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1.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e242942, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468508

RESUMO

Thimerosal is an organomercurial compound, which is used in the preparation of intramuscular immunoglobulin, antivenoms, tattoo inks, skin test antigens, nasal products, ophthalmic drops, and vaccines as a preservative. In most of animal species and humans, the kidney is one of the main sites for mercurial compounds deposition and target organs for toxicity. So, the current research was intended to assess the thimerosal induced nephrotoxicity in male rats. Twenty-four adult male albino rats were categorized into four groups. The first group was a control group. Rats of Group-II, Group-III, and Group-IV were administered with 0.5µg/kg, 10µg/kg, and 50µg/kg of thimerosal once a day, respectively. Thimerosal administration significantly decreased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione (GSH), and protein content while increased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels dose-dependently. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, urobilinogen, urinary proteins, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels were substantially increased. In contrast, urinary albumin and creatinine clearance was reduced dose-dependently in thimerosal treated groups. The results demonstrated that thimerosal significantly increased the inflammation indicators including nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activities, DNA and histopathological damages dose-dependently. So, the present findings ascertained that thimerosal exerted nephrotoxicity in male albino rats.


Assuntos
Estresse Oxidativo , Timerosal , Animais , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Rim , Masculino , Ratos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Timerosal/metabolismo , Timerosal/toxicidade
2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e243438, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468509

RESUMO

Cisplatin (CP) is a commonly used, powerful antineoplastic drug, having numerous side effects. Casticin (CAS) is considered as a free radical scavenger and a potent antioxidant. The present research was planned to assess the curative potential of CAS on CP persuaded renal injury in male albino rats. Twenty four male albino rats were distributed into four equal groups. Group-1 was considered as a control group. Animals of Group-2 were injected with 5mg/kg of CP intraperitoneally. Group-3 was co-treated with CAS (50mg/kg) orally and injection of CP (5mg/kg). Group-4 was treated with CAS (50mg/kg) orally throughout the experiment. CP administration substantially reduced the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione (GSH) content while increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels. Urea, urinary creatinine, urobilinogen, urinary proteins, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels were substantially increased. In contrast, albumin and creatinine clearance was significantly reduced in CP treated group. The results demonstrated that CP significantly increased the inflammation indicators including nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity and histopathological damages. However, the administration of CAS displayed a palliative effect against CP-generated renal toxicity and recovered all parameters by bringing them to a normal level. These results revealed that the CAS is an effective compound having the curative potential to counter the CP-induced renal damage.


Assuntos
Cisplatino , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Animais , Antioxidantes , Cisplatino/toxicidade , Flavonoides , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
3.
Arch Virol ; 153(1): 163-70, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18030544

RESUMO

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major health issue worldwide. Several factors including core gene variation are responsible for the development of chronicity of HBV infection. The present study was designed to identify the variations in the core region of the HBV genome in a local population of chronic hepatitis B patients (n = 57) using a PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Fifty subjects were found to be positive for the presence of HBV DNA. For the core region genotyping, the Ava II and Msp I restriction enzymes were used. Mutations at nucleotide (nt) 2147 and nt 2362 in the HBV genome in the core region for Ava II (A4 type, 74%) and nt 2331 for Msp I (M1 type, 66%) were observed as the most common pattern. These results are different from those of previously reported studies on other populations and thus appear to be unique to the Pakistani population. This type of characterization of core mutants may be useful for the design of vaccines based on viral epitopes that are effective for the Pakistani population. Moreover, these unique genotypic patterns for the HBV core gene might be some of the main factors responsible for understanding the underlying mechanism by which HBV chronicity is developed in the Pakistani population.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/análise , Genótipo , Antígenos do Núcleo do Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/classificação , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Paquistão , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Mapeamento por Restrição
4.
J Nutr ; 125(3 Suppl): 573S-580S, 1995 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7884536

RESUMO

Soy protein products are mainly used as ingredients in formulated foods and seldom are seen by the public. They consist of four broad categories. (1) Most soy proteins are derived from "white flakes," made by dehulling, flaking and defatting soybeans by hexane extraction. These may then be milled into defatted flours or grits containing approximately 50-54% protein; extracted with ethanol or acidic waters to remove flavor compounds and flatulence sugars, producing soy protein concentrates containing 65-70% protein; or processed into soy protein isolates containing 90+% protein by alkali extraction of the protein, removal of fiber by centrifugation and reprecipitation and drying of the protein. (2) Full-fat products are made in enzyme-active and in toasted forms. (3) Various dried soyfoods, including soy milk and tofu, are produced. (4) Mixtures of soy proteins with cereals, dried milk or egg fractions, gelatin, stabilizers and emulsifiers are offered for specific baking, whipping, breading and batter applications. Texturized products, resembling meat chunks or bacon chips, are made by extrusion of flours and concentrates or spinning of isolates. Soy protein ingredients are used in compounded foods for their functional properties, including water and fat absorption, emulsification, aeration (whipping) and heat setting and for increasing total protein content and improving the essential amino acids profile.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis , Soja , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Proteínas de Soja
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