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1.
Med J Islam Repub Iran ; 34: 72, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306053

RESUMO

Background: Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is one of the most commonly diagnosed gastrointestinal disorders, and its etiology is believed to be multifactorial. The role of smoking in the pathophysiology of IBS still remains inconclusive. Hence, we aim to investigate whether or not an association exists between smoking and IBS. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital of Karachi. A sample size of 200 smokers and 200 non smokers was selected. A two-part self-reported questionnaire was administered to the participants and the diagnosis of IBS was based on the Rome III diagnostic criteria. All data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17. Statistical tests employed were Independent samples t-test, chi-square test, and binary logistic regression analysis to obtain Odds Ratio (OR) for various variables. A P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Overall prevalence of IBS based on Rome III criteria was 9.5% (95% CI 9.45-9.60). Smoking was significantly found to be associated with IBS (P=0.002). Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that non-smokers were more likely to have IBS (Crude OR: 3.00, 95% CI 1.23-7.30) than smokers, and females were more likely to have IBS (Crude OR: 3.73, 95% CI 1.56-7.69) than males. Age, BMI, and food groups were not found to be significantly associated with IBS. Conclusion: Our study concludes that IBS was more prevalent among non-smokers and amongst females. Further studies are required to firmly establish the role of smoking in IBS.

2.
Cureus ; 12(8): e9894, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968560

RESUMO

Background Menstruation is a natural physiological phenomenon, yet considered a stigmatized subject, particularly in low- and middle-income countries like Pakistan. It is seldom discussed openly, leading to flow of incorrect and incomplete knowledge. The resultant unhealthy practices not only affect the health of the menstruator but can also contribute to considerable psychosocial stress. Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) is an important facet, which is associated with a variety of practices and beliefs in different parts of the world, some of which may not be correct. Identifying these poor methods is necessary in order to rectify them. Hence, our study aimed at determining the level of knowledge, beliefs, and practices pertaining to menstruation in the general female populace of Karachi. Healthcare workers have a potential role in the dissemination of authentic knowledge and practices. Therefore, we assessed and compared the accuracy and reliability of the aforementioned parameters in them and the need for an educational intervention. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted on females visiting the Gynecologic and Obstetrics Outpatient Department (OPD), and healthcare workers employed at Dr. Ruth K. M. Pfau Civil Hospital Karachi and Dow University Hospital Ojha. Using non-probability convenience sampling, a self-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 353 respondents over a duration of three months from October 2019 to January 2020. Data was tabulated in Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, US). In accordance with the objectives of the study, descriptive analysis was performed, and data was presented in the form of frequencies and percentages.  Results Of the 353 participants, 176 were from the general population and 177 were healthcare workers. At menarche, only 28.4% of the general population and 29.4% of healthcare workers had an idea of menses and proper placement of absorbent. Significantly lower number of females from the general population were found to be aware of tampons and menstrual cups (15.9% and 11.4% respectively) as compared to healthcare workers. For both groups, the source of knowledge was mostly their mother. The study showed that 77.8% of the general population and 66.1% of healthcare workers avoided bathing on certain days during menses, with the most common reason being that "it causes irregular flow". As compared to healthcare workers, a significantly higher number of women from the general population had restrictions of activity (53.4%) and avoided washing of groin area during menstruation (31.2%). Majority of women from the general population mentioned that they were scared when they menstruated for the first time. The most common absorbent used by respondents was pads, followed by cloth. The data showed 64.2% of females from the general population and 28.8% of healthcare workers abstained from eating certain foods. Seeking treatment for gynecological issues was not widespread among respondents. Conclusion Our study demonstrated insufficient menstrual knowledge, and consequent incorrect practices in the female population of Karachi. Destigmatizing menstruation and educating women and young girls is indispensable to overcoming this gap. At the same time, reinforcing the availability of MHM products is long overdue and is a crucial milestone towards facilitation of MHM for the women of Pakistan.

