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1.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641301

RESUMO

Sage, Salvia officinalis L., is used worldwide as an aromatic herb for culinary purposes as well as a traditional medicinal agent for various ailments. Current investigations exhibited the effects of extended dryings of the herb on the yields, composition, oil quality, and hepatoprotective as well as anti-cancer biological activities of the hydrodistillation-obtained essential oils from the aerial parts of the plant. The essential oils' yields, compositions, and biological activities levels of the fresh and differently timed and room-temperature dried herbs differed significantly. The lowest yields of the essential oil were obtained from the fresh herbs (FH, 631 mg, 0.16%), while the highest yield was obtained from the two-week dried herbs (2WDH, 1102 mg, 0.28%). A notable decrease in monoterpenes, with increment in the sesquiterpene constituents, was observed for the FH-based essential oil as compared to all the other batches of the essential oils obtained from the different-timed dried herbs. Additionally, characteristic chemotypic constituents of sage, i.e., α-pinene, camphene, ß-pinene, myrcene, 1, 8-cineole, α-thujone, and camphor, were present in significantly higher proportions in all the dried herbs' essential oils as compared to the FH-based essential oil. The in vivo hepatoprotective activity demonstrated significant reductions in the levels of AST, ALT, and ALP, as well as a significant increase in the total protein (p < 0.05) contents level, as compared to the acetaminophen (AAP) administered experimental group of rats. A significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the ALT level was demonstrated by the 4WDH-based essential oil in comparison to the FH-based essential oil. The levels of creatinine, cholesterol, and triglycerides were reduced (p < 0.05) in the pre-treated rats by the essential oil batches, with non-significant differences found among them as a result of the herbs dryings based oils. A notable increase in the viability of the cells, and total antioxidant capacity (TAOxC) levels, together with the reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were observed by the essential oils obtained from all the batches as compared with the AAP-treated cell-lines, HepG-2, HeLa, and MCF-7, that indicated the in vitro hepatoprotective effects of the sage essential oils. However, significant improvements in the in vivo and in vitro hepatoprotective activities with the 4WDH-based oil, as compared to all other essential oil-batches and silymarin standard demonstrated the beneficial effects of the drying protocol for the herb for its medicinal purposes.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e245206, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550280

RESUMO

A huge amount of rice cultivation and consumption occur in Asia particularly in Pakistan and China. However, multiple abiotic stresses especially high and low-temperature proved to be a substantial threat for rice production ultimately risks for food security. To overcome various types of abiotic stress; seed priming is among the effective approaches to improve the rice seed germination and growth vigor. Therefore, the present study was planned to evaluate physiological and biochemical modifications in Chinese and Pakistani rice varieties by Qiangdi 863 biological assistant growth apparatus nano treated water (NTW), Osmopriming Calcium chloride (CaCl2), redox priming hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hormonal priming by Salicylic acid (SA) under temperature stress conditions. The experiment was performed with completely randomize design conditions. Five rice varieties, nomenclature as Zhongzoa 39, (Chinese rice variety) KSK 133, KS 282, Super basmati and PK 1121 aromatic (Pakistani rice variety) were sown under low temperature (LT) (17ºC), optimal temperature (OT) 27ºC and high temperature (HT) 37ºC conditions. The present study indicated that nanopriming were the most effective treatments increased Germination Energy Percentage (GEP) (96.1, 100, 100%), Speed of Germination (SG) (27.2, 35.45, 37.1), Final Germination Percentage (FGP) (98.2, 99.1, 99.4%), Seedling Dry Weight Biomass (DWB) (0.1, 0.137, 0.14g), Total Chlorophyll Content (0.502, 13.74, 15.21), antioxidant enzymes Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)(3145, 2559, 3345 µg-1FWh-1), Catalase (CAT) (300, 366, 3243 µg-1FWh-1) and decreased Malondialdehyde (MDA) (6.5, 12.2, 6.5 µmol g-1 FW) for Zhongzao 39 and KSK 133 rice varieties under low (LT+NTW), optimal temperature (OP+NTW) and high temperature (HT+NTW) stress., Therefore, nano-priming is recommended to cope with the high and low-temperature stress conditions along with improved productivity of rice.


