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1.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 12(7): e002338, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple loci associated with stroke. However, the specific stroke subtypes affected, and whether loci influence both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, remains unknown. For loci associated with stroke, we aimed to infer the combination of stroke subtypes likely to be affected, and in doing so assess the extent to which such loci have homogeneous effects across stroke subtypes. METHODS: We performed Bayesian multinomial regression in 16 664 stroke cases and 32 792 controls of European ancestry to determine the most likely combination of stroke subtypes affected for loci with published genome-wide stroke associations, using model selection. Cases were subtyped under 2 commonly used stroke classification systems, TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 Acute Stroke Treatment) and causative classification of stroke. All individuals had genotypes imputed to the Haplotype Reference Consortium 1.1 Panel. RESULTS: Sixteen loci were considered for analysis. Seven loci influenced both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, 3 of which influenced ischemic and hemorrhagic subtypes under both TOAST and causative classification of stroke. Under causative classification of stroke, 4 loci influenced both small vessel stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage. An EDNRA locus demonstrated opposing effects on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. No loci were predicted to influence all stroke subtypes in the same direction, and only one locus (12q24) was predicted to influence all ischemic stroke subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: Heterogeneity in the influence of stroke-associated loci on stroke subtypes is pervasive, reflecting differing causal pathways. However, overlap exists between hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, which may reflect shared pathobiology predisposing to small vessel arteriopathy. Stroke is a complex, heterogeneous disorder requiring tailored analytic strategies to decipher genetic mechanisms.

2.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(7): 1196, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168101

RESUMO

Several occurrences of the word 'schizophrenia' have been re-worded as 'liability to schizophrenia' or 'schizophrenia risk', including in the title, which should have been "GWAS of lifetime cannabis use reveals new risk loci, genetic overlap with psychiatric traits, and a causal effect of schizophrenia liability," as well as in Supplementary Figures 1-10 and Supplementary Tables 7-10, to more accurately reflect the findings of the work.

3.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 29(6): 795-802, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085060

RESUMO

Emotional lability is strongly associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), represents a major source of impairment and predicts poor clinical outcome in ADHD. Given that no specific genes with a role in the co-occurrence of both conditions have been described, we conducted a GWAS of emotional lability in 563 adults with ADHD. Despite not reaching genome-wide significance, the results highlighted genes related with neurotransmission, cognitive function and a wide range of psychiatric disorders that have emotional lability as common clinical feature. By constructing polygenic risk scores on mood instability in the UK Biobank sample and assessing their association with emotional lability in our clinical dataset, we found suggestive evidence of common genetic variation contributing to emotional lability in general population and in clinically diagnosed ADHD. Although not conclusive, these tentative results are in agreement with previous studies that suggest emotion dysregulation as a transdiagnostic construct and highlight the need for further investigation to disentangle the genetic basis of mood instability in ADHD and co-occurring psychiatric disorders.

4.
Neuropharmacology ; 156: 107557, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849401

RESUMO

Adhesion G protein-coupled receptor L3 (ADGRL3, LPHN3) has putative roles in neuronal migration and synapse function. Various polymorphisms in ADGRL3 have been linked with an increased risk of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we examined the characteristics of Adgrl3-deficient mice in multiple behavioural domains related to ADHD: locomotive activity, impulsivity, gait, visuospatial and recognition memory, sociability, anxiety-like behaviour and aggression. Additionally, we investigated the effect of Adgrl3-depletion at the transcriptomic level by RNA-sequencing three ADHD-relevant brain regions: prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus and striatum. Adgrl3-/- mice show increased locomotive activity across all tests and subtle gait abnormalities. These mice also show impairments across spatial memory and learning domains, alongside increased levels of impulsivity and sociability with decreased aggression. However, these alterations were absent in Adgrl3+/- mice. Across all brain regions tested, the numbers of genes found to exhibit differential expression was relatively small, indicating a specific pathway of action, rather than a broad neurobiological perturbation. Gene-set analysis of differential expression in the PFC detected a number of ADHD-relevant pathways including dopaminergic synapses as well as cocaine and amphetamine addiction. The Slc6a3 gene coding for the dopamine transporter was the most dysregulated gene in the PFC. Unexpectedly, several neurohormone/peptides which are typically only expressed in the hypothamalus were found to be dysregulated in the striatum. Our study further validates Adgrl3 constitutive knockout mice as an experimental model of ADHD while providing neuroanatomical targets for future studies involving ADGRL3 modified models. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Current status of the neurobiology of aggression and impulsivity'.