3.
Cureus ; 12(5): e7923, 2020 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499970

RESUMO

Background The outbreak of Coronavirus (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, which began in December 2019, evolved to become a global pandemic. The pandemic, along with the obvious health-related impact, also poses a serious threat to the psychological well-being of individuals and has resulted in significant behavioral changes. We aimed to describe the psycho-behavioral response to this crisis among the population of Karachi, Pakistan, in the month of March 2020. Methods A structured, self-administered questionnaire was constructed, based on previously conducted surveys, assessing the psychological impact and behavioral changes pertaining to COVID-19. Questionnaires were made available online, and were administered to any individual who was a resident of Karachi, during March 2020. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY) to identify possible risk factors for psychological and behavioral changes. The responses were compared based on gender, age, and level of education, to find possible statistical correlations using chi-square test. Results This research studied data from 400 participants residing in Karachi, Pakistan. The spread of the virus had resulted in subsequent development of fears in the target population, with the majority of the respondents feeling anxious on a daily basis (62.5%). The participants feared going to marketplaces (88.8%), were concerned for the health of their family members (94.5%), and felt under-confident with the current infection control measures (71%). Significantly elevated levels of fear were noted among people >35 years of age. They were more likely to fear for the safety of their health even at home (p=0.06). Meanwhile, increased levels of anxiety due to use of social media among people below 35 years had resulted in avoidance behaviors (p=0.04). There was a higher tendency for graduates to fear for the safety of their health, even at home (p<0.01). In addition, more than three-fourths of our participants had incorporated changes in their behavior to ensure their safety i.e. reduced physical contact (86.5%) and visits to healthcare facilities (74.5%), canceled plans (84.5%), and washing hands more often (87%). Conclusion  Our study highlighted the increased anxiety levels that an individual experienced on a regular basis regarding their health, the health of their peers, certain avoidance behaviors as a result of the disease, and behavioral changes of the concerned population. Besides calling attention to this worrisome situation, we also tried to list possible solutions to avert any future distress that may ensue as a result. Hopefully, our study will help the concerned authorities to take measures in order to alleviate the psychological and behavioral impact of COVID-19.

4.
Cureus ; 12(3): e7183, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269867

RESUMO

Background Cervical carcinoma is a widespread disease of the female genital tract, for which human papillomavirus (HPV) is an utmost risk factor. Of the total global burden, the majority is endured by the developing nations of the world, mainly due to inadequate knowledge regarding the disease and ineffective measures taken for its prevention, early detection, and screening. Hence, our study aimed to determine the level of knowledge, general attitudes and perception, and prevention practices related to HPV-based cervical cancer and its socioeconomic correlates among women in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted by approaching 450 females in the out-patient department (OPD) of a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan from June 2019 to November 2019. The modified Kuppuswamy socioeconomic scale 2018 was deployed to assess the socioeconomic status of participants, while the knowledge score of the participants was determined based on the original Bloom's cut off point. The analysis was conducted using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). Descriptive statistics were used to present the knowledge, attitude, and practice level of respondents. The respondents' knowledge, attitude, and practice scores were compared across socioeconomic and demographic variables using the chi-square test. Results Of the 388 females interviewed, 199 (51.3%) were aware of the term cervical cancer, and 68 (34.2%) knew about Pap smear as a screening test; only 80 (40.2%) women were familiar with HPV vaccination as prophylaxis against cervical cancer. The practice of screening and prevention was found to be remarkably low (2.1% and 1.8% respectively). Socioeconomic status and education level had a significant association with knowledge of cervical cancer. Although around 64% of participants had poor knowledge, 308 (79.4%) demonstrated a favorable attitude as they were willing to know more about screening and preventive practices regarding cervical carcinoma. Conclusion The majority of the participants had insufficient overall knowledge about cervical cancer, HPV, Pap smear test, and HPV vaccination, highlighting the need for mass education through health professionals and media. In addition, the government authorities should provide screening services and vaccination against HPV free of cost to promote early detection of lesions and prophylaxis against this deadly disease.

5.
Cureus ; 12(1): e6674, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32104615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Burn related injuries (BRIs) are relatively common, mostly accidental, and highly preventable forms of injury. First aid management of BRIs can have a significant impact on the outcome and morbidity of these injuries, yet there seems to be an inadequacy in the knowledge related to burn management worldwide. Hence, our study aimed to delineate the level of knowledge and awareness of burn first aid treatment (BFAT) amongst undergraduate students, and the impact training courses had on that knowledge. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted by employing undergraduate medical and non-medical students from various universities of Karachi, Pakistan. By means of convenience sampling, 400 students were sent online, structured questionnaires. The analysis was conducted using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 23.0, IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, US), and associations calculated through t-tests. A mean knowledge score was calculated to assess the participant's adequacy of knowledge regarding BFAT. RESULTS: Medical students had a better knowledge score than their non-medical counterparts (5.8 ± 1.6 versus 3.6 ± 1.5, P < 0.01), however, overall knowledge of BFAT remained inadequate amongst participants. Students who received formal training scored a higher mean knowledge score than the majority of students with no training (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The majority of students had insufficient overall knowledge about BFAT, highlighting the need for integrating this topic into the curriculum. In addition, education of the masses via multimedia and conducting formal training courses, are both imperative in raising awareness and reducing the occurrence of BRIs.

6.
Cureus ; 12(12): e12324, 2020 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33520522

RESUMO

Background Pacifier use has been popular for ages. They are prevalent all over the world because of their various perceived benefits. On the other hand, there is a common belief that they do carry health risks as well. Due to these contradicting belief systems, the frequency of their use, and the factors that determine them, need to be thoroughly evaluated. Since Pakistan is a developing country with a low literacy rate, it can be implied that a vast majority of the country's population may lack awareness regarding the advantages and disadvantages of pacifier use, making them incapable of weighing associated risks versus benefits. The data evaluating these factors in this region are however scarce in the published literature. We, therefore, aimed to highlight the frequency and predictors of pacifier use in the low socioeconomic group of Karachi, Pakistan. Materials and methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 300 mothers visiting a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. We included mothers who had at least one child under the age of two years, and whose child did not have any oro-nasal anomaly that could prevent them from sucking a pacifier. Data were collected using pre-tested questionnaires and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 23.0, IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, US). Frequencies were calculated and presented in the form of tables. The chi-square test was used to determine the significance of all categorical variables. A P-value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results Almost half of our respondents (49%) gave pacifiers to their children. A significant number (59%) of these mothers were uneducated. Almost all (97%) of the users had annual household income less than 15,000 Pakistani rupees (PKR); 34% were primiparous and more than two-thirds (71%) had a normal vaginal delivery. Out of all the factors, maternal age less than 20, annual household income less than 15,000 PKR, and primiparity were significantly associated with pacifier use in mothers (P<0.05). Only a half of the users (51%) cleaned the pacifiers by boiling; one-fourth (25%) washed it with water only; while 18% washed it with soap and water. The majority (84%) of the mothers used the pacifier to soothe the baby when upset. Among mothers who did not use a pacifier, about a third (30%) did not do so as they believed it's a bad practice. About one-fourth (27%) believed it was unhygienic. Conclusions Our study highlights the gap in the awareness of mothers regarding pacifier use. Using this data, we can target to disseminate specific information to this population to integrate safe and healthy child care habits in society.

7.
Med J Islam Repub Iran ; 34: 132, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33437728

RESUMO

Background: The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has created chaos across the globe. Health care workers having close contact with infected individuals play a decisive role in infection control. This study assessed the level of knowledge, attitude, practice (KAP) and perceived stress among health care workers of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: A cross sectional study was performed between March 11, 2020 and March 25, 2020 among health care workers of Karachi, Pakistan. Data were collected through an online, self-administered questionnaire. The level of KAP was categorized using modified Bloom's cut off point. Chi-square test, independent sample t test, and one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the data with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0. Results: A total of 304 health care workers responded to the survey. The most popular source of information was found to be TV/radio/newspaper. Although 54.3%, 75%, and 58.9% respondents had good knowledge, good attitude, and good practice, respectively, more than 40% of respondents did not use gloves during patient interaction. Most of participants rated their level of knowledge as moderate and were inclined towards the need for more training. Around 80% of participants had either moderate stress or severe perceived stress. Conclusion: Our study revealed a relatively good level of KAP among respondents, but there is a need for further training programs. This study yielded high stress levels among respondents, with personal and family safety being the main concerns. The government should, therefore, take proper measures to alleviate the stress levels to provide a strong frontline force.

