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Pharmaceutics ; 12(11)2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182248


Intricate formulation methods and/or the use of sophisticated equipment limit the prevalence of liposomal dosage-forms. Simple techniques are developed to assemble amphiphiles into globular lamellae while transiting from the immiscible organic to the aqueous phase. Various parameters are optimized by injecting chloroform solution of amphiphiles into the aqueous phase and subsequent removal of the organic phase. Further simplification is achieved by reorienting amphiphiles through a spontaneous phase transition in a swirling biphasic system during evaporation of the organic phase under vacuum. Although the chloroform injection yields smaller Z-average and poly-dispersity-index the spontaneous phase transition method overrides simplicity and productivity. The increasing solid/solvent ratios results in higher Z-average and broader poly-dispersity-index of liposomes under a given set of experimental conditions, and vice versa. Surface charge dependent large unilamellar vesicles with a narrow distribution have poly-dispersity-index < 0.4 in 10 µM saline. As small and monodisperse liposomes are prerequisites in targeted drug delivery strategies, hence the desired Z-average < 200 d.nm and poly-dispersity-index < 0.15 is obtained through the serial membrane-filtration method. Phosphatidylcholine/water 4 µmol/mL is achieved at a temperature of 10°C below the phase-transition temperature of phospholipids, ensuring suitability for thermolabile entities and high entrapment efficiency. Both methods furnish the de-novo rearrangement of amphiphiles into globular lamellae, aiding in the larger entrapped volume. The immiscible organic phase benefits from its faster and complete removal from the final product. High cholesterol content (55.6 mol%) imparts stability in primary hydration medium at 5 ± 3 °C for 6 months in light-protected type-1 glass vials. Collectively, the reported methods are novel, scalable and time-efficient, yielding high productivity in simple equipment.

AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(7): 275, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033847


In the published manuscript, co-author Sarah Hendrickx name was misspelled and co-author Guy Caljon's last and first names were inadvertently switched.

AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(5): 185, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632542


The present study aimed to develop, characterize and evaluate the amphotericin B-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (AmB-NLCs) for topical treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). AmB-NLCs were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and surface morphology. Prepared NLCs were also characterized for in vitro drug release, ex vivo skin permeation and deposition before evaluating their in vitro and in vivo efficacy. Cytotoxicity of NLCs was assessed on MRC-5 cells, whereas skin irritation potential was evaluated in vivo using rats. Significant accumulation of drug in to the skin supported the topical application potential of drug-loaded NLCs. Encapsulation of AmB in NLCs resulted in enhanced in vitro potency against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of L. major JISH 118 (IC50 ± SEM = 0.02 ± 0.1 µM for both) compared with free drug (IC50 ± SEM = 0.15 ± 0.2 & 0.14 ± 0.0, respectively). Similar improved potency of AmB-NLCs was also observed for other Leishmania and fungal strains compared with drug solution. Topical application of AmB-NLCs on L. major-infected BALB/c mice caused a significant reduction in parasite burden per mg of lesion (65 × 108 ± 13) compared with the control group (> 167.8 × 108 ± 11). Topical AmB-NLCs gel demonstrated superior efficacy in the vaginal C. albicans rat model for VVC as compared with plain AmB gel. Moreover, results of in vitro cytotoxicity assay and in vivo skin irritation test confirmed AmB-NLCs to be non-toxic and safe for topical use. In conclusion, NLCs may have promising potential as carrier for topical treatment of various conditions of skin and mucosa.

Anfotericina B/administração & dosagem , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Nanoestruturas/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Animais , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/metabolismo , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Feminino , Géis/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Animais , Tamanho da Partícula , Ratos , Pele/metabolismo , Absorção Cutânea
Turk J Pharm Sci ; 15(1): 63-76, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454642


Objectives: The present work aimed to design and synthesize pH-sensitive cross-linked Ge/SA hydrogels using different ratios of each polymer, and to investigate the effect of each polymer on dynamic, equilibrium swelling, and in vitro release pattern of cetirizine hydrochloride, which was selected as a model drug. Materials and Methods: These gelatin and sodium alginate hydrogels were prepared at room temperature through free radical polymerization using glutaraldehyde as a crosslinker. These polymeric composites were used as model systems to envisage various important characterizations. The in vitro release pattern of drug was investigated in three different mediums (phosphate buffer solution of pH 1.2, 5.5, 7.5 whose ionic strength was kept constant). Various structure property relationships that affect its release behavior were determined such as swelling analysis, porosity, sol-gel analysis, average molecular weight between crosslinks (Mc), solvent interaction parameter (χ), volume fraction of polymer (V2,s) and diffusion coefficient. The structural, crystallinity, and thermal stability were confirmed using FTIR, XRD, and DSC analysis. Results: These hydrogels showed maximum swelling at pH 1.2. Zero-order, first-order, Higuchi, and Peppas models were applied to demonstrate the release pattern of drug. The release of drug occurred through non-Fickian diffusion or anomalous mechanism. Porosity was found increased with an increase in concentration of both polymers, and porosity decreased when the concentration of the crosslinker was increased. Gel fraction increased with an increase in concentration of SA, Ge, and glutaraldehyde. Conclusion: The prepared pH sensitive hydrogels can be used as a potential carrier for the sustained delivery of cetirizine hydrochloride.

Bioimpacts ; 7(3): 177-192, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29159145


Introduction: The current work was aimed to design and synthesize novel crosslinked pH-sensitive gelatin/pectin (Ge/Pec) hydrogels using different polymeric ratios and to explore the effect of polymers and degree of crosslinking on dynamic, equilibrium swelling and in vitro release behavior of the model drug (Mannitol). Methods: The Ge/Pec based hydrogels were prepared using glutaraldehyde as the crosslinker. Various structural parameters that affect their release behavior were determined, including swelling study, porosity, sol-gel analysis, average molecular weight between crosslinks (Mc), volume fraction of polymer (V2,s), solvent interaction parameter (χ) and diffusion coefficient. The synthesized hydrogels were subjected to various characterization tools like Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and DSC differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: The hydrogels show highest water uptake and release at lower pH values. The FTIR spectra showed an interaction between Ge and Pec, and the drug-loaded samples also showed the drug-related peaks, indicating proper loading of the drug. DSC and TGA studies confirmed the thermal stability of hydrogel samples, while SEM showed the porous nature of hydrogels. The drug release followed non-Fickian diffusion or anomalous mechanism. Conclusion: Aforementioned characterizations reveal the successful formation of copolymer hydrogels. The pH-sensitive swelling ability and drug release behavior suggest that the rate of polymer chain relaxation and drug diffusion from these hydrogels are comparable which also predicts their possible use for site-specific drug delivery.