5.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610198

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a severely impairing neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 5% in children and adolescents and of 2.5% in adults. Comorbid conditions in ADHD play a key role in symptom progression, disorder course and outcome. ADHD is associated with a significantly increased risk for substance use, abuse and dependence. ADHD and cannabis use are partly determined by genetic factors; the heritability of ADHD is estimated at 70-80% and of cannabis use initiation at 40-48%. In this study, we used summary statistics from the largest available meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of ADHD (n = 53,293) and lifetime cannabis use (n = 32,330) to gain insights into the genetic overlap and causal relationship of these two traits. We estimated their genetic correlation to be r2 = 0.29 (P = 1.63 × 10-5) and identified four new genome-wide significant loci in a cross-trait analysis: two in a single variant association analysis (rs145108385, P = 3.30 × 10-8 and rs4259397, P = 4.52 × 10-8) and two in a gene-based association analysis (WDPCP, P = 9.67 × 10-7 and ZNF251, P = 1.62 × 10-6). Using a two-sample Mendelian randomization approach we found support that ADHD is causal for lifetime cannabis use, with an odds ratio of 7.9 for cannabis use in individuals with ADHD in comparison to individuals without ADHD (95% CI (3.72, 15.51), P = 5.88 × 10-5). These results substantiate the temporal relationship between ADHD and future cannabis use and reinforce the need to consider substance misuse in the context of ADHD in clinical interventions.

6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 42, 2019 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696812

RESUMO

Genetic factors are strongly implicated in the susceptibility to develop externalizing syndromes such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and substance use disorder (SUD). Variants in the ADGRL3 (LPHN3) gene predispose to ADHD and predict ADHD severity, disruptive behaviors comorbidity, long-term outcome, and response to treatment. In this study, we investigated whether variants within ADGRL3 are associated with SUD, a disorder that is frequently co-morbid with ADHD. Using family-based, case-control, and longitudinal samples from disparate regions of the world (n = 2698), recruited either for clinical, genetic epidemiological or pharmacogenomic studies of ADHD, we assembled recursive-partitioning frameworks (classification tree analyses) with clinical, demographic, and ADGRL3 genetic information to predict SUD susceptibility. Our results indicate that SUD can be efficiently and robustly predicted in ADHD participants. The genetic models used remained highly efficient in predicting SUD in a large sample of individuals with severe SUD from a psychiatric institution that were not ascertained on the basis of ADHD diagnosis, thus identifying ADGRL3 as a risk gene for SUD. Recursive-partitioning analyses revealed that rs4860437 was the predominant predictive variant. This new methodological approach offers novel insights into higher order predictive interactions and offers a unique opportunity for translational application in the clinical assessment of patients at high risk for SUD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Receptores de Peptídeos/genética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 44(5): 890-897, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568281

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders in childhood and persists into adulthood in 40-65% of cases. Given the polygenic and heterogeneous architecture of the disorder and the limited overlap between genetic studies, there is a growing interest in epigenetic mechanisms, such as microRNAs, that modulate gene expression and may contribute to the phenotype. We attempted to clarify the role of microRNAs in ADHD at a molecular level through the first genome-wide integrative study of microRNA and mRNA profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of medication-naive individuals with ADHD and healthy controls. We identified 79 microRNAs showing aberrant expression levels in 56 ADHD cases and 69 controls, with three of them, miR-26b-5p, miR-185-5p, and miR-191-5p, being highly predictive for diagnostic status in an independent dataset of 44 ADHD cases and 46 controls. Investigation of downstream microRNA-mediated mechanisms underlying the disorder, which was focused on differentially expressed, experimentally validated target genes of the three highly predictive microRNAs, provided evidence for aberrant myo-inositol signaling in ADHD and indicated an enrichment of genes involved in neurological disease and psychological disorders. Our comprehensive study design reveals novel microRNA-mRNA expression profiles aberrant in ADHD, provides novel insights into microRNA-mediated mechanisms contributing to the disorder, and highlights promising candidate peripheral biomarkers.

8.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 28(10): 1059-1088, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30195575

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly heritable and the most common neurodevelopmental disorder in childhood. In recent decades, it has been appreciated that in a substantial number of cases the disorder does not remit in puberty, but persists into adulthood. Both in childhood and adulthood, ADHD is characterised by substantial comorbidity including substance use, depression, anxiety, and accidents. However, course and symptoms of the disorder and the comorbidities may fluctuate and change over time, and even age of onset in childhood has recently been questioned. Available evidence to date is poor and largely inconsistent with regard to the predictors of persistence versus remittance. Likewise, the development of comorbid disorders cannot be foreseen early on, hampering preventive measures. These facts call for a lifespan perspective on ADHD from childhood to old age. In this selective review, we summarise current knowledge of the long-term course of ADHD, with an emphasis on clinical symptom and cognitive trajectories, treatment effects over the lifespan, and the development of comorbidities. Also, we summarise current knowledge and important unresolved issues on biological factors underlying different ADHD trajectories. We conclude that a severe lack of knowledge on lifespan aspects in ADHD still exists for nearly every aspect reviewed. We encourage large-scale research efforts to overcome those knowledge gaps through appropriately granular longitudinal studies.