8.
Cureus ; 11(8): e5517, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Pakistan, thousands are reported dead due to organ failure annually, owing to the huge discrepancy between the number of people waiting for organ donation and the number of organs available. It is imperative that the young generation, the future donor force, comprehends the concept and importance of organ donation. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding organ donation amongst the youth of Pakistan, and to delineate the factors that motivate or demotivate the new generation for organ donation so our future campaigns may be more successful.  Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on undergraduate medical and non-medical students from various universities of Karachi, Pakistan. Using convenience sampling, 450 students were sent online, structured, 11-item questionnaires. The analysis was conducted using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 23.0, IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, US), and associations calculated through chi-square tests. A knowledge score was calculated to reflect a participant's familiarity with organ donation.  Results: 88.7% of students were familiar with organ donation; however, only 34.6% were willing to donate, and 0.6% had donated an organ. Belonging to a medical university and female gender were associated with higher knowledge scores. 'To save lives' (51.7%) was cited by most students as a factor that would motivate them to donate an organ, while 'Religion' (27.6%) was chosen as the most popular factor that demotivates them. CONCLUSION: Majority of the students had insufficient overall knowledge about organ donation, highlighting the need for inculcating this topic in the curriculum. The differences in knowledge between medical and non-medical students were inconsistent with their practices, indicating that future campaigns should focus on eliminating barriers to organ donation to facilitate an accepting attitude and increased practices with respect to this topic.

9.
Indian Heart J ; 70(4): 492-496, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170642

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Statins are widely used drugs, known to cause myalgia, leading to high discontinuation rates. The objective of our study was to determine the frequency of myalgia in patients on everyday-dose (EDD) regimen with those on alternate-day dose (ADD) regimen. METHODS: This cross sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital of Pakistan. A sample size of 400 patients between the age of 40-70 years, taking simvastatin 40mg for at least 6 months or more were selected. Patients with prior musculoskeletal or neuromuscular complains, and family history of muscular disorders were excluded. Subjects were evaluated for myalgia via a self-administered questionnaire, and those complaining of myalgia were then evaluated for serum vitamin D levels. Data was analyzed through SPSS 16.0 and compared using chi square test. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of myalgia was 7% (28/400). Frequency of myalgia in patients taking simvastatin everyday (n=20, 10%) was significantly higher compared to those taking it every alternate day (n=8, 4%) (p=0.02). There was no significant difference between the time of onset, nature, severity, type, or location of myalgia between the 2 groups. The most common cited triggering factor for pain was physical exercise. Of the patients experiencing myalgia, 13 (6.5%) from the EDD group and 6 (3%) from the ADD group had low levels of vitamin D. CONCLUSIONS: ADD regime was better tolerated by the patients than EDD regime. Alternate day therapy, with or without vitamin D supplementation, may be used by the physicians for troublesome muscular complains.


Assuntos
Mialgia/tratamento farmacológico , Sinvastatina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mialgia/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Cureus ; 10(1): e2111, 2018 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29581923

RESUMO

Lahore, the second-largest and most polluted city in Pakistan, has been plagued by a heavy blanket of smog recently. The ever-growing urbanization and industrialization have contributed to the worsening air quality of the city. Smog, being hazardous to health, is leading to a rapid sprout in multiple health-related problems, as well as raising concerns about the long-term deleterious effects on public health. The current situation is expected to worsen due to the lack of an active action plan from the government's side and a failure of concerned authorities to take note of the urgency of the situation. Hence, we aim to highlight this pressing issue in the light of previously published articles, to alert the relevant authorities regarding the detrimental consequences smog can have on public health and urge them to take immediate action to avoid further damage.

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