG angle connecting LG, CH, and the lateral tip of the acromion; and the R angle connecting UG, LG, and CH. RESULTS: The CSA and G angle were the largest in the RCT group (34.2° and 70.4°, respectively; P < .001) and the smallest in the OA group (29.8° and 61.7°, respectively; P < .001). The Y angle was the largest in the OA group (82.8°, P < .001). The R angle in the RCT group (52.9°) was significantly larger than that in the OA group, which was the smallest among the groups (48.0°; P < .001). The CSA was correlated with the G and YG angles in the RCT group, whereas the CSA was correlated with the Y, G, and R angles in the OA group (P < .05). The CSA showed the highest correlation with the size of RCTs (correlation coefficient = 0.138). CONCLUSION: The Y, G, and R angles reflected the lesions of RCTs or OA. The CSA showed good correlations with the new radiologic parameters, and it had the highest correlation coefficient with the size of RCTs.


Assuntos
Bursite/diagnóstico por imagem , Cabeça do Úmero/diagnóstico por imagem , Instabilidade Articular/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia , Articulação do Ombro/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int Orthop ; 42(12): 2891-2895, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29946741

RESUMO

PURPOSE: During shoulder surgery in the beach-chair position, head fixation can sometimes cause rare complications. The authors share their experience in treating ocular injury due to improper head fixation during surgery in the beach-chair position. METHODS: The study investigated consecutively 6075 patients who underwent shoulder surgery in the beach-chair position between March 2007 and March 2016, those patients who saw an ophthalmologist with a complaint of post-operative ocular discomfort. In the beach-chair position, surgery is performed with the patient's upper body raised by 70°. RESULTS: A total of seven patients saw an ophthalmologist due to post-operative ocular discomfort, and a total of five patients (0.082%) had corneal abrasion. Three of these patients underwent arthroscopic surgery, and the other two underwent open surgery. The mean surgery duration for the five patients was 45.0 ± 14.68 minutes. Of these patients, four were male and one was female, and their average age was 46 ± 22.24 years (range: 18-69 years). All patients complained of unbearable ophthalmodynia immediately after surgery that was not resolved using analgesics. The ophthalmodynia resolved immediately after wearing corneal protective lenses. CONCLUSION: Unlike typical surgery, when shoulder surgery is performed in the beach-chair position, there is a risk of ocular surface injury due to improper head fixation; one manifestation of this problem is corneal injury. If a severe ophthalmodynia that cannot be controlled using analgesics occurs immediately after surgery in the beach-chair position, a corneal injury should be suspected, and the patient should wear a corneal protective lens. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Oculares , Olho/patologia , Articulação do Ombro/cirurgia , Ombro/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Artroscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Posicionamento do Paciente , Período Pós-Operatório , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Sports Med ; 46(9): 2170-2176, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29879363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal procedure for anterior shoulder instability with a borderline (15%-20%) bone defect on the anterior rim of the glenoid is still controversial. PURPOSE: To compare the clinical outcome and recurrence rate between the arthroscopic Bankart repair and Latarjet procedure among patients with recurrent anterior shoulder instability and a borderline glenoid bone defect. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed cases of arthroscopic Bankart repair and the Latarjet procedure for recurrent anterior shoulder instability with a borderline (15%-20%) glenoid bone defect. Enrollment comprised 149 patients (Bankart group, n = 118; Latarjet group, n = 31). The mean follow-up and age at operation were 28.9 ± 7.3 months (range, 24-73 months) and 26 ± 5 years (range, 16-46 years), respectively. RESULTS: Rowe and UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) shoulder scores significantly improved from 42.0 ± 14.3 and 22.9 ± 3.2 preoperatively to 90.9 ± 15.4 and 32.5 ± 3.3 postoperatively in the Bankart group ( P < .001) and from 41.0 ± 17.9 and 22.3 ± 3.4 to 91.1 ± 16.1 and 32.3 ± 3.4 in the Latarjet group ( P < .001), respectively. There were no significant between-group differences in Rowe ( P = .920) or UCLA ( P = .715) scores at the final follow-up. Mean postoperative loss of motion during forward flexion, external rotation in abduction, and internal rotation to the posterior was 3.0° ± 6.2°, 11.6° ± 10.2°, and 0.6 spinal segment in the Bankart group and 3.7° ± 9.8°, 10.3° ± 12.8°, and 0.9 spinal segment in the Latarjet group, respectively. These differences were not significant. However, the loss of external rotation at the side was significantly greater in the Bankart group (13.3° ± 12.9°) than in the Latarjet group (7.3° ± 18.1°, P = .034). The overall recurrence rate was significantly higher in the Bankart group (22.9%) than in the Latarjet group (6.5%), ( P = .040). CONCLUSION: The Latarjet procedure and arthroscopic Bankart repair both provided satisfactory clinical outcome scores and pain relief for anterior shoulder instability with a borderline glenoid bone defect. However, the Latarjet procedure resulted in significantly lower recurrences and less external rotation limitation than the arthroscopic Bankart repair. Therefore, the Latarjet procedure could be a more reliable surgical option in anterior recurrent instability with a borderline glenoid bone defect.


Assuntos
Artroplastia/métodos , Artroscopia/métodos , Cavidade Glenoide/cirurgia , Instabilidade Articular/cirurgia , Luxação do Ombro/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Luxação do Ombro/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
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