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1.
Cancer Discov ; 2021 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34949653

RESUMO

Mosaic mutations in normal tissues can occur early in embryogenesis and be associated with hereditary cancer syndromes when affecting cancer susceptibility genes (CSGs). Their contribution to apparently sporadic cancers is currently unknown. Analysis of paired tumor/blood sequencing data of 35,310 cancer patients revealed 36 pathogenic mosaic variants affecting CSGs, most of which were not detected by prior clinical genetic testing. These CSG mosaic variants were consistently detected at varying variant allelic fractions in microdissected normal tissues (n=48) from distinct embryonic lineages in all individuals tested, indicating their early embryonic origin, likely prior to gastrulation, and likely asymmetrical propagation. Tumor-specific biallelic inactivation of the CSG affected by a mosaic variant was observed in 91.7% (33/36) of cases and tumors displayed the hallmark pathologic and/or genomic features of inactivation of the respective CSGs, establishing a causal link between CSG mosaic variants arising in early embryogenesis and the development of apparently sporadic cancers.

2.
Nat Biotechnol ; 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725502

RESUMO

Only a fraction of patients with cancer respond to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) treatment, but current decision-making procedures have limited accuracy. In this study, we developed a machine learning model to predict ICB response by integrating genomic, molecular, demographic and clinical data from a comprehensively curated cohort (MSK-IMPACT) with 1,479 patients treated with ICB across 16 different cancer types. In a retrospective analysis, the model achieved high sensitivity and specificity in predicting clinical response to immunotherapy and predicted both overall survival and progression-free survival in the test data across different cancer types. Our model significantly outperformed predictions based on tumor mutational burden, which was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for this purpose1. Additionally, the model provides quantitative assessments of the model features that are most salient for the predictions. We anticipate that this approach will substantially improve clinical decision-making in immunotherapy and inform future interventions.

3.
J Surg Oncol ; 124(6): 945-951, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617275

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV)-mediated oncogenesis confers increased sensitivity to radiotherapy and HPV head and neck cancer is associated with improved patient outcomes. As such, management of HPV-related head and neck cancer requires a multidisciplinary approach that balances maximizing locoregional control with minimizing treatment-related toxicity. We highlight considerations in radiation dose and target delineation, as well as considerations for chemoradiation, postoperative radiotherapy, and single modality, definitive radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/virologia , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Humanos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/radioterapia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
4.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 7(1): 135, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635660

RESUMO

Pathogenic germline mutations in the RAD51 paralog genes RAD51C and RAD51D, are known to confer susceptibility to ovarian and triple-negative breast cancer. Here, we investigated whether germline loss-of-function variants affecting another RAD51 paralog gene, RAD51B, are also associated with breast and ovarian cancer. Among 3422 consecutively accrued breast and ovarian cancer patients consented to tumor/germline sequencing, the observed carrier frequency of loss-of-function germline RAD51B variants was significantly higher than control cases from the gnomAD population database (0.26% vs 0.09%), with an odds ratio of 2.69 (95% CI: 1.4-5.3). Furthermore, we demonstrate that tumors harboring biallelic RAD51B alteration are deficient in homologous recombination DNA repair deficiency (HRD), as evidenced by analysis of sequencing data and in vitro functional assays. Our findings suggest that RAD51B should be considered as an addition to clinical germline testing panels for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility.

5.
Head Neck ; 43(12): 3796-3809, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies and guidelines suggest an outcome detriment from radiation treatment breaks (rTBs) and the need for compensatory dosing in patients with head and neck cancer. METHODS: In a consecutive cohort of 521 patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), we investigated the impact of rTBs and prolongation of overall treatment time (OTT) on OS, DFS, LRC, and cancer recurrence using competing risk and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Neither OTT prolongation by ≤2 days nor rTBs of ≤3 days were associated with detriments to clinical outcomes. Consecutive breaks of ≥3 days were also not significantly associated with detriment to clinical outcomes. There was significantly increased competing mortality in those with longer breaks. CONCLUSIONS: In OPSCC patients treated with definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy, there is no significant association between disease failure and total rTBs of ≤3 consecutive or scattered days. Further investigation is needed for longer breaks.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/radioterapia , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/radioterapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
JCO Precis Oncol ; 52021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381934

RESUMO

Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations are prognostic in many cancers and have been observed in human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). However, the role of TERT promoter mutations in HPV-negative HNSCCs remains poorly understood in these cancers, which have increased risk for locoregional failure (LRF). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients who were diagnosed with HNSCC between July 1, 2004, and October 12, 2017, at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and whose tumors underwent next-generation sequencing using the MSK-IMPACT panel. Patients with HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were excluded. Cumulative incidence of LRF, patterns of failure, and overall survival were measured. RESULTS: We identified 117 patients with SCC of the oral cavity (OSCC), larynx, hypopharynx, or HPV-negative oropharynx whose tumors underwent next-generation sequencing. Sequencing was performed on 95 tumors that were obtained after recurrence and 22 that were obtained before recurrence. TERT promoter mutations were enriched in OSCC compared with laryngopharyngeal cancers (81.1% v 7.0%; P < .001), which was the largest genetic difference between these anatomic disease subsites. TERT promoter mutations were associated with LRF in OSCCs (Gray's test, P < .001) and in the overall cohort (Gray's test, P < .001). On multivariate analysis, TERT promoter mutations were associated with an increased risk for LRF (subdistribution hazard ratio, 2.82; 95% CI, 1.47 to 5.42; P = .0019), independent of oral cavity primary site and TP53 mutation status. CONCLUSION: TERT promoter status is associated with the cumulative incidence of LRF and patterns of failure. TERT promoter mutations may define a subset of OSCCs with unique pathogenesis that is associated with an increased risk of LRF. Validation in prospective cohorts is warranted.

7.
Cancer ; 127(22): 4161-4170, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of external-beam radiotherapy for locally advanced nonanaplastic thyroid cancer remains controversial. This prospective study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with or without concurrent chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced thyroid cancer. METHODS: The authors conducted a nonrandomized phase 2 trial of IMRT with or without concurrent doxorubicin in patients with gross residual or unresectable nonanaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01882816). The primary end point was 2-year locoregional progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included overall survival (OS), safety, patient-reported outcomes, and functional outcomes. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients were enrolled: 12 (44.4%) with unresectable disease and 15 (55.6%) with gross residual disease. The median follow-up was 45.6 months (interquartile range, 42.0-51.6 months); the 2-year cumulative incidences of locoregional PFS and OS were 79.7% and 77.3%, respectively. The rate of grade 3 or higher acute and late toxicities was 33.4%. There were no significant functional differences 12 months after treatment (assessed objectively by the modified barium swallow study). Patient-reported quality of life in the experimental group was initially lower but returned to the baseline after 6 months and improved thereafter. In a post hoc analysis, concurrent chemotherapy with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (CC-IMRT) resulted in significantly less locoregional failure at 2 years (no failure vs 50%; P = .001), with higher rates of grade 2 or higher acute dermatitis, mucositis, and dysphagia but no difference in long-term toxicity, functionality, or patient-reported quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: In light of the excellent locoregional control rates achieved with CC-IMRT and its acceptable toxicity profile as confirmed by functional assessments and patient-reported outcomes, CC-IMRT may be preferred over IMRT alone.

8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2113205, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143193

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) are primarily treated by radiotherapy with curative intent with or without chemotherapy and often experience substantial treatment-related toxic effects even with modern radiation techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) may improve the toxicity profile; however, there is a paucity of data given the limited availability of IMPT in regions with endemic NPC. Objective: To compare toxic effects and oncologic outcomes among patients with newly diagnosed nonmetastatic NPC when treated with IMPT vs IMRT with or without chemotherapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included 77 patients with newly diagnosed nonmetastatic NPC who received curative-intent radiotherapy with IMPT or IMRT at a tertiary academic cancer center from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2019. Forty-eight patients with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive tumors were included in a 1:1 propensity score-matched analysis for survival outcomes. The end of the follow-up period was March 31, 2021. Exposures: IMPT vs IMRT with or without chemotherapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were the incidence of acute and chronic treatment-related adverse events (AEs) and oncologic outcomes, including locoregional failure-free survival (LRFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: We identified 77 patients (25 [32.5%] women; 52 [67.5%] men; median [interquartile range] age, 48.7 [42.2-60.3] years), among whom 28 (36.4%) were treated with IMPT and 49 (63.6%) were treated with IMRT. Median (interquartile range) follow-up was 30.3 (17.9-41.5) months. On multivariable logistic regression analyses, IMPT was associated with lower likelihood of developing grade 2 or higher acute AEs compared with IMRT (odds ratio [OR], 0.15; 95% CI, 0.03-0.60; P = .01). Only 1 case (3.8%) of a chronic grade 3 or higher AE occurred in the IMPT group compared with 8 cases (16.3%) in the IMRT group (OR, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.01-1.21; P = .15). Propensity score matching generated a balanced cohort of 48 patients (24 IMPT vs 24 IMRT) and found similar PFS in the IMPT and IMRT groups (2-year PFS, 95.7% [95% CI, 87.7%-100%] vs 76.7% [95% CI, 60.7%-97.0%]; hazard ratio [HR], 0.31; 95% CI, 0.07-1.47; P = .14). No locoregional recurrence or death was observed in the IMPT group from the matched cohort. Two-year LRFS was 100% (95% CI, 100%-100%) in the IMPT group and 86.2% (95% CI, 72.8%-100%) in the IMRT group (P = .08). Three-year OS was 100% (95% CI, 100%-100%) in the IMPT group and 94.1% (95% CI, 83.6%-100%) in the IMRT group (P = .42). Smoking history was the only clinical factor significantly associated with both poor LRFS (HR, 63.37; 95% CI, 3.25-1236.13; P = .006) and poor PFS (HR, 6.33; 95% CI, 1.16-34.57; P = .03) on multivariable analyses. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, curative-intent radiotherapy with IMPT for nonmetastatic NPC was associated with significantly reduced acute toxicity burden in comparison with IMRT, with rare late complications and excellent oncologic outcomes, including 100% locoregional control at 2 years. Prospective trials are warranted to direct the optimal patient selection for IMPT as the primary radiotherapy modality for nonmetastatic NPC.

9.
J Med Imaging (Bellingham) ; 8(3): 031904, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954225

RESUMO

Purpose: The goal of this study is to develop innovative methods for identifying radiomic features that are reproducible over varying image acquisition settings. Approach: We propose a regularized partial correlation network to identify reliable and reproducible radiomic features. This approach was tested on two radiomic feature sets generated using two different reconstruction methods on computed tomography (CT) scans from a cohort of 47 lung cancer patients. The largest common network component between the two networks was tested on phantom data consisting of five cancer samples. To further investigate whether radiomic features found can identify phenotypes, we propose a k -means clustering algorithm coupled with the optimal mass transport theory. This approach following the regularized partial correlation network analysis was tested on CT scans from 77 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients in the Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA) and validated using an independent dataset. Results: A set of common radiomic features was found in relatively large network components between the resultant two partial correlation networks resulting from a cohort of lung cancer patients. The reliability and reproducibility of those radiomic features were further validated on phantom data using the Wasserstein distance. Further analysis using the network-based Wasserstein k -means algorithm on the TCIA HNSCC data showed that the resulting clusters separate tumor subsites as well as HPV status, and this was validated on an independent dataset. Conclusion: We showed that a network-based analysis enables identifying reproducible radiomic features and use of the selected set of features can enhance clustering results.

10.
Cancer Discov ; 11(8): 1896-1912, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990345

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection drives tumorigenesis in the majority of cervical, oropharyngeal, anal, and vulvar cancers. Genetic and epidemiologic evidence has highlighted the role of immunosuppression in the oncogenesis of HPV-related malignancies. Here we review how HPV modulates the immune microenvironment and subsequent therapeutic implications. We describe the landscape of immunotherapies for these cancers with a focus on findings from early-phase studies exploring antigen-specific treatments, and discuss future directions. Although responses across these studies have been modest to date, a deeper understanding of HPV-related tumor biology and immunology may prove instrumental for the development of more efficacious immunotherapeutic approaches. SIGNIFICANCE: HPV modulates the microenvironment to create a protumorigenic state of immune suppression and evasion. Our understanding of these mechanisms has led to the development of immunomodulatory treatments that have shown early clinical promise in patients with HPV-related malignancies. This review summarizes our current understanding of the interactions of HPV and its microenvironment and provides insight into the progress and challenges of developing immunotherapies for HPV-related malignancies.

11.
Cancer Discov ; 11(7): 1626-1635, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795234

RESUMO

Synthetic lethality (SL) provides a conceptual framework for tackling targets that are not classically "druggable," including loss-of-function mutations in tumor suppressor genes required for carcinogenesis. Recent technological advances have led to an inflection point in our understanding of genetic interaction networks and ability to identify a wide array of novel SL drug targets. Here, we review concepts and lessons emerging from first-generation trials aimed at testing SL drugs, discuss how the nature of the targeted lesion can influence therapeutic outcomes, and highlight the need to develop clinical biomarkers distinct from those based on the paradigms developed to target activated oncogenes. SIGNIFICANCE: SL offers an approach for the targeting of loss of function of tumor suppressor and DNA repair genes, as well as of amplification and/or overexpression of genes that cannot be targeted directly. A next generation of tumor-specific alterations targetable through SL has emerged from high-throughput CRISPR technology, heralding not only new opportunities for drug development, but also important challenges in the development of optimal predictive biomarkers.

12.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 7(1): 45, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893322

RESUMO

Inherited mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 cause a high risk of breast cancer. Here, we conducted parallel conditional knockout (CKO) of Brca1, Palb2, and Brca2, individually and in combination, along with one copy of Trp53, in the mammary gland of nulliparous female mice. We observed a functional equivalence of the three genes in their basic tumor-suppressive activity, a linear epistasis of Palb2 and Brca2, but complementary roles of Brca1 and Palb2 in mammary tumor suppression, as combined ablation of either Palb2 or Brca2 with Brca1 led to delayed tumor formation. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) revealed both similarities and differences between Brca1 and Palb2 or Brca2 null tumors. Analyses of mouse mammary glands and cultured human cells showed that combined loss of BRCA1 and PALB2 led to high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased apoptosis, implicating oxidative stress in the delayed tumor development in Brca1;Palb2 double CKO mice. The functional complementarity between BRCA1 and PALB2/BRCA2 and the role of ROS in tumorigenesis require further investigation.

13.
Nat Cancer ; 1(12): 1188-1203, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834176

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has improved outcomes for patients with advanced cancer, but the determinants of response remain poorly understood. Here we report differential effects of mutations in the homologous recombination genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 on response to ICB in mouse and human tumors, and further show that truncating mutations in BRCA2 are associated with superior response compared to those in BRCA1. Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 result in distinct mutational landscapes and differentially modulate the tumor-immune microenvironment, with gene expression programs related to both adaptive and innate immunity enriched in BRCA2-deficient tumors. Single-cell RNA sequencing further revealed distinct T cell, natural killer, macrophage, and dendritic cell populations enriched in BRCA2-deficient tumors. Taken together, our findings reveal the divergent effects of BRCA1 and BRCA2-deficiency on ICB outcome, and have significant implications for elucidating the genetic and microenvironmental determinants of response to immunotherapy.

14.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 7(1): 43, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863915

RESUMO

Metaplastic breast cancers (MBCs) are characterized by complex genomes, which seem to vary according to their histologic subtype. TERT promoter hotspot mutations and gene amplification are rare in common forms of breast cancer, but present in a subset of phyllodes tumors. Here, we sought to determine the frequency of genetic alterations affecting TERT in a cohort of 60 MBCs with distinct predominant metaplastic components (squamous, 23%; spindle, 27%; osseous, 8%; chondroid, 42%), and to compare the repertoire of genetic alterations of MBCs according to the presence of TERT promoter hotspot mutations or gene amplification. Forty-four MBCs were subjected to: whole-exome sequencing (WES; n = 27) or targeted sequencing of 341-468 cancer-related genes (n = 17); 16 MBCs were subjected to Sanger sequencing of the TERT promoter, TP53 and selected exons of PIK3CA, HRAS, and BRAF. TERT promoter hotspot mutations (n = 9) and TERT gene amplification (n = 1) were found in 10 of the 60 MBCs analyzed, respectively. These TERT alterations were less frequently found in MBCs with predominant chondroid differentiation than in other MBC subtypes (p = 0.01, Fisher's exact test) and were mutually exclusive with TP53 mutations (p < 0.001, CoMEt). In addition, a comparative analysis of the MBCs subjected to WES or targeted cancer gene sequencing (n = 44) revealed that MBCs harboring TERT promoter hotspot mutations or gene amplification (n = 6) more frequently harbored PIK3CA than TERT wild-type MBCs (n = 38; p = 0.001; Fisher's exact test). In conclusion, TERT somatic genetic alterations are found in a subset of TP53 wild-type MBCs with squamous/spindle differentiation, highlighting the genetic diversity of these cancers.

15.
Gynecol Oncol ; 161(2): 545-552, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674143

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine if the mutational landscapes and genomic features of homologous recombination DNA repair defects (HRD) vary between younger and older patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). METHODS: Younger and older women were defined as bottom and top age quartiles, respectively. HGSOCs from 15 younger (median 49 years, range 35-53) and 15 older women (median 72 years, range 70-87) were subjected to whole-exome sequencing (WES). For validation, HGSOC WES data were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), including 38 younger (median 45 years, range 34-50) and 30 older women (median 74 years, range 68-84). Mutational profiles, BRCA1/2 status, genomic HRD features, and for TCGA cases RNA-sequencing-based HRD transcriptomic signatures were assessed. RESULTS: In the institutional cohort, pathogenic germline BRCA1/2 mutations were more frequent in younger (5/15) than older women (0/15, p = 0.042). No somatic BRCA1/2 mutations were identified. HGSOCs from older patients preferentially displayed aging-related mutational signatures and, in contrast to younger patients, harbored CCNE1 amplifications (3/15, 20%). In the TCGA cohort, pathogenic germline BRCA1 (younger 8/38, older 0/30, p = 0.007) but not BRCA2 mutations (young 3/38, older 4/30, p = 0.691) were more frequent in younger patients. Again, no somatic BRCA1/2 mutations were identified. HGSOCs from younger women more frequently displayed genomic features of HRD (all, p < 0.05), a significant HRD gene-signature enrichment, but less frequently CCNE1 amplification (p = 0.05). Immunoreactive CLOVAR subtypes were more common in HGSOCs from younger women, and proliferative subtypes in HGSOCs from older women (p = 0.041). CONCLUSIONS: HGSOC patients diagnosed at an older age less frequently harbor pathogenic BRCA1 germline mutations and genomic features of HRD than younger women. Individualized treatment options, particularly pertaining to use of PARP inhibitors, in older women may be warranted.


Assuntos
Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 729, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526794

RESUMO

Treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) has demonstrated clinical benefit for a wide range of cancer types. Because only a subset of patients experience clinical benefit, there is a strong need for biomarkers that are easily accessible across diverse practice settings. Here, in a retrospective cohort study of 1714 patients with 16 different cancer types treated with ICI, we show that higher neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is significantly associated with poorer overall and progression-free survival, and lower rates of response and clinical benefit, after ICI therapy across multiple cancer types. Combining NLR with tumor mutational burden (TMB), the probability of benefit from ICI is significantly higher (OR = 3.22; 95% CI, 2.26-4.58; P < 0.001) in the NLR low/TMB high group compared to the NLR high/TMB low group. NLR is a suitable candidate for a cost-effective and widely accessible biomarker, and can be combined with TMB for additional predictive capacity.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos/imunologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Idoso , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Head Neck ; 43(4): 1056-1062, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT) has dosimetric advantages compared to photon radiation therapy for the treatment of major salivary gland tumors (MSGTs). METHODS: Patients with non-metastatic MSGTs treated at a single proton therapy center from October 2013 to October 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients with MSGTs were included and the most common site and histology were the parotid gland (75.0%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (22.1%), respectively. The 3-year rates of locoregional control, progression-free survival, and overall survival were 95.1% (95% CI: 89.9%-100.0%), 80.7% (70.2%-92.7%), and 96.1% (95% CI: 90.9%-100.0%), respectively. CONCLUSION: In a large cohort of MSGTs treated with PBRT, the rates of locoregional control were high in short-term follow-up and treatment was well tolerated.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Adenoide Cístico , Terapia com Prótons , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares , Carcinoma Adenoide Cístico/radioterapia , Humanos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/radioterapia
18.
Int J Cancer ; 149(1): 139-148, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586179

RESUMO

High-dose (HD) cisplatin remains the standard of care with chemoradiation for locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). Cooperative group trials mandate bolus-HD (100 mg/m2 × 1 day, every 3 weeks) cisplatin administration at the beginning of the week to optimize radiosensitization-a requirement which may be unnecessary. This analysis evaluates the impact of chemotherapy administration day of week (DOW) on outcomes. We also report our institutional experience with an alternate dosing schedule, split-HD (50 mg/m2 × 2 days, every 3 weeks). We retrospectively reviewed 435 definitive chemoradiation OPC patients from 10 December 2001 to 23 December 2014. Those receiving non-HD cisplatin regimens or induction chemotherapy were excluded. Data collected included DOW, dosing schedule (bolus-HD vs split-HD), smoking, total cumulative dose (TCD), stage, Karnofsky Performance Status, human papillomavirus status and creatinine (baseline, peak and posttreatment baseline). Local failure (LF), regional failure (RF), locoregional failure (LRF), distant metastasis (DM), any failure (AF, either LRF or DM) and overall survival (OS) were calculated from radiation therapy start. Median follow-up was 8.0 years (1.8 months-17.0 years). DOW, dosing schedule and TCD were not associated with any outcomes in univariable or multivariable regression models. There was no statistically significant difference in creatinine or association with TCD in split-HD vs bolus-HD. There was no statistically significant association between DOW and outcomes, suggesting that cisplatin could be administered any day. Split-HD had no observed differences in outcomes, renal toxicity or TCD compared to bolus-HD cisplatin. Our data suggest that there is some flexibility of when and how to give HD cisplatin compared to clinical trial mandates.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia/mortalidade , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Hospitais com Alto Volume de Atendimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
Nat Genet ; 53(1): 11-15, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398197

RESUMO

In multiple cancer types, high tumor mutational burden (TMB) is associated with longer survival after treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). The association of TMB with survival outside of the immunotherapy context is poorly understood. We analyzed 10,233 patients (80% non-ICI-treated, 20% ICI-treated) with 17 cancer types before/without ICI treatment or after ICI treatment. In non-ICI-treated patients, higher TMB (higher percentile within cancer type) was not associated with better prognosis; in fact, in many cancer types, higher TMB was associated with poorer survival, in contrast to ICI-treated patients in whom higher TMB was associated with longer survival.


Assuntos
Mutação/genética , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/genética , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 113(6): 742-751, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal cancers have excellent outcomes but experience clinically significant toxicities when treated with standard chemoradiotherapy (70 Gy). We hypothesized that functional imaging could identify patients who could be safely deescalated to 30 Gy of radiotherapy. METHODS: In 19 patients, pre- and intratreatment dynamic fluorine-18-labeled fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography (PET) was used to assess tumor hypoxia. Patients without hypoxia at baseline or intratreatment received 30 Gy; patients with persistent hypoxia received 70 Gy. Neck dissection was performed at 4 months in deescalated patients to assess pathologic response. Magnetic resonance imaging (weekly), circulating plasma cell-free DNA, RNA-sequencing, and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) were performed to identify potential molecular determinants of response. Samples from an independent prospective study were obtained to reproduce molecular findings. All statistical tests were 2-sided. RESULTS: Fifteen of 19 patients had no hypoxia on baseline PET or resolution on intratreatment PET and were deescalated to 30 Gy. Of these 15 patients, 11 had a pathologic complete response. Two-year locoregional control and overall survival were 94.4% (95% confidence interval = 84.4% to 100%) and 94.7% (95% confidence interval = 85.2% to 100%), respectively. No acute grade 3 radiation-related toxicities were observed. Microenvironmental features on serial imaging correlated better with pathologic response than tumor burden metrics or circulating plasma cell-free DNA. A WGS-based DNA repair defect was associated with response (P = .02) and was reproduced in an independent cohort (P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Deescalation of radiotherapy to 30 Gy on the basis of intratreatment hypoxia imaging was feasible, safe, and associated with minimal toxicity. A DNA repair defect identified by WGS was predictive of response. Intratherapy personalization of chemoradiotherapy may facilitate marked deescalation of radiotherapy.

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