Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 414
Filtrar
1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2866, 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536517

RESUMO

In the present work, silver nanoparticles were prepared by using the extract of Camellia Sinensis. The extract contains phytochemicals which are mainly polyphenols acting as the natural reducing and stabilizing agents leading to the formation of uniformly dispersed and stabilized silver nanoparticles. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles was significantly influenced by the impact of the pH, as well as temperature conditions. It was found that at pH 5 and 25 °C, nanoparticles of different morphologies (spherical, polygonal, capsule) and sizes were formed. However, with the increase in temperature from 25 °C to 65 °C but at the same pH, these particles started attaining the spherical shape of different sizes owing to an increase in the reduction rate. Furthermore, for the reaction of the mixture at 65 °C, an increase in pH from 5 to 11 led to an increase in the monodispersity of spherically shaped nanoparticles, attributed to the hydroxide ions facilitated reduction. The prepared nanoparticles were investigated for their antibacterial activity using Nathan's Agar Well-Diffusion method. It was found that AgNPs prepared at pH 9 and 65 °C demonstrated strong antibacterial activity against gram-negative Escherichia coli in contrast to gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. In reference to the cytotoxic potency, the prepared AgNPs showed clear cytotoxicity for HeLa cells and showcased a close relationship between activity and concentration as evidenced by the decrease in the percentage (100 to 30%) of metabolically active cells up to 25 µM-75 µM concentration of silver nanoparticles.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246485, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630877

RESUMO

q-Rung orthopair fuzzy set (qROFS) and m-polar fuzzy set (mPFS) are rudimentary concepts in the computational intelligence, which have diverse applications in fuzzy modeling and decision making under uncertainty. The aim of this paper is to introduce the hybrid concept of q-rung orthopair m-polar fuzzy set (qROmPFS) as a hybrid model of q-rung orthopair fuzzy set and m-polar fuzzy set. A qROmPFS has the ability to deal with real life situations when decision experts are interested to deal with multi-polarity as well as membership and non-membership grades to the alternatives in an extended domain with q-ROF environment. Certain operations on qROmPFSs and several new notions like support, core, height, concentration, dilation, α-cut and (α, ß)-cut of qROmPFS are defined. Additionally, grey relational analysis (GRA) and choice value method (CVM) are presented under qROmPFSs for multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) in robotic agri-farming. The proposed methods are suitable to find out an appropriate mode of farming among several kinds of agri-farming. The applications of proposed MCDM approaches are illustrated by respective numerical examples. To justify the feasibility, superiority and reliability of proposed techniques, the comparison analysis of the final ranking in the robotic agri-farming computed by the proposed techniques with some existing MCDM methods is also given.

3.
Chemosphere ; 273: 129690, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524757

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a primary contaminant in agricultural soils of the world. The ability of Cd uptake, transport, detoxification, and accumulation varies among different plant species and genotypes. Cd is translocated from soil to root by different transporters which are used for essential plant nutrient uptake. A number of strategies have been suggested for decreasing Cd toxicity in Cd contaminated soils. Recently, a lot of research have been carried out on minimizing Cd uptake through selenium (Se) and silicon (Si) applications. Both Se and Si have been reported to mitigate Cd toxicity in different crops. Vacuolar sequestration, formation of phytochelatins, and cell wall adsorption have been reported as effective mechanisms for Cd detoxification. The present review discussed past and current knowledge of literature to better understand Cd toxicity and its mitigation by adopting different feasible and practical approaches.

4.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(1(A)): 4-7, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484508

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to find out the moderating effect of neuropsychiatric symptoms in the relationship between positive-negative symptoms of schizophrenia with quality of life of schizophrenic patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Lahore and Sargodha, Pakistan. Data was collected by administering the Positive and Negative of Schizophrenia Questionnaire, Quality of Life of Schizophrenia Scale and Neuropsychiatry Inventory. SPSS-23 was used for data analysis. The study was completed in one year. The data was collected from September 4, 2017 to November 1, 2018 after 10am. RESULTS: The findings indicated that positive symptoms had significant positive correlation with negative symptoms (p < 0.001) and neuropsychiatric symptoms (p < 0.001) with significant negative correlation with schizophrenia quality of life (p < 0.001). Negative symptoms had significant positive correlation with neuropsychiatric symptoms (p < 0.001) and significant negative correlation with schizophrenia related quality of life (p <0.001). Neuropsychiatric symptoms had significant negative correlation with schizophrenia quality of life (p <0.001) in the study. Moreover, neuropsychiatric symptoms moderated between negative symptoms and schizophrenia related quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, findings suggested that negative symptoms and neuropsychiatric symptoms have positive association with quality of life of schizophrenic patients whereas positive symptoms have inverse relationship. The study also revealed that neuropsychiatric symptoms enhanced the effect of negative symptoms on quality of life of schizophrenic patients.

5.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 107, 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420837

RESUMO

Light in terms of photo- and scoto-periods is the key ambient factor affecting the physiology of birds through establishing normal biological clock and circadian rhythms. In natural incubation light significantly influences embryonic development, however, at commercial setups eggs are incubated under a dark environment. Presently not a single commercial poultry hatchery is using light during incubation; hence, comprehensive studies are needed to address the industry for considering light as a potential embryonic growth stimulant. In the present study, white Light-emitting diodes (LEDs; 5000 K) were installed in the incubator and 250 lx light intensity was provided for 0, 12, and 24 h per day during the whole incubation period. A total of 900 broiler hatching eggs (Hubbard classic; from 58 weeks old parents) were randomly allocated to 3 treatment groups, having 5 replicates of 60 eggs each, a tray was considered as replicate during incubation and these eggs were incubated under standard incubation protocols. After hatching, a total of 300 chicks were picked and divided into 3 described treatments (0, 12, and 24 h of photo-stimulation to eggs during incubation) having 5 replicates of 20 birds each. The results indicated that incubation of eggs under 12 and 24 h of lighting significantly improved (P ≤ 0.05) hatch window, hatchability % (0.0002), a hatch of fertile % (0.001), and carcass yield % (0.0454). Embryonic mortality, dead germs, and dead in shell embryos were lower in eggs incubated under 12 h light. Significantly better FCR (0.0006), stress susceptibilities such as H/L ratio (0.0227), and physical asymmetry (0.0065) were observed among the birds incubated under 12 h light (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, an appropriate light stimuli (12 h) may help to improve hatching traits and post-hatch performance of commercial broiler.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 768: 144467, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454464

RESUMO

Climate change is recognized as one of the greatest challenges of 21st century. This study investigated climate and hydrological regimes of the high-altitude Indus basin for the historical period and extreme scenarios of future climate during 21st century. Improved datasets of precipitation and temperature were developed and forced to a fully-distributed physically-based energy-balance Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model to simulate the water balance at regional and sub-basin scale. Relative to historical baseline, the results revealed highly contrasting signals of climate and hydrological regime changes. Against an increase of 0.6 °C during the last 40 years, the median annual air temperature is projected to increase further between 0.8 and 5.7 °C by the end of 21st century. Similarly, a decline of 11.9% in annual precipitation is recorded, but future projections are highly conflicting and spatially variable. The Karakoram region is anticipated to receive more precipitation, while SW-Hindukush and parts of W-Himalayan region may experience decline in precipitation. The Model for Interdisciplinary Research On Climate version-5 (MIROC5) generally shows increases, while Max Planck Institute Earth System Model at base resolution (MPI-ESM-LR) indicates decreases in precipitation and river inflows under three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) of 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5. Indus-Tarbela inflows are more likely to increase compared to Kabul, Jhelum and Chenab river inflows. Substantial increase in the magnitudes of peak flows and one-month earlier attainment is projected for all river gauges. High flows are anticipated to increase under most scenarios, while low flows may decrease for MPI-ESM-LR in Jhelum, Chenab and Kabul river basins. Hence, hydrological extremes are likely to be intensified. Critical modifications in the strategies and action plans for hydropower generation, construction and operation of storage reservoirs, irrigation withdrawals, flood control and drought management will be required to optimally manage water resources in the basin.

7.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 135: 111078, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433356

RESUMO

Medicinal plants are being used for therapeutic purposes since the dawn of human civilization. The therapeutic efficacy of medicinal plants is due to the presence of wide range phytochemical constituents or secondary metabolites. The medicinal plants are traditionally used for several types of ailments. Even in those pathological conditions where other methods of treatment fail to work. Curcuma longa Linn is very common ingredient used as spice in foods as preservative and coloring material in different part of the world. It has been used as a home remedy for a variety of diseases. Curcuma longa and its isolated constituent curcumin are widely evaluated for anticancer activity. Curcumin possesses broad remedial potential due to its multi-targeting effect against many different carcinoma including leukemia, genitourinary cancers, gastrointestinal cancers and breast cancer etc. Hence, Curcumin has potential for the development of new medicine for the treatment of several diseases.

8.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 200: 105926, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450503

RESUMO

MOTIVATIONS: Now-a-days in medical science, the transport study of biological fluids through non-uniform vessels are going to increase due to their close relation to the reality. Motivated through such type of complex transportation, the current study is presented of cilia hydro-dynamics of an aqueous electrolytic viscous fluid through a non-uniform channel under an applied axial electric field. Mathematical Formulations: Because of the complexity shape and nature of flow channel, we have used curvilinear coordinates in the derivation of continuity and momentum equationsin a fixed frame of reference. A linear transformation is used to renovate the flow system of equations from fixed (laboratory) to moving (wave) frame. For further simplification, the dimensionless variables are introduced to make the flow system of equations into the dimensionless form and at last convert these equations in term of stream function by using the mathematical terminologies of streamlines. The whole analysis is performed under (low Reynolds number) creeping phenomena and long wavelength approximation, respectively. Additionally, small ionic Peclet number and Debye-Huckel linearization are used to simplify the Nernst-Planck and Poisson-Boltzmann equations. The BVP4C technique is used to obtain the numerical solution for velocity distribution, pressure gradient, pressure rise and stream function through MATLAB. MAIN OUTCOMES: The amplitude of velocity distribution is increased (decreased) at larger values of non-uniform parameter (cilia length). The non-uniform parameter played a vital role not only in the enhancement of circulation at the upper half of the channel but also the length of bolus increased. Results of straight channel are gained for larger value of the dimensionless radius of curvature parameter as well as cilia length.

9.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0246085, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High blood pressure is an important public health concern and the leading risk factor for global mortality and morbidity. To assess the implications of this condition, we aimed to review the existing literature and study the factors that are significantly associated with hypertension in the Pakistani population. METHODS: We conducted several electronic searches in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Scopus, Elsevier, and manually searched the citations of published articles on hypertension from May 2019 to August 2019. We included all studies that examined factors associated with hypertension regardless of the study design. To assess the quality of the research, we used the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. We also conducted meta-analyses using the DerSimonian & Laird random-effects model to collate results from at least three studies. RESULTS: We included 30 cross-sectional and 7 case-control studies (99,391 participants country-wide) in this review and found 13 (35.1%) to be high-quality studies. We identified 5 socio-demographic, 3 lifestyle, 3 health-related, and 4 psychological variables that were significantly associated with hypertension. Adults aged between 30-60 years who were married, living in urban areas with high incomes, used tobacco, had a family history of hypertension, and had comorbidities (overweight, obesity, diabetes, anxiety, stress, and anger management issues) were positively associated with hypertension. On the other hand, individuals having high education levels, normal physical activity, and unrestricted salt in their diet were negatively associated with hypertension. CONCLUSION: We found several socio-demographic, lifestyle, health-related, and psychological factors that were significantly (positively and negatively) associated with hypertension. Our findings may help physicians and public health workers to identify high-risk groups and recommend appropriate prevention strategies. Further research is warranted to investigate these factors rigorously and collate global evidence on the same.

10.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 12(4): 603-612, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504150

RESUMO

NLRP3-PYD inflammasome activates an inflammatory pathway in response to a wide variety of cell damage or infections. Dysregulated NLRP3 inflammatory signaling has many chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. NLRP3 and ASC have a PYD, a superfamily member of the Death Domain, which plays a key role in inflammatory assembly. The ASC interacts with NLRP3 through a homotypic PYD and recruits the procaspase-1 through a homotypic caspase recruitment domain interaction. Here, we used several computational approaches to reveal the interactions of the NLRP3 and ASC PYD domains that lead to the activation of the inflammasome complex. We have characterized ASC and NLRP3-PYD intermolecular interactions by protein-protein docking, and further molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were conducted to evaluate the stability of NLRP3/ASC-PYD complex. Subsequently, we have identified several residues that stabilize the NLRP3/ASC-PYD complex in different faces (i.e., Face-1 to Face-4). The research framework offers new insights into the molecular mechanisms of inflammasome and apoptosis signaling as well as the ease of the drug discovery process.

11.
Cells ; 10(1)2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477657

RESUMO

Thoracic endometriosis (TE) is a rare type of endometriosis, where endometrial tissue is found in or around the lungs and is frequent among extra-pelvic endometriosis patients. Catamenial pneumothorax (CP) is the most common form of TE and is characterized by recurrent lung collapses around menstruation. In addition to histology, immunohistochemical evaluation of endometrial implants is used more frequently. In this review, we compared immunohistochemical (CPE) with histological (CPH) characterizations of TE/CP and reevaluated arguments in favor of the implantation theory of Sampson. A summary since the first immunohistochemical description in 1998 until 2019 is provided. The emphasis was on classification of endometrial implants into glands, stroma, and both together. The most remarkable finding is the very high percentage of stromal endometriosis of 52.7% (CPE) compared to 10.2% (CPH). Chest pain, dyspnea, right-sided preference, and diaphragmatic endometrial implants showed the highest percentages in both groups. No significant association was found between the recurrence rate and the various appearances of endometriosis. Sometimes in CPE (6.8%) and CPH (30.6%) no endometrial implants were identified underlining the importance of sensitive detection of endometriosis during and after surgery. We suggest that immunohistochemical evaluation should become mandatory and will improve diagnosis and classification of the disease.

12.
Semin Cancer Biol ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460766

RESUMO

Oral cancers occurring in different subsites can have distinct etiologies' and are a significant problem worldwide. In general, the incidence of oral cancers has declined over the last decade due to improvements in modifiable risk factors (tobacco and alcohol consumption). However, recent data suggest that the incidence of squamous cell carcinomas in the oral tongue and oropharynx are increasing. Human papilloma virus (HPV) is an important risk factor for oropharyngeal cancer and is associated with better treatment responses when compared with HPV-unrelated oropharyngeal cancer. Regardless of the subsite, there are no clinically available biomarkers for the early detection of these cancers and many are detected at an advanced stage and are associated with poor 5-year survival rates. Tumor tissue and serial needle biopsies are used to diagnose and prognosticate oral cancers but have important limitations. Besides being invasive and physically painful, these types of biopsies offer a limited view of a complex tumor due to inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity and a dynamic tumor microenvironment. Liquid biopsies offer a promising and alternative way to measure disease in real-time. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small particles that are secreted by all cells types and can be readily isolated from a wide range of biofluids. EVs are structurally stable and can horizontally transfer bioactive molecules to distant sites throughout the body in concentrated forms that exceed what can be delivered in a soluble format. As EVs represent their cell of origin, biofluid derived EVs are heterogeneous and are comprised of a complex repertoire of host- and cancer-derived particles. This review article has focused on studies that have used transcriptomics and proteomics to explore the function and clinical significance of EVs in oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers.

13.
J Hazard Mater ; 401: 123388, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653794

RESUMO

Boron (B) is indispensable for plant growth and has been reported in the mitigation of aluminum (Al) toxicity in different plants. This study focused on the efficacy of B in reducing Al toxicity to trifoliate orange seedlings in a hydroponic experiment. Boron supply had a positive effect on root length and plant growth-related parameters and attenuated Al-induced inhibition of plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in conjunction with scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS) revealed that B reduced Al accumulation in root cell wall, especially on pectin fractions (alkali-soluble pectin), accompanied by suppressing pectin synthesis, pectin methylesterase (PME) activity and PME expression. Furthermore, B application inhibited NRAT1 expression while increased ALS1 expression, indicating restraining Al transport from external cells to cytoplasm and accelerating accelerating vacuolar sequestration. The results were further demonstrated by transmission electron microscope-energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (TEM-EDS) analysis. Taken together, our results indicated that B mainly promoted the efflux of H+ by regulating the plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity, and reduced the demethylation of pectin to weaken Al binding to carboxyl. More importantly, B alleviated some of the toxic effects of Al by compartmentalizing Al into vacuoles and decreasing the deposition of Al in cytoplasm.

14.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(1): 30-42, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031488

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Clinical studies of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in COVID-19 disease reported conflicting results. We sought to systematically evaluate the effect of CQ and HCQ with or without azithromycin on outcomes of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We searched multiple databases, preprints and grey literature up to 17 July 2020. We pooled only adjusted-effect estimates of mortality using a random-effect model. We summarized the effect of CQ or HCQ on viral clearance, ICU admission/mechanical ventilation and hospitalization. RESULTS: Seven randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and 14 cohort studies were included (20 979 patients). Thirteen studies (1 RCT and 12 cohort studies) with 15 938 hospitalized patients examined the effect of HCQ on short-term mortality. The pooled adjusted OR was 1.05 (95% CI 0.96-1.15, I2 = 0%). Six cohort studies examined the effect of the HCQ+azithromycin combination with a pooled adjusted OR of 1.32 (95% CI 1.00-1.75, I2 = 68.1%). Two cohort studies and four RCTs found no effect of HCQ on viral clearance. One small RCT demonstrated improved viral clearance with CQ and HCQ. Three cohort studies found that HCQ had no significant effect on mechanical ventilation/ICU admission. Two RCTs found no effect for HCQ on hospitalization risk in outpatients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate certainty evidence suggests that HCQ, with or without azithromycin, lacks efficacy in reducing short-term mortality in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 or risk of hospitalization in outpatients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/efeitos adversos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128169, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297138

RESUMO

A hydroponic study was conducted to determine the effects of single and/or combined application of different doses (0, 5 and 10 µM L-1) of abscisic acid (ABA) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) on cobalt (Co) accumulation, morpho-physiological and antioxidative defense attributes of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) exposed to severe Co stress (400 µM L-1). The single Co treatment (T1), prominently decreased tomato growth, relative water contents, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b), whereas enhanced oxidative stress and Co accumulation in shoot and root tissues. Nonetheless, the supplementation of ABA and 6-BAP via nutrient media significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced plant biomass, root morphology and chlorophyll contents of tomato, compared to only Co treatment (T1). Moreover, the oxidative stress indicators such as malondialdehyde, proline and H2O2 contents were ameliorated through activation of enzymatic antioxidant activities i.e. ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase, in growth modulator treatments in comparison to T1. The Co uptake, translocation (TF) and bioaccumulation factor (BAF) by shoot and root tissues of tomato were significantly reduced under all the treatments than that of T1. The supply of 6-BAP alone or in combination with ABA at 10 µM L-1 application (T7) rate was found the most effective to reduce Co accumulation in the roots and shoots by 48.4% and 70.2% respectively than T1 treatment. It can be concluded that two plant growth modulators could improve the stress tolerance by inhibition of Co uptake in tomato plants.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Lycopersicon esculentum , Ácido Abscísico , Compostos de Benzil , Clorofila , Clorofila A , Cobalto/toxicidade , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Folhas de Planta , Purinas
16.
J Hazard Mater ; 402: 123919, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254825

RESUMO

The heavy metal pollution is a worldwide problem and has received a serious concern for the ecosystem and human health. In the last decade, remediation of the agricultural polluted soil has attracted great attention. Phytoremediation is one of the technologies that effectively alleviate heavy metal toxicity, however, this technique is limited to many factors contributing to low plant growth rate and nature of metal toxicities. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) assisted alleviation of heavy metal phytotoxicity is a cost-effective and environment-friendly strategy. AMF have a symbiotic relationship with the host plant. The bidirectional exchange of resources is a hallmark and also a functional necessity in mycorrhizal symbiosis. During the last few years, a significant progress in both physiological and molecular mechanisms regarding roles of AMF in the alleviation of heavy metals (HMs) toxicities in plants, acquisition of nutrients, and improving plant performance under toxic conditions of HMs has been well studied. This review summarized the current knowledge regarding AMF assisted remediation of heavy metals and some of the strategies used by mycorrhizal fungi to cope with stressful environments. Moreover, this review provides the information of both molecular and physiological responses of mycorrhizal plants as well as AMF to heavy metal stress which could be helpful for exploring new insight into the mechanisms of HMs remediation by utilizing AMF.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281032

RESUMO

Silicon (Si), a major contributing constituent for plant resistance against abiotic stresses. In spite of this, the detailed mechanisms underlying the potential of Si in mitigating salt toxicity in maize (Zea mays L.) are still poorly understood. The present study deals with the response of Si application on growth, gaseous exchange, ion homeostasis and antioxidant enzyme activities in two maize cultivars (P1574 and Hycorn 11) grown under saline conditions. Salt stress remarkably reduced the plant tissue (roots and shoots) biomass, relative water contents (RWC), membrane stability index (MSI), gaseous exchange characteristics, and antioxidant enzymatic activities i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT). However, salt-induced phytotoxicity increased the plant tissue concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), Na+/K+ ionic ratio, Na+ translocation (root to shoot), and its uptake. The detrimental effects were more prominent in Hycorn 11 cultivar than the P1574 cultivar at higher salinity level (S2; 160 mM NaCl). The addition of Si alleviated salt toxicity, which was more obvious in P1574 relative to Hycorn 11 as demonstrated by an increasing trend in RWC, MSI, and activities of SOD, POD, APX and CAT. Besides, Si-induced mitigation of salt stress was due to the depreciation in Na+/K+ ratio, Na+ ion uptake at the surface of maize roots, translocation in plant tissues and thereby significantly reduced Na+ ion accumulation. The findings showed a new dimension regarding the beneficial role of Si in maize plants grown under salt toxicity.

18.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(11): 1944-1947, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341836

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the concept of moderating effect of misanthropic beliefs in the relationship involving revenge tendencies, sadism and schadenfreude among clinical and non-clinical adults. Method: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Psychology, University of Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan, over a period of one year from 2017 to 2018, and comprised adults aged 22-65 years in both clinical and no-clinical settings enrolled from the University of Sargodha, Punjab Institute of Mental Health and the Fountain House. Data was collected using Vengeance, Misanthropic, Short Sadistic Impulse and Perceived Schadenfreude scales. Data was analysed using SPSS 23. RESULTS: Of the 500 subjects, 250 (50%) each were in the clinical and non-clinical groups. Misanthropic beliefs were found to moderate the relationship involving revenge attitude, sadism and schadenfreude in both groups (p<0,05). CONCLUSIONS: Misanthropic beliefs moderated the relationship involving revenge attitude, schadenfreude and sadism.

19.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(10): 1684-1687, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159733

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Firstly, the study aimed to determine the effect of paranoid ideation on the prediction of siege mentality among early adults. Secondly, the study examined the effect of paranoid thoughts on the prediction of siege mentality among early adults. Thirdly, the study assessed the moderating effect of paranoid thoughts in the relationship between paranoid ideation and siege mentality among early adults. METHODS: According to the criteria, the age ranged from 17 to 45 years which refers to early adults. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Sargodha, Pakistan, comprising of 300 participants. The present study was carried out from October 2017 to October 2018. Data was collected by administering General Siege Mentality Questionnaire, Green et al Thought Questionnaire and Paranoia Questionnaire. SPSS-20 (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) was used for data analysis. RESULTS: A total sample of 300 adults participated in the study. The correlation analysis confirmed that the paranoid ideation had positive correlation with siege mentality (p<0.01). Paranoid thoughts had positive correlation with siege mentality (p<0.01). Thus the paranoid ideation and paranoid thoughts are positive predictors of siege mentality. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, findings suggested that paranoid ideation contributed to later development of siege mentality among young adults.

20.
Neurochem Int ; 142: 104893, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159979

RESUMO

Vitamin D (Vt. D) is one of the vital hormone having multiple functions in various tissues, including brain. Several evidences reported that Vt. D plays a significant part in memory and cognition as its inadequate amount may accelerate cognitive impairment. This study shows for the first time the antioxidant potential of Vt. D against D-Galactose (D-gal) induced oxidative stress mediated Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology in male adult albino mice. The result reveals that the mice exposed to D-gal (120 mg/kg) for eight weeks have pre-and post-synaptic dysfunction and impaired memory investigated through Morris water maze and Y-maze tests. This is followed by the suppressed Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and elevated expressions of Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-kB), Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß) proteins in the brain homogenates evaluated through western blotting technique. On the other hand Vt. D (100 µg/kg) administration (three times a week for 4 weeks) activated Silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) and significantly improved both the neuronal synapse and memory, reduced oxidative stress by upregulating NRF-2 and HO-1 and downregulating NF-kB, TNF-α and IL-1ß proteins expression. Most importantly, Vt. D significantly abrogate the amyloidogenic pathway of amyloid beta (Aß) production against D-gal in the brains of adult male albino mice. These results reveal that Vt. D being an antioxidant agent plays a vital role in reducing the AD pathophysiology in D-gal induced animal model of aging, therefore act as a potential drug candidate in neurodegenerative diseases.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...