Assuntos
Oryza , Germinação , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Plântula , Sementes , Estresse Fisiológico , Temperatura
3.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 6174897, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567411

RESUMO

Suaeda vermiculata, a halophyte consumed by livestock, is also used by Bedouins to manage liver disorders. The aqueous-ethanolic extract of S. vermiculata, its subsequent fractions, and pure compounds, i.e., pheophytin-A (1), isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (2), and quercetin (3), were evaluated for their hepatoprotective efficacy. The male mice were daily fed with either silymarin, plant aq.-ethanolic extract, fractions, pure isolated compounds, or carboxyl methylcellulose (CMC) for 7 days (n = 6/group, p.o.). On the day 7th of the administrations, all, except the intact animal groups, were induced with hepatotoxicity using paracetamol (PCM, 300 mg/kg). The anesthetized animals were euthanized after 24 h; blood and liver tissues were collected and analysed. The serum aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels decreased significantly for all the S. vermiculata aq.-ethanolic extract, fraction, and compound-treated groups when equated with the PCM group (p < 0.0001). The antioxidant, superoxide dismutase (SOD), increased significantly (p < 0.05) for the silymarin-, n-hexane-, and quercetin-fed groups. Similarly, the catalase (CAT) enzyme level significantly increased for all the groups, except for the compound 2-treated group as compared to the CMC group. Also, the glutathione reductase (GR) levels were significantly increased for the n-butanol treated group than for the PCM group. The oxidative stress biomarkers, lipid peroxide (LP) and nitric oxide (NO), the inflammatory markers, IL-6 and TNF-α, and the kidney's functional biomarker parameters remained unchanged and did not differ significantly for the treated groups in comparison to the PCM-induced toxicity bearing animals. All the treated groups demonstrated significant decreases in cholesterol levels as compared to the PCM group, indicating hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects. The quercetin-treated group demonstrated significant improvement in triglyceride level. The S. vermiculata aq.-ethanolic extract, fractions, and the isolated compounds demonstrated their hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects, confirming the claimed traditional use of the herb as a liver protectant.

4.
Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 16(22): 1937-1961, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431317

RESUMO

Aims: To evaluate the anti breast-cancer activity, biocompatibility and toxicity of poly(d,l)-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-encapsulated quercetin nanoparticles (Q-PLGA-NPs). Materials & methods: Quercetin was nano-encapsulated by an emulsion-diffusion process, and the nanoparticles were fully characterized through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffractions, FESEM and zeta-sizer analysis. Activity against CAL51 and MCF7 cell lines were assessed by DNA fragmentation assays, fluorescence microscopy, and acridine-orange, and propidium-iodide double-stainings. Biocompatibility towards red blood cells and toxicity towards mice were also explored. Results: The Q-PLGA-NPs exhibited apoptotic activity against the cell lines. The murine in vivo studies showed no significant alterations in the liver and kidney's functional biomarkers, and no apparent abnormalities, or tissue damages were observed in the histological images of the liver, spleen, lungs, heart and kidneys. Conclusion: The study established the preliminary in vitro efficacy and in vivo safety of Q-PLGA-NPs as a potential anti-breast cancer formulation.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Animais , Apoptose , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Ácido Láctico , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Quercetina/farmacologia
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14539, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267232

RESUMO

Streptomyces smyrnaeus UKAQ_23, isolated from the mangrove-sediment, collected from Jubail,Saudi Arabia, exhibited substantial antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), including non-MRSA Gram-positive test bacteria. The novel isolate, under laboratory-scale conditions, produced the highest yield (561.3 ± 0.3 mg/kg fermented agar) of antimicrobial compounds in modified ISP-4 agar at pH 6.5, temperature 35 °C, inoculum 5% v/w, agar 1.5% w/v, and an incubation period of 7 days. The two major compounds, K1 and K2, were isolated from fermented medium and identified as Actinomycin X2 and Actinomycin D, respectively, based on their structural analysis. The antimicrobial screening showed that Actinomycin X2 had the highest antimicrobial activity compared to Actinomycin D, and the actinomycins-mixture (X2:D, 1:1, w/w) against MRSA and non-MRSA Gram-positive test bacteria, at 5 µg/disc concentrations. The MIC of Actinomycin X2 ranged from 1.56-12.5 µg/ml for non-MRSA and 3.125-12.5 µg/ml for MRSA test bacteria. An in-silico molecular docking demonstrated isoleucyl tRNA synthetase as the most-favored antimicrobial protein target for both actinomycins, X2 and D, while the penicillin-binding protein-1a, was the least-favorable target-protein. In conclusion, Streptomyces smyrnaeus UKAQ_23 emerged as a promising source of Actinomycin X2 with the potential to be scaled up for industrial production, which could benefit the pharmaceutical industry.

6.
Reprod Sci ; 2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160778

RESUMO

Evidence to date supports regulatory T cell (Treg) alterations in endometriosis; however, the relationship remains unclear, and Tregs have not previously been investigated with respect to infertility in endometriosis. This prospective cross-sectional cohort study details circulating and endometrial tissue-specific disturbances in Tregs and broader gated populations in women of reproductive age with and without endometriosis (n = 57 and 29, respectively) using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Participants were characterised by menstrual cycle phase, r-ASRM endometriosis disease stage and fertility status.In the endometrium of women with endometriosis, endometrial Tregs and CD4+ lymphocyte proportions did not change between the proliferative and secretory phases, while in women without the disease, they significantly decreased (p = 0.045 and p = 0.039, respectively). In women with endometriosis, endometrial Tregs were lower than in women without endometriosis overall (p = 0.050 as a proportion of all CD45+ immune cells). We have shown for the first time that proportions of CD4+ lymphocytes (p = 0.021), overall lymphocytes (p = 0.034) and non-granulocytes (p = 0.027) were significantly decreased in the endometrium of women with moderate-severe (r-ASRM stages III and IV) compared to minimal-mild (r-ASRM stages I and II) endometriosis. During the secretory phase, circulating Treg proportions were significantly increased in infertile compared to fertile women (p = 0.049). This study confirms differences in endometrial Tregs in women with endometriosis, with blunting of normal menstrual cyclical variations, reduced proportions during the proliferative phase and disease stage-specific relationships.

7.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923964

RESUMO

Salsola cyclophylla, an edible halophyte, is traditionally used for inflammation and pain. To confirm the claimed anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, a detailed study on respective pharmacological actions was undertaken. The activities are contemplated to arise from its phytoconstituents. The LC-MS analysis of S. cyclophylla 95% aqueous-ethanolic extract revealed the presence of 52 compounds belonging to phenols, flavonoids, coumarins, and aliphatics class. A high concentration of Mn, Fe, and Zn was detected by atomic absorption spectroscopic analysis. The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest flavonoid contents (5.94 ± 0.04 mg/g, Quercetin Equivalents) and Fe2+-chelation (52%) potential with DPPH radicals-quenching IC50 at 1.35 ± 0.16 mg/mL, while the aqueous ethanolic extract exhibited maximum phenolics contents (136.08 ± 0.12 mg/g, gallic acid equivalents) with DPPH scavenging potential at IC50 0.615 ± 0.06 mg/mL. Aqueous ethanolic extract and standard quercetin DPPH radicals scavenging's were equal potent at 10 mg/mL concentrations. The aqueous ethanolic extract showed highest analgesic effect with pain reduction rates 89.86% (p = 0.03), 87.50% (p < 0.01), and 99.66% (p = 0.0004) after 60, 90, and 120 min, respectively. Additionally, aqueous ethanolic extract exhibited the highest anti-inflammation capacity at 41.07% (p < 0.0001), 34.51% (p < 0.0001), and 24.82% (p < 0.0001) after 2, 3, and 6 h of extract's administration, respectively. The phytochemical constituents, significant anti-oxidant potential, remarkable analgesic, and anti-inflammatory bioactivities of extracts supported the traditionally claimed anti-inflammatory and analgesic plant activities.


Assuntos
Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Salsola/química , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/química , Analgésicos/química , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/patologia , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/patologia , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química
8.
Protein J ; 40(2): 234-244, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alpha-1-syntrophin (SNTA1) is emerging as a novel modulator of the actin cytoskeleton. SNTA1 binds to F-actin and regulates intracellular localization and activity of various actin organizing signaling molecules. Aberration in syntrophin signaling has been closely linked with deregulated growth connected to tumor development/metastasis and its abnormal over expression has been observed in breast cancer. In the present work the effect of jasplakinolide, an actin-binding cyclodepsipeptide, on the SNTA1 protein activity and SNTA1 mediated downstream cellular events was studied in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. METHODS: SNTA1 protein levels and phosphorylation status were determined in MDA-MB-231 cells post jasplakinolide exposure using western blotting and immunoprecipitation techniques respectively. MDA-MB-231 cells were transfected with WT SNTA1 and DM SNTA1 (Y215/229 phospho mutant) and simultaneously treated with jasplakinolide. The effect of jasplakinolide and SNTA1 protein on cell migration was determined using the boyden chamber assay. RESULTS: Jasplakinolide treatment decreases proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells in both dose and time dependent manner. Results suggest that subtoxic doses of jasplakinolide induce morphological changes in MDA-MB-231 cells from flat spindle shape adherent cells to round weakly adherent forms. Mechanistically, jasplakinolide treatment was found to decrease SNTA1 protein levels and its tyrosine phosphorylation status. Moreover, migratory potential of jasplakinolide treated cells was significantly inhibited in comparison to control cells. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that jasplakinolide inhibits cell migration by impairing SNTA1 functioning in breast cancer cells.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Depsipeptídeos , Proteínas de Membrana , Proteínas Musculares , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/análise , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/química , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Depsipeptídeos/farmacologia , Depsipeptídeos/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/análise , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/análise , Proteínas Musculares/química , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499325

RESUMO

Zygophyllum coccineum, an edible halophytic plant, is part of the traditional medicine chest in the Mediterranean region for symptomatic relief of diabetes, hypertension, wound healing, burns, infections, and rheumatoid arthritis pain. The current study aimed to characterize Z. coccineum phytoconstituents, and the evaluations of the anti-microbial-biofilm, and anti-cancers bioactivities of the plant's mother liquor, i.e., aqueous-ethanolic extract, and its subsequent fractions. The in silico receptors interaction feasibility of Z. coccineum major constituents with Staph GyraseB, and human topoisomerase-IIß (h-TOP-IIß) were conducted to confirm the plant's anti-microbial and anti-cancer biological activities. Thirty-eight secondary metabolites of flavonoids, stilbene, phenolic acids, alkaloids, and coumarin classes identified by LC-ESI-TOF-MS spectrometric analysis, and tiliroside (kaempferol-3-O-(6''''-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside, 19.8%), zygophyloside-F (12.78%), zygophyloside-G (9.67%), and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside (4.75%) were identified as the major constituents. A superior biofilm obliteration activity established the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) for the chloroform fraction at 3.9-15.63 µg/mL, as compared to the positive controls (15.63-31.25 µg/mL) against all the microbial strains that produced the biofilm under study, except the Aspergillus fumigatus. The aqueous-ethanolic extract showed cytotoxic effects with IC50 values at 3.47, 3.19, and 2.27 µg/mL against MCF-7, HCT-116, and HepG2 cell-lines, respectively, together with the inhibition of h-TOP-IIß with IC50 value at 45.05 ng/mL in comparison to its standard referral inhibitor (staurosporine, IC50, 135.33 ng/mL). This conclusively established the anti-cancer activity of the aqueous-ethanolic extract that also validated by in silico receptor-binding predicted energy levels and receptor-site docking feasibility of the major constituents of the plant's extract. The study helped to authenticate some of the traditional phytomedicinal properties of the anti-infectious nature of the plant.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Zygophyllum/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação por Computador , DNA Girase/química , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo II/química , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Células HCT116 , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Células MCF-7 , Medicina Tradicional , Região do Mediterrâneo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose/química , Inibidores da Topoisomerase II/química , Inibidores da Topoisomerase II/farmacologia
10.
Int J Surg ; 84: 231-235, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189880

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The PROCESS Guidelines were first published in 2016 and were last updated in 2018. They provide a structure for reporting surgical case series in order to increase reporting robustness and transparency, and are used and endorsed by authors, journal editors and reviewers alike. In order to drive forwards reporting quality, they must be kept up to date. As such, we have updated these guidelines via a DELPHI consensus exercise. METHODS: The updated guidelines were produced via a DELPHI consensus exercise. Members from the previous DELPHI group were again invited, alongside editorial board members and peer reviewers of the International Journal of Surgery and the International Journal of Surgery Case Reports. An online survey was completed by this expert group to indicate their agreement with proposed changes to the checklist items. RESULTS: A total of 53 surgical experts agreed to participate and 49 (92%) completed the survey. The responses and suggested modifications were incorporated into the previous 2018 guidelines. There was a high degree of agreement amongst the PROCESS Group, with all but one of the PROCESS items receiving over 70% of scores ranging 7-9. CONCLUSION: A DELPHI consensus exercise was completed and an updated and improved PROCESS Checklist is now presented.


Assuntos
Guias como Assunto , Relatório de Pesquisa/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/normas , Lista de Checagem , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
11.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 8479-8493, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154638

RESUMO

Background: The nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) is a major transcription factor responsible for the production of numerous inflammatory mediators, including the tumor necrosis factor (TNFα), which has a lethal association with cancer's onset. The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in cancer treatment and several other biomedical applications. Objective: The study aimed to determine the effects of silver citrate nanoparticles (AgNPs-CIT) on NF-κB activation together with TNFα mRNA/protein expressions in the phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated MCF-7 human breast cancer cell-lines. Methods: The AgNPs-CIT were synthesized by the reduction method, and the prepared AgNPs-CIT were characterized for their shape, absorption in UV-VIS electromagnetic radiations, size distribution, ζ-potential, and antioxidant activity. The MCF-7 cell-lines were pretreated with AgNPs-CIT and stimulated with PMA. The TNFα mRNA expressions were determined by real-time PCR, whereas the protein production was determined by the ELISA. The NF-κB activity was distinctly observed by highly-specific DNA-based ELISA, and by NF-κB-specific inhibitor, Bay 11-7082. Results: The prepared AgNPs-CIT were spherical and have an absorption wavelength range of 381-452 nm wherein the particles size ranged between 19.2±0.1 to 220.77±0.12 nm with the charge range -9.99±0.8 to -34.63±0.1 mV. The prepared AgNPs-CIT showed comparative antioxidant activity at >40% inhibitions level of the DPPH radicals. The AgNPs-CIT were found to be non-toxic to MCF-7 cell-lines and inhibited PMA-induced activation of the NF-κBp65, and also the mRNA/protein expression of TNFα. Conclusion: This is the first report that showed AgNPs-CIT inhibited TNFα expression via deactivation of the NF-κB signaling event in stimulated breast cancer cells. The results have important implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the prevention/treatment of cancers and/or inflammatory disorders.


Assuntos
Ácido Cítrico/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Prata/química , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Tamanho da Partícula , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Eletricidade Estática , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética
12.
Molecules ; 25(22)2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33233786

RESUMO

Halophytes are the category of plants growing under harsh conditions of super-salinity, and are wide-spread in the coastal Mediterranean climatic conditions and desert oasis. They are adept at surviving through maintaining excessive production of enzymatic, and non-enzymatic secondary metabolites, especially phenolics and flavonoids that primarily work as anti-oxidants and phytoalexins. Five major halophyte species growing in the kingdom's Qassim's high-salted desert regions were investigated for confirming their traditionally used biological activity of sugar-control and anti-infectious properties. In this context, the comparative presence of phenolics, and flavonoids together with anti-microbial, anti-oxidants, and the anti-diabetic potentials of the plants' extracts were investigated through the α-amylase inhibition method. The highest concentrations of phenolics and flavonoids were detected in Salsola imbricata (360 mg/g of the extract as Gallic-Acid-Equivalents/GAE, and 70.5 mg/g of the extract as Rutin-Equivalents/RE). In contrast, the lowest concentrations of phenolics and flavonoids were detected in Salsola cyclophylla (126.6 mg/g GAE, and 20.5 mg/g RE). The halophytes were found rich in trace elements, a factor for water-retention in high-salinity plants, wherein iron and zinc elements were found comparatively in higher concentrations in Aeluropus lagopoides (4113 µg/kg, and 40.1 µg/kg, respectively), while the copper was detected in higher concentration (11.1 µg/kg) in S. imbricata, analyzed through Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometric (ICP-OES) analysis. The anti-oxidant potentials and α-amylase enzyme inhibition-based anti-diabetic activity of S. imbricata was significantly higher than the other halophytes under study, wherein S. cyclophylla exhibited the lowest level of α-amylase inhibition. The maximum DPPH radicals' (52.47 mg/mL), and α-amylase inhibitions (IC50 22.98 µg/mL) were detected in A.lagopoides. The anti-microbial activity against the Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus was strongly exhibited by Zygophyllum simplex (33 mm Inhibition Zone-Diameter, 50 µg/mL Minimum-Inhibitory-Concentration), while Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Candida albicans growths were moderately inhibited by Tamarix aphylla. The current findings exhibited significant differences among the locally distributed halophytic plants species with regards to their bioactivity levels, anti-oxidant potentials, and the presence of trace elements. The ongoing data corroborated the plants' traditional uses in infections and diabetic conditions. The enhanced local distribution of the plants' diaspora and higher density of occurrence of these plants species in this region, in comparison to their normal climatic condition's counterparts, seemed to be affected by humans' use of the species as part of the traditional and alternative medicine over a period of long time.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Oligoelementos/química
13.
Int J Surg ; 84: 226-230, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181358

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The SCARE Guidelines were first published in 2016 and were last updated in 2018. They provide a structure for reporting surgical case reports and are used and endorsed by authors, journal editors and reviewers, in order to increase robustness and transparency in reporting surgical cases. They must be kept up to date in order to drive forwards reporting quality. As such, we have updated these guidelines via a DELPHI consensus exercise. METHODS: The updated guidelines were produced via a DELPHI consensus exercise. Members were invited from the previous DELPHI group, as well as editorial board members and peer reviewers of the International Journal of Surgery Case Reports. The expert group completed an online survey to indicate their agreement with proposed changes to the checklist items. RESULTS: A total of 54 surgical experts agreed to participate and 53 (98%) completed the survey. The responses and suggested modifications were incorporated into the new 2020 guideline. There was a high degree of agreement amongst the SCARE Group, with all modified SCARE items receiving over 70% scores 7-9. CONCLUSION: A DELPHI consensus exercise was completed and an updated and improved SCARE Checklist is now presented.


Assuntos
Guias como Assunto , Relatório de Pesquisa/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/normas , Lista de Checagem , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Humanos
14.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(10)2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003604

RESUMO

Suaeda vermiculata, an edible halophytic plant, used by desert nomads to treat jaundice, was investigated for its hepatoprotective bioactivity and safety profile on its mother liquor aqueous-ethanolic extract. Upon LC-MS (Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry) analysis, the presence of several constituents including three major flavonoids, namely quercetin, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, and kaempferol-O-(acetyl)-hexoside-pentoside were confirmed. The aqueous-ethanolic extract, rich in antioxidants, quenched the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radicals, and also showed noticeable levels of radical scavenging capacity in ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay. For the hepatoprotective activity confirmation, the male rat groups were fed daily, for 7 days (n = 8/group, p.o.), either carboxyl methylcellulose (CMC) 0.5%, silymarin 200 mg/kg, the aqueous-ethanolic extract of the plant Suaeda vermiculata (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg extract), or quercetin (100 mg/kg) alone, and on day 7 of the administrations, all the animal groups, excluding a naïve (250 mg/kg aqueous-ethanolic extract-fed), and an intact animal group were induced hepatotoxicity by intraperitoneally administering carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). All the animals were sacrificed after 24 h, and aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase serum levels were observed, which were noted to be significantly decreased for the aqueous-ethanolic extract, silymarin, and quercetin-fed groups in comparison to the CMC-fed group (p < 0.0001). No noticeable adverse effects were observed on the liver, kidney, or heart's functions of the naïve (250 mg/kg) group. The aqueous-ethanolic extract was found to be safe in the acute toxicity (5 g/kg) test and showed hepatoprotection and safety at higher doses. Further upon, the cytotoxicity testings in HepG-2 and HepG-2/ADR (Adriamycin resistant) cell-lines were also investigated, and the IC50 values were recorded at 56.19±2.55 µg/mL, and 78.40±0.32 µg/mL (p < 0.001, Relative Resistance RR 1.39), respectively, while the doxorubicin (Adriamycin) IC50 values were found to be 1.3±0.064, and 4.77±1.05 µg/mL (p < 0.001, RR 3.67), respectively. The HepG-2/ADR cell-lines when tested in a combination of the aqueous-ethanolic extract with doxorubicin, a significant reversal in the doxorubicin's IC50 value by 2.77 folds (p < 0.001, CI = 0.56) was noted as compared to the cytotoxicity test where the extract was absent. The mode of action for the reversal was determined to be synergistic in nature indicating the role of the aqueous-ethanolic extract.

15.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 30(23): 127604, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038546

RESUMO

An improved pharmacophore model, molecular properties, geometric analyses, and SAR led to synthesize oxazolo/thiazolo-[3,2-a]-pyrimidin-3(2H)-one, and 1,5-dihydroimidazo-[1,2-a]-pyrimidin-3(2H)-one derivatives exhibiting potent anti-hypertensive activity. The 6-ethoxycarbonyl-2,7-dimethyl-5-phenyl-1,5-dihydroimidazo[3,2-a]pyrimidin-3(2H)-one (4g), and 6-ethoxycarbonyl-2,7-dimethyl-5-(3-methyl-phenyl)-1,5-dihydroimidazo[3,2-a]pyrimidin-3(2H)-one (4h) showed significant reduction in mean arterial blood pressure (MABP, mm/Hg) of 79.78%, and 92.95% in 6 and 12 h durations, respectively, at 1.5 mg/kg body-weight dose, while at 3.0 mg/kg body-weight dose, the MABP reduction was achieved at 95.46%, and 92.02%, respectively, in 6 and 12 h durations, as compared to the standard drug, nifedipine.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854455

RESUMO

The pyrethroid toxicants, fatal at high doses, are found as remnants of crop pesticides and ingredients of commercially available insecticides. The toxic effects of high-content insecticidal pyrethroid formulations are available in 0.05 g, 1.17 g, and 0.04 g pyrethroid-instilled products, namely burning coils, pyrethroid-soaked mats, and liquid formulations of pyrethroids that release pyrethroid vapor/smoke upon heating. They provided 5.46 g/kg, 21.15 g/kg, and 4.24 g/kg of toxicants to the experimental animals over a total of 3 weeks/5 h per os (p.o.) administration, producing necrosis, hyperemia, and fatty changes in the liver; fiber separation in cardiac muscles; atrophy, lymphatic infiltration, blood vessel congestion, and hyperemia in the heart tissues of the experimental animals. The glomerular tuft necrosis, cytoplasmic degeneration of renal tubular cells, necrotic tubules, congestion, and dilatation of blood vessels were observed in the kidney tissue of intoxicated animals. Air-space enlargement, interstitial inflammation, lymphocyte infiltration aggregates, connective tissue infiltration by inflammatory cells, and hyperemia were found in the lung tissues. The pyrethroid toxicants also produced nervous tissue degeneration and decreased neurons in the brain, which were observed through histopathological examinations of the brain, lungs, heart, kidneys, and liver. The protective effects of ascorbic acid (AA/vitamin C) and α-tocopherol (E307/vitamin E) at 100 mg/kg oral doses administered daily for the entire period of the toxicant exposure of three weeks to the experimental mice, aged between 3-4 months and weighing ≈30 g, ameliorated the tissue damage, as observed through the histopathological examinations. The ascorbic acid caused recovery of the liver, kidney, brain, and heart tissue damage, while α-tocopherol was effective at ameliorating the damage in the kidneys and lung tissue compared with the control groups. The high levels of tissue damage recovery suggested a prophylactic effect of the concurrent use of ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol for the subjects under the exposure of pyrethroids.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Piretrinas/toxicidade , alfa-Tocoferol/farmacologia , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Pharm Pat Anal ; 9(3): 87-116, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609057

RESUMO

Phospholipid-based liposomal vesicles are among the most effective delivery options currently available for various classes of anticancer drugs. The patents granted to inventions disclosing details on liposomal delivery module by the US Patent and Trademark Office, European Patent Office, and world patent holdings through WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization) patenting have been sorted based upon liposome, and anticancer keywords within the abstract and claims sections of the patents for the period between 2000 and 2019, thereby disclosing novel liposome formulations encapsulating single, or combination of chemotherapeutic agents that have been far more chemically and physiologically stable, therapeutically efficacious, and comparatively less toxic than their nonliposomal free-drug counterparts. The added stability, site-specific transport, and payload delivery, enhanced bioavailability, fast body clearance, and biocompatibility together with the controlled and sustained delivery-related benefits claimed in the patent literature have been exclusively discussed with a focus on the last 5-year period.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Produtos Biológicos/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Patentes como Assunto/legislação & jurisprudência , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Lipossomos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/administração & dosagem , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo
18.
Molecules ; 25(12)2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575415

RESUMO

The natural drying of Rosmarinus officinalis Linn. herbs severely affects its volatile oil quality and yields, which is reported here for the first time. The oils obtained through hydrodistillation from fresh, one, two, and three-weeks dried herbs were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID), and the yields were 198 ± 3.45, 168.7 ± 5.11, and 97.8 ± 1.27 mg, respectively, as compared to the internal referral standard of 327 ± 5.91 mg yield of the one-week dried herbs' oil. Camphor, the major constituent, significantly depleted from 20.96% to 13.84%, while bornyl acetate yields increased from 1.42% to 12.46% (p values < 0.0001) in three-weeks drying, reflecting the redox processes undergoing within the oil during drying. Several constituents (25) were found in one-week dried herbs' oil as compared to the fresh, two-, and three-weeks oils, which consisted of 23, 19, and 14 constituents, respectively, leading to the recommendation of the one-week drying of the herb for maximum oil yield. The DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl) reactivity was highest for the two- and three-weeks dried herb-based oils, followed by the one-week dried- and fresh-herb-based oils (p < 0.0001), again indicating major chemical changes during herbs' dryings, affecting the free-radical scavenging capacity of these batches of oils obtained after different drying times.


Assuntos
Óleos Vegetais/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Rosmarinus/química , Dessecação
19.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 161, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exploration of the bioactive components of bovine milk has gained global interest due to their potential applications in human nutrition and health promotion. Despite advances in proteomics profiling, limited studies have been carried out to fully characterize the bovine milk proteome. This study explored the milk proteome of Jersey and Kashmiri cattle at day 90 of lactation using high-resolution mass spectrometry based quantitative proteomics nano-scale LC-MS/Q-TOF technique. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD017412. RESULTS: Proteins from whey were fractionated by precipitation into high and low abundant proteins. A total of 81 high-abundant and 99 low-abundant proteins were significantly differentially expressed between Kashmiri and Jersey cattle, clearly differentiating the two breeds at the proteome level. Among the top differentiating proteins, the Kashmiri cattle milk proteome was characterised by increased concentrations of immune-related proteins (apelin, acid glycoprotein, CD14 antigen), neonatal developmental protein (probetacellulin), xenobiotic metabolising enzyme (flavin monooxygenase 3 (FMO3), GLYCAM1 and HSP90AA1 (chaperone) while the Jersey milk proteome presented higher concentrations of enzyme modulators (SERPINA1, RAC1, serine peptidase inhibitor) and hydrolases (LTF, LPL, CYM, PNLIPRP2). Pathway analysis in Kashmiri cattle revealed enrichment of key pathways involved in the regulation of mammary gland development like Wnt signalling pathway, EGF receptor signalling pathway and FGF signalling pathway while a pathway (T-cell activation pathway) associated with immune system regulation was significantly enriched in Jersey cattle. Most importantly, the high-abundant FMO3 enzyme with an observed 17-fold higher expression in Kashmiri cattle milk seems to be a characteristic feature of the breed. The presence of this (FMO3) bioactive peptide/enzyme in Kashmiri cattle could be economically advantageous for milk products from Kashmiri cattle. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this is the first study to provide insights not only into the milk proteome differences between Kashmiri and Jersey cattle but also provides potential directions for application of specific milk proteins from Kashmiri cattle in special milk preparations like infant formula.


Assuntos
Qualidade dos Alimentos , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Imunomodulação , Proteínas do Leite/metabolismo , Proteoma , Proteômica , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Análise de Alimentos , Ontologia Genética , Proteômica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are present in almost all the tissues of the body and act as the backbone of the internal tissue homeostasis. Among their various characteristic features, immuno-modulatory and/ anti-inflammatory properties play an important role in therapeutics. OBJECTIVE: The current topic focuses on the characterization and immuno-modulatory and/ antiinflammatory properties of MSCs. To present and discuss the current status of MSCs immunomodulatory properties. METHODS: Available literature on MSCs properties and patents have been detailed, critically interpreted, and discussed based upon available literature. The main focus has been on their characteristic immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties though some of the basic characterization markers have also been detailed. The databases searched for the literature include PubMed, Med Line, PubMed Central, Science Direct and a few other scientific databases. RESULTS: MSCs are present in a very limited concentration in the tissues, and as such their culture expansion becomes imperative. MSCs immuno-modulatory and anti-inflammatory roles are achieved through direct cell-cell contact and / by the release of certain factors. Such properties are controlled by micro-environment upon which currently very limited control can be exerted. Besides, further insights in the xeno-protein free culture media as against the fetal bovine serum is required. CONCLUSION: MSCs have been well-isolated, cultured and characterized from numerous tissues of the body. The majority of the studies have shown MSCs as immuno-compromised with immunomodulatory and / or anti-inflammatory properties except some of the latest studies that have failed to achieve the desired results and thus, demand further research. Further research is required in the area to translate the results into clinical application.


Assuntos
Imunomodulação/imunologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/imunologia , Patentes como Assunto
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