9.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30116028

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex genetic background, hampering identification of underlying genetic risk factors. We hypothesized that combining linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing (WES) in multi-generation pedigrees with multiple affected individuals can point toward novel ADHD genes. Three families with multiple ADHD-affected members (Ntotal = 70) and apparent dominant inheritance pattern were included in this study. Genotyping was performed in 37 family members, and WES was additionally carried out in 10 of those. Linkage analysis was performed using multi-point analysis in Superlink Online SNP 1.1. From prioritized linkage regions with a LOD score ≥ 2, a total of 24 genes harboring rare variants were selected. Those genes were taken forward and were jointly analyzed in gene-set analyses of exome-chip data using the MAGMA software in an independent sample of patients with persistent ADHD and healthy controls (N = 9365). The gene-set including all 24 genes together, and particularly the gene-set from one of the three families (12 genes), were significantly associated with persistent ADHD in this sample. Among the latter, gene-wide analysis for the AAED1 gene reached significance. A rare variant (rs151326868) within AAED1 segregated with ADHD in one of the families. The analytic strategy followed here is an effective approach for identifying novel ADHD risk genes. Additionally, this study suggests that both rare and more frequent variants in multiple genes act together in contributing to ADHD risk, even in individual multi-case families.

10.
Nat Neurosci ; 21(9): 1161-1170, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30150663

RESUMO

Cannabis use is a heritable trait that has been associated with adverse mental health outcomes. In the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) for lifetime cannabis use to date (N = 184,765), we identified eight genome-wide significant independent single nucleotide polymorphisms in six regions. All measured genetic variants combined explained 11% of the variance. Gene-based tests revealed 35 significant genes in 16 regions, and S-PrediXcan analyses showed that 21 genes had different expression levels for cannabis users versus nonusers. The strongest finding across the different analyses was CADM2, which has been associated with substance use and risk-taking. Significant genetic correlations were found with 14 of 25 tested substance use and mental health-related traits, including smoking, alcohol use, schizophrenia and risk-taking. Mendelian randomization analysis showed evidence for a causal positive influence of schizophrenia risk on cannabis use. Overall, our study provides new insights into the etiology of cannabis use and its relation with mental health.

11.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 187: 358-362, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29715653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substance dependence is a chronic and relapsing disorder explained by genetic and environmental risk factors. The aim of our study is to replicate previous genome-wide significant (GWS) hits identified in substance dependence in general or in cocaine dependence in particular using an independent sample from Spain. METHODS: We evaluated, in a Spanish sample of 1711 subjects with substance dependence (1011 of them cocaine dependent) and 1719 control individuals, three SNPs identified as GWS in previous studies: rs1868152 and rs2952621 (located near LINC02052 and LINC01854, respectively), associated with substance dependence, and rs2629540 (in the first intron of FAM53B), associated with cocaine dependence. RESULTS: We replicated the association between rs2952621 and substance dependence under the dominant model (P = 0.020), with the risk allele (T) being the same in our sample and in those two reported previously. We then performed a meta-analysis of the two samples used in the original study that reported the association of rs2952621 with substance dependence (Collaborative Studies on Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) and Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment (SAGE)) together with our Spanish sample. The meta-analysis of 3747 cases and 4043 controls confirmed the association (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.15-1.39). CONCLUSIONS: The rs2952621 variant, located downstream from the yet uncharacterized gene LINC01854, is associated with substance dependence in our Spanish sample. Further research is needed to understand its contribution to the susceptibility to substance dependence.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Espanha
12.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(supl.1): S109-S114, mar. 2018. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-171900

RESUMO

Introducción. El trastorno por déficit de atención/hiperactividad (TDAH) presenta una etiología compleja, atribuida principalmente a múltiples genes de susceptibilidad y factores ambientales. No obstante, los estudios genéticos de asociación han sido inconsistentes, identificando variantes genéticas de efecto moderado que explican una pequeña proporción de la heredabilidad estimada del trastorno (< 10%). Recientes estudios sugieren que la microbiota intestinal y la dieta desempeñan un papel importante en el desarrollo y los síntomas de diferentes trastornos mentales. Sin embargo, en la actualidad no existe una claridad absoluta al respecto. El presente proyecto propone un abordaje alternativo para identificar mecanismos a través de los cuales el ecosistema microbiano intestinal y la dieta podrían contribuir a la presencia del TDAH. Objetivo. Identificar biomarcadores para el TDAH a través del estudio de la microbiota intestinal. Sujetos y métodos. Estudio transversal de pacientes adultos con TDAH (n = 100) y de individuos control (n = 100). En ambos grupos se tomarán medidas de evaluación de TDAH y hábitos alimentarios. Se obtendrán muestras fecales para la extracción del ADN bacteriano, que permitirán caracterizar la microbiota intestinal de los participantes, para posteriormente realizar un estudio de asociación metagenómico e intentar correlacionar la composición bacteriana intestinal con subtipos clínicos del trastorno. Resultados y conclusiones. Se espera que la comparación de los perfiles de microbiota intestinal entre sujetos con TDAH y controles ayude a explicar la heterogeