Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 115
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Anim Biosci ; 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507843

RESUMO

Objective: The quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is the most accurate and reliable technique for analysis of gene expression. Endogenous reference genes (RGs) have been used to normalize qPCR data, although their expression may vary in different tissues and experimental conditions. Therefore, verification of the stability of RGs in selected samples is a prerequisite for reliable results. Therefore, we attempted to identify the most stable RGs in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in sows. Methods: The cycle threshold values of nine commonly used RGs (18S, HPRT1, GAPDH, RPL4, PPIA, B2M, YWHAZ, ACTB, and SDHA) from HPG axis-related tissues in the domestic sows in the different stages of estrus cycle were analyzed using two RG-finding programs, geNorm and Normfinder, to rank the stability of the pool of RGs. In addition, the effect of the most and least stable RGs was examined by normalization of the target gene, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), in the hypothalamus. Results: PPIA, HPRT1, and YWHAZ were the most stable RGs in the HPG axis-related tissues in sows regardless of the stages of estrus cycle. In contrast, traditional RGs, including 18S and ACTB, were found to be the least stable under these experimental conditions. In particular, in the normalization of GnRH expression in the hypothalamus against several stable RGs, PPIA, HPRT1, and YWHAZ, could generate significant (P < 0.05) elevation of GnRH in the preovulatory phase compared to the luteal phase, but the traditional RGs with the least stability (18S and ACTB) did not show a significant difference between groups. Conclusion: s: These results indicate the importance of verifying RG stability prior to commencing research and may contribute to experimental design in the field of animal reproductive physiology as reference data.

2.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 502, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been highlighted as a new therapy for autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the disease-specific characteristics of MSCs derived from elderly RA patients are not well understood. METHODS: We established MSCs derived from synovial fluid (SF) from age-matched early (average duration of the disease: 1.7 years) and long-standing (average duration of the disease: 13.8 years) RA patients (E-/L-SF-MSCs) and then analyzed the MSC characteristics such as stemness, proliferation, cellular senescence, in vitro differentiation, and in vivo immunomodulatory properties. RESULTS: The presence of MSC populations in the SF from RA patients was identified. We found that L-SF-MSCs exhibited impaired proliferation, intensified cellular senescence, reduced immunomodulatory properties, and attenuated anti-arthritic capacity in an RA animal model. In particular, E-SF-MSCs demonstrated cellular senescence progression and attenuated immunomodulatory properties similar to those of L-SF-MSC in an RA joint-mimetic milieu due to hypoxia and pro-inflammatory cytokine exposure. Due to a long-term exposure to the chronic inflammatory milieu, cellular senescence, attenuated immunomodulatory properties, and the loss of anti-arthritic potentials were more often identified in SF-MSCs in a long-term RA than early RA. CONCLUSION: We conclude that a chronic RA inflammatory milieu affects the MSC potential. Therefore, this work addresses the importance of understanding MSC characteristics during disease states prior to their application in patients.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Idoso , Animais , Artrite Reumatoide/terapia , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Lactente , Inflamação , Líquido Sinovial
3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 4604856, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527737

RESUMO

IFN-γ licensing to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is applied to enhance the therapeutic potential of MSCs. However, although the features of MSCs are affected by several stimuli, little information is available on changes to the therapeutic potential of IFN-γ-licensed differentiated MSCs during xenogeneic applications. Therefore, the present study is aimed at clarifying the effects of adipogenic/osteogenic differentiation and IFN-γ licensing on the in vitro immunomodulatory and migratory properties of porcine bone marrow-derived MSCs in xenogeneic applications using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). IFN-γ licensing in differentiated MSCs lowered lineage-specific gene expression but did not affect MSC-specific cell surface molecules. Although indoleamine 2,3 deoxygenase (IDO) activity and expression were increased after IFN-γ licensing in undifferentiated MSCs, they were reduced after differentiation. IFN-γ licensing to differentiated MSCs elevated the reduced IDO expression in differentiated MSCs; however, the increase was not sufficient to reach to the level achieved by undifferentiated MSCs. During a mixed lymphocyte reaction with quantification of TNF-α concentration, proliferation and activation of xenogeneic PBMCs were suppressed by undifferentiated MSCs but inhibited to a lesser extent by differentiated MSCs. IFN-γ licensing increasingly suppressed proliferation of PBMCs in undifferentiated MSCs but it was incapable of elevating the reduced immunosuppressive ability of differentiated MSCs. Migratory ability through a scratch assay and gene expression study was reduced in differentiated MSCs than their undifferentiated counterparts; IFN-γ licensing was unable to enhance the reduced migratory ability in differentiated MSCs. Similar results were found in a Transwell system with differentiated MSCs in the upper chamber toward xenogeneic PBMCs in the lower chamber, despite IFN-γ licensing increased the migratory ability of undifferentiated MSCs. Overall, IFN-γ licensing did not enhance the reduced immunomodulatory and migratory properties of differentiated MSCs in a xenogeneic application. This study provides a better understanding of the ways in which MSC therapy can be applied.


Assuntos
Interferon gama/metabolismo , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Animais , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Citocinas/metabolismo , Xenoenxertos/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Interferon gama/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
4.
J Vet Sci ; 22(5): e62, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canine mammary gland tumor (MGT) is the most common cancer in aged female dogs. Although it's important to identify reliable metastasis or prognostic factors by evaluating related to cell division, adhesion, and cancer stem cell-related transcription factor (TF) in metastasis-induced canine MGT, but there are limited studies. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify metastasis prognostic factors and cancer stem cell-TFs in canine MGTs. METHODS: Age-matched female dogs diagnosed with MGT only were classified into metastatic and non-metastatic groups by histopathological staining of MGT tissues. The mRNA levels of cancer prognostic metastasis molecular factors (E-cadherin, ICAM-1, PRR14, VEGF, HPRT1, RPL4 and hnRNP H) and cancer stem cell-related TFs (Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog) were compared between metastatic and non-metastatic canine MGT tissues using qRT-PCR analysis. RESULTS: The mRNA levels of ICAM-1, PRR14, VEGF, hnRNP H, Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog in metastatic MGT group were significantly higher than those in non-metastatic MGT group. However, mRNA level of RPL4 was significantly lower in metastatic MGT group. Loss of E-cadherin and HPRT1 was observed in the metastatic MGT group but it was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent expression patterns of all metastasis-related factors showing elevation in ICAM-1, PRR14, VEGF, hnRNP H, Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog, but decreases in RPL4 levels occurred in canine MGT tissues, which was associated with metastasis. Thus, these cancer prognostic metastasis factors and TFs of cancer stem cells, except for E-cadherin and HPRT1, can be used as reliable metastasis factors for canine MGT and therapeutic strategy.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/genética , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/genética , Metástase Neoplásica , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Doenças do Cão/metabolismo , Cães , Feminino , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5540877, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337022

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are valuable candidates in tissue engineering and stem cell-based therapy. Traditionally, MSCs derived from various tissues have been successfully expanded in vitro using adherent culture plates commonly called as monolayer two-dimensional (2D) cultures. Recently, many studies demonstrated that stemness and multilineage differentiation potential could be enhanced to greater extent when MSCs are cultured as suspended aggregates by means of three-dimensional (3D) culturing techniques. However, there are limited reports on changed mitochondrial metabolism on 3D spheroid formation of MSCs. Therefore, the present study was aimed at investigating the stemness, differentiation potential, and mitochondrial metabolism capacity of 3D dental pulp-derived MSC (DPSC) spheroids in comparison to monolayer cultured DPSCs. We isolated dental pulp-derived MSCs (DPSCs) and successfully developed a 3D culture system which facilitated the formation of MSC spheroids. The cell aggregation was observed after 2 hours, and spheroids were formed after 24 hours and remained in shape for 72 hours. After spheroid formation, the levels of pluripotent markers increased along with enhancement in adipogenic and osteogenic potential compared to 2D cultured control cells. However, decreased proliferative capacity, cell cycle arrest, and elevated apoptosis rate were observed with the time course of the 3D culture except for the initial 24-hour aggregation. Furthermore, oxygen consumption rates of living cells decreased with the time course of the aggregation except for the initial 24 hours. Overall, our study indicated that the short-term 3D culture of MSCs could be a suitable alternative to culture the cells.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Polpa Dentária/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Esferoides Celulares/citologia , Adipogenia , Apoptose , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Ciclo Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Osteogênese , Consumo de Oxigênio , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares/metabolismo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671303

RESUMO

In the present era, infertility is one of the major issues which restricts many couples to have their own children. Infertility is the inability to achieve a clinical pregnancy after regular unprotected sexual intercourse for the period of one year or more. Various factors including defective male or female germ cell development, unhealthy and improper lifestyles, diseases like cancer and associated chemo-or-radiation therapies, congenital disorders, etc., may be responsible for infertility. Therefore, it is highly important to understand the basic concepts of germ cell development including primordial germ cell (PGC) formation, specification, migration, entry to genital ridges and their molecular mechanisms, activated pathways, paracrine and autocrine signaling, along with possible alteration which can hamper germ cell development and can cause adversities like cancer progression and infertility. Knowing all these aspects in a proper way can be very much helpful in improving our understanding about gametogenesis and finding possible ways to cure related disorders. Here in this review, various aspects of gametogenesis especially female gametes and relevant factors causing functional impairment have been thoroughly discussed.


Assuntos
Células Germinativas/patologia , Animais , Carcinogênese/patologia , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/complicações , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/genética , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/patologia , Oócitos/citologia
7.
Biomedicines ; 9(2)2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670230

RESUMO

One of the most severe and devastating cancer is pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the major pancreatic exocrine cancer with a poor prognosis and growing prevalence. It is the most deadly disease, with an overall five-year survival rate of 6% to 10%. According to various reports, it has been demonstrated that pancreatic cancer stem cells (PCSCs) are the main factor responsible for the tumor development, proliferation, resistance to anti-cancer drugs, and recurrence of tumors after surgery. PCSCs have encouraged new therapeutic methods to be explored that can specifically target cancer cells. Furthermore, stem cells, especially mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), are known as influential anti-cancer agents as they function through anti-inflammatory, paracrine, cytokines, and chemokine's action. The properties of MSCs, such as migration to the site of infection and host immune cell activation by its secretome, seem to control the microenvironment of the pancreatic tumor. MSCs secretome exhibits similar therapeutic advantages as a conventional cell-based therapy. Moreover, the potential for drug delivery could be enhanced by engineered MSCs to increase drug bioactivity and absorption at the tumor site. In this review, we have discussed available therapeutic strategies, treatment hurdles, and the role of different factors such as PCSCs, cysteine, GPCR, PKM2, signaling pathways, immunotherapy, and NK-based therapy in pancreatic cancer.

8.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(5): 1259-1268, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526987

RESUMO

Background: Multipotent and immune privileged properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were investigated for the treatment of various clinical diseases. For the years, many researches into the animal studies evaluated human stem cell therapeutic capacity related to the regenerative medicine. However, there were limited reports on immune privileged properties of human MSCs in animal studies. The present study investigated hematological and biochemical parameter and lymphocyte subset in mini-pigs following human MSCs transplantation as a means of validation of reliability that influence the animal test results. Methods: The miniature pigs were transplanted with human MSCs seeded with scaffold. After transplantation, all animals were evaluated by CBC, biochemistry and lymphocyte subset test. After 9 weeks, all pigs were sacrificed and organs were histologically analyzed. Results: CBC test showed that levels of RBC were decreased and reticulocyte, WBC and neutrophil were increased in transient state initially after transplantation, but returned to normal value. The proportion of B lymphocyte and cytotoxic T cell were also initially enhanced within the normal range temporarily. The female and male miniature pigs showed normal ranges for blood chemistry assessments. During the 9 weeks post-operative period, the animals showed a continuous increase in body weight and length. Furthermore, no abnormal findings were observed from the histological analysis of sacrificed pigs. Conclusions: Overall, miniature pigs transplanted with human MSCs seeded with scaffold were found to have physiologically similar results to normal animals. This result might be a reliable indicator of the animal experiments using miniature pigs with human MSCs.


Assuntos
Privilégio Imunológico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/imunologia , Porco Miniatura/imunologia , Animais , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Medicina Regenerativa/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Suínos , Tecidos Suporte , Transplante Heterólogo
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 8858412, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33553433

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from various tissue sources can be differentiated into smooth muscle-like cells (SMLCs) in vitro. In this paper, dental pulp-derived mesenchymal stem cells (DPSCs) were evaluated for their differentiation ability towards smooth muscle-like cells (SMLCs) under the effect of widely used cytokines (TGF-ß1 and PDGF-BB) with special focus on different culturing environments. For this purpose, both the commercially used culturing plates (Norm-c) and 0.1% gelatin-precoated (Gel-c) plates were used. Isolated cells displayed plastic adherence, pluripotency and cell surface marker profiling, and adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation potential with lineage specific marker expression. Differentiated cells induced under different culturing plates showed successful differentiation into SMLCs by positively expressing smooth muscle cell (SMC) specific markers both at the mRNA and protein levels. Gelatin coating could substantially enhance DPSC differentiation potential than Norm-c-induced cells. However, the absence of mature marker MHY-11 by immunostaining results from all treatment groups further indicated the development of immature and synthetic SMLCs. Finally, it was concluded that DPSC differentiation ability into SMLCs can be enhanced under cytokine treatment as well as by altering the cellular niche by precoating the culturing plates with suitable substrates. However, to get fully functional, contractile, and mature SMLCs, still many different cytokine cocktail combinations and more suitable coating substrates will be needed.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/instrumentação , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Polpa Dentária/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/citologia , Becaplermina/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Linhagem da Célula , Células Cultivadas , Colágeno , Meios de Cultura/química , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Géis , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia
10.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 15, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The dentin is a tissue, which is formed by odontoblasts at the pulp interface of the teeth that supports the enamel. Odontoblasts, the cranial neural crest cells are derived from ectodermal mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and are long and polarized cells. They are present at the outer surface of dentin and play a prominent role about dentin formation. Recently, attention has been focused on induction of odontoblast using various type of MSCs and effects of the 17ß-estradiol supplementation. In this study, we establish an efficient odonto/osteoblast differentiation protocol using 17ß-estradiol supplementation while comparing the odonto/osteoblast ability of various dental MSCs. METHODS: Same donor derived four types of dental MSCs namely dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP), dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs), and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) were evaluated for their stemness characteristics and potency towards odonto/osteoblast (Induced odonto/osteoblast) differentiation. Then 17ß-estradiol supplementation of 0 and 10 µM was applied to the odonto/osteoblast differentiation media for 14 days respectively. Furthermore, mRNA and protein levels of odonto/osteoblast markers were evaluated. RESULTS: All of the experimental groups displayed stemness characteristics by showing adipocyte and chondrocyte differentiation abilities, expression for cell surface markers and cell proliferation capacity without any significant differences. Moreover, all dental derived MSCs were shown to have odonto/osteoblast differentiation ability when cultured under specific conditions and also showed positive expression for odontoblast markers at both mRNA and protein level. Among all, DPSCs revealed the higher differentiation potential than other dental MSCs. Furthermore, odonto/osteoblast differentiation potential was enhanced by supplementing the differentiation media with 17ß-estradiol (E2). CONCLUSIONS: Thus, DPSCs possess higher odonto/osteogenic potential than the SCAPs, DFSCs, PDLSCs and their differentiation capacity can by further enhanced under E2 supplementation.


Assuntos
Polpa Dentária , Osteogênese , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Estradiol/farmacologia , Células-Tronco
11.
Asian-Australas J Anim Sci ; 33(12): 2021-2030, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has been extensively used in the field of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) research to elucidate their characteristics and clinical potential by normalization of target genes against reference genes (RGs), which are believed to be stably expressed irrespective of various experimental conditions. However, the expression of RGs is also variable depending on the experimental conditions, which may lead to false or contradictory conclusions upon normalization. Due to the current lack of information for a clear list of stable RGs in bovine MSCs, we conducted this study to identify suitable RGs in bovine MSCs. METHODS: The cycle threshold values of ten traditionally used RGs (18S ribosomal RNA [18S], beta-2-microglobulin [B2M], H2A histone family, member Z [H2A], peptidylprolyl isomerase A [PPIA], ribosomal protein 4 [RPL4], succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A [SDHA], beta actin [ACTB], glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GAPDH], TATA box binding protein [TBP], and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltrasnfrase1 [HPRT1]) in bovine bone marrow-derived MSCs (bBMMSCs) were validated for their stabilities using three types of RG evaluation algorithms (geNorm, Normfinder, and Bestkeeper). The effect of validated RGs was then verified by normalization of lineage-specific genes (fatty acid binding protein 4 [FABP4] and osteonectin [ON]) expressions during differentiations of bBMMSCs or POU class 5 homeobox 1 (OCT4) expression between bBMMSCs and dermal skins. RESULTS: Based on the results obtained for the three most stable RGs from geNorm (TBP, RPL4, and H2A), Normfinder (TBP, RPL4, and SDHA), and Bestkeeper (TBP, RPL4, and SDHA), it was comprehensively determined that TBP and RPL4 were the most stable RGs in bBMMSCs. However, traditional RGs were suggested to be the least stable (18S) or moderately stable (GAPDH and ACTB) in bBMMSCs. Normalization of FABP4 or ON against TBP, RPL4, and 18S presented significant differences during differentiation of bBMMSCs. However, although significantly low expression of OCT4 was detected in dermal skins compared to that in bBMMSCs when TBP and RPL4 were used in normalization, normalization against 18S exhibited no significance. CONCLUSION: This study proposes that TBP and RPL4 were suitable as stable RGs for qPCR study in bovine MSCs.

12.
Cells ; 9(5)2020 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443752

RESUMO

The wrong grant number was erroneously entered in the original manuscript and needs to be changed from NRF-2017R1D1A1B03035677 to NRF-2019R1I1A3A01060073 in [...].

13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(7)2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235681

RESUMO

Diabetes is a metabolic disease which affects not only glucose metabolism but also lipid and protein metabolism. It encompasses two major types: type 1 and 2 diabetes. Despite the different etiologies of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM, respectively), the defining features of the two forms are insulin deficiency and resistance, respectively. Stem cell therapy is an efficient method for the treatment of diabetes, which can be achieved by differentiating pancreatic ß-like cells. The consistent generation of glucose-responsive insulin releasing cells remains challenging. In this review article, we present basic concepts of pancreatic organogenesis, which intermittently provides a basis for engineering differentiation procedures, mainly based on the use of small molecules. Small molecules are more auspicious than any other growth factors, as they have unique, valuable properties like cell-permeability, as well as a nonimmunogenic nature; furthermore, they offer immense benefits in terms of generating efficient functional beta-like cells. We also summarize advances in the generation of stem cell-derived pancreatic cell lineages, especially endocrine ß-like cells or islet organoids. The successful induction of stem cells depends on the quantity and quality of available stem cells and the efficient use of small molecules.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/citologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Humanos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
14.
Cells ; 9(3)2020 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120836

RESUMO

In the last few decades, stem cell therapy has grown as a boon for many pathological complications including female reproductive disorders. In this review, a brief description of available strategies that are related to stem cell-based in vitro oocyte-like cell (OLC) development are given. We have tried to cover all the aspects and latest updates of the in vitro OLC developmental methodologies, marker profiling, available disease models, and in vivo efficacies, with a special focus on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) usage. The differentiation abilities of both the ovarian and non-ovarian stem cell sources under various induction conditions have shown different effects on morphological alterations, proliferation- and size-associated developments, hormonal secretions under gonadotropic stimulations, and their neo-oogenesis or folliculogenesis abilities after in vivo transplantations. The attainment of characters like oocyte-like morphology, size expansion, and meiosis initiation have been found to be major obstacles during in vitro oogenesis. A number of reports have either lacked in vivo studies or have shown their functional incapability to produce viable and healthy offspring. Though researchers have gained many valuable insights regarding in vitro gametogenesis, still there are many things to do to make stem cell-derived OLCs fully functional.


Assuntos
Oócitos/citologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco/tendências , Diferenciação Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/terapia , Ovário/citologia , Células-Tronco/citologia
15.
Asian-Australas J Anim Sci ; 33(3): 515-524, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054231

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) exhibit variable differentiation potential and can be divided accordingly into distinct subpopulations whose ratios vary with donor age. However, it is unknown whether the same is true in pigs. This study investigated MSC subpopulations in miniature pig and compared their characteristics in young (2 to 3 months) and adult (27 to 35 months) pigs. METHODS: Osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic capacity of isolated MSCs was evaluated by von Kossa, Alcian blue, and oil red O staining, respectively. Cell surface antigen expression was determined by flow cytometry. Proliferative capacity was assessed with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Expression of marker genes was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Porcine MSCs comprised cells with trilineage and bilineage differentiation potential (tMSCs and bMSCs, respectively) and non-differentiating stromal cells (NDSCs). The tMSC and bMSC fractions were smaller in adult than in young pigs (63.0% vs 71.2% and 11.6% vs 24.0%, respectively, p<0.05); NDSCs showed the opposite trend (25.4% vs 4.8%; p<0.05). Subpopulations showed no differences in morphology, cell surface antigen expression, or proliferative capacity, but octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4) expression was higher in tMSCs than in bMSCs and NDSCs (p<0.05), whereas sex determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2) expression was higher in tMSCs and bMSCs than in NDSCs (p<0.05). Aging had no effect on these trends. CONCLUSION: Porcine MSCs comprise distinct subpopulations that differ in their differentiation potential and OCT4 and SOX2 expression. Aging does not affect the characteristics of each subpopulation but alters their ratios.

16.
Anim Cells Syst (Seoul) ; 24(6): 329-340, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33456717

RESUMO

The present study investigated the terminal differentiation capacity into adipocytes and subsequent growth inhibition in A549 cancer cells treated with pioglitazone (PGZ), a PPARγ activator. The rate of cell growth in A549 cells was significantly (P < .05) inhibited in concentrations above 10 µM PGZ while maintaining less cytotoxic effects in MRC-5 fibroblasts. Following 50 µM PGZ treatment, population doubling time (PDT) was significantly (P < .05) increased by inhibition of cell growth, as per increasing PGZ exposure time by up to 4 weeks. The adiposome-like vesicles were commonly observed in the PGZ-treated A549 cells, and the vesicles were highly stained with Oil-Red O solution. In addition, the cell size and expression of GLUT4 and PPARγ were significantly (P < .05) increased, as per increasing PGZ exposure time by up to 4 weeks. The significant (P < .05) down-regulation of telomerase activity and up-regulation of senescence-associated ß-galactosidase (SA ß-GAL) activity was displayed in the PGZ-treated A549 cells, as per increasing PGZ exposure time by up to 4 weeks. The G1 phase of the cell cycle was also significantly (P < .05) increased in the PGZ-treated A549 cells compared with untreated A549 cells. The present results have demonstrated that activation of PPARγ using PGZ induces cellular differentiation into adipocytes and inhibits cell growth in the A549 cancer cells. The terminal differentiation into adipocytes could offer potent chemotherapy in the cancer cells showing high glucose metabolism.

17.
Anim Cells Syst (Seoul) ; 23(5): 335-345, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700699

RESUMO

The present study investigated the cellular properties in the dental tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (DSCs) exposed to nevirapine (NVP), an inhibitor of reverse transcriptase (RTase). After a prolonged exposure of DSCs for 2 weeks, the population doubling time (PDT) was significantly (P < .05) increased by delayed cell growth in the DSCs treated with 250 and 500 µM NVP, compared with untreated DSCs. Furthermore, the G1 phase of cell cycle with high activity of senescence-associated ß-galactosidase was also significantly (P < .05) increased in the 250 µM NVP-treated DSCs, compared with untreated DSCs. The level of telomerase activity was unchanged between control and treatment. However, following the treatment of NVP, negative surface markers for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), such as CD34 and CD45, were significantly (P < .05) increased, while positive surface markers for MSCs, such as CD90 and CD105, were significantly (P < .05) decreased in the NVP-treated DSCs than those of untreated DSCs. Furthermore, the differentiation capacity into mesodermal lineage was gradually decreased, and a significant (P < .05) decrease of expression level of NANOG, OCT-4 and SOX-2 transcripts was observed in the DSCs treated with NVP, compared with untreated control DSCs. Taken together, the present results have revealed that inhibition of RTase by NVP induces delayed cell growth and loss of stemness.

18.
Tissue Eng Regen Med ; 16(5): 513-523, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624706

RESUMO

Background: Enhancement and maintenance of the stemness of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is one of the most important factors contributing to the successful in vivo therapeutic application of these cells. In this regard, three-dimensional (3D) spheroid formation has been developed as reliable method for increasing the pluripotency of MSCs. Moreover, using a new protocol, we have previously shown that dental tissues of extracted wisdom teeth can be effectively cryopreserved for subsequent use as a source of autologous stem cells. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the stemness and in vitro osteogenic differentiation potential of 3D spheroid dental MSCs compared with conventional mono-layer cultured MSCs. Methods: In this study, MSC-characterized stem cells were isolated and cultured from long-term cryopreserved dental follicles (hDFSCs), and then 2D hDFSCs were cultured under 3D spheroid-forming conditions using a newly designed microchip dish. The spheroids (3D hDFSCs) thus produced were investigated and characterized with respect to stemness, MSC marker expression, apoptosis, cell cycle analysis, extracellular matrix (ECM) production, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation properties. Results: In terms of MSC and senescence markers, spheroid cells showed no difference when compared with 2D hDFSCs; however, 3D hDFSCs were observed to have a higher proportion of cell cycle arrest and a larger number of apoptotic cells. Moreover, spheroids showed substantially increased levels of pluripotency marker (early transcription factors) and ECM protein expression. Compared with 2D hDFSCs, there was also a notable enhancement in the osteogenic induction potential of spheroids, although no differences were observed with respect to in vitro adipogenesis. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the application of a spheroid culture system for dental follicle-derived stem cells using a microchip dish. Although further studies are needed, including in vivo transplantation, the results obtained in this study indicate that spheroid hDFSCs derived from cryopreserved dental follicle tissues could be used as a valuable source of autologous stem cells for bone tissue regeneration.


Assuntos
Criopreservação/métodos , Células-Tronco/citologia , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Apoptose/fisiologia , Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
19.
Anim Cells Syst (Seoul) ; 23(4): 275-287, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489249

RESUMO

A decrease in the activity of choline acetyltransferase, the enzyme responsible for acetylcholine synthesis in the cholinergic neurons cause neurological disorders involving a decline in cognitive abilities, such as Alzheimer's disease. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be used as an efficient therapeutic agents due to their neuronal differentiation potential. Different source derived MSCs may have different differentiation potential under different inductions. Various in vitro protocols have been developed to differentiate MSCs into specific neurons but the comparative effect of different protocols utilizing same source derived MSCs, is not known. To address this issue, dental pulp derived MSCs (DPSCs) were differentiated into cholinergic neurons using three different protocols. In protocol I, DPSCs were pre-induced with serum-free ADMEM containing 1 mM of ß-mercaptoethanol for 24 h and then incubated with 100 ng/ml nerve growth factor (NGF) for 6 days. Under protocol II, DPSCs were cultured in serum-free ADMEM containing 15 µg/ml of D609 (tricyclodecan-9-yl-xanthogenate) for 4 days. Under protocol III, the DPSCs were cultured in serum-free ADMEM containing 10 ng/ml of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), 50 µM of forskolin, 250 ng/ml of sonic hedgehog (SHH), and 0.5 µM of retinoic acid (RA) for 7 days. The DPSCs were successfully trans-differentiated under all the protocols, exhibited neuron-like morphologies with upregulated cholinergic neuron-specific markers such as ChAT, HB9, ISL1, BETA-3, and MAP2 both at mRNA and protein levels in comparison to untreated cells. However, protocol III-induced cells showed the highest expression of the cholinergic markers and secreted the highest level of acetylcholine.

20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 3093545, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240211

RESUMO

Long-term expansion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) under defined culture conditions is necessary in human stem cell therapy. However, it alters the characteristics of MSCs. Since quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is widely used as one of the key analytical methods for comparative characterization, the validation of reference genes (RGs) for normalization under each experimental condition is important to achieve reliable qRT-PCR results. Therefore, the most stable RGs for long-term expanded bone marrow- and umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs and UCB-MSCs) under defined culture conditions for up to 20 passages were evaluated. The more apparent alterations in characteristics such as differentiation capacity, proliferation, senescence, and the expression of RGs were noted in BM-MSCs than UCB-MSCs during long-term expansion. The RG validation programs (GeNorm and NormFinder) suggested that PPIA, HPRT1, and YWHAZ were suitable for normalization in qRT-PCR regardless of MSC types and long-term culture expansion, and the traditional RGs (ACTB and GAPDH) were less stable in long-term expanded MSCs. In addition, the use of these RGs for normalization of OCT4 expression in long-term expanded BM-MSCs showed that a less stable RG (GAPDH) showed contrasting data compared to other RGs. Therefore, the use of RGs such as PPIA, HPRT1, and YWHAZ for normalization in qRT-PCR experiments is highly recommended for long-term expanded MSCs to generate accurate and reliable data.


Assuntos
Proteínas 14-3-3/genética , Expressão Gênica , Hipoxantina Fosforribosiltransferase/genética , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Peptidilprolil Isomerase/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas 14-3-3/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Hipoxantina Fosforribosiltransferase/metabolismo , Masculino , Peptidilprolil Isomerase/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Padrões de Referência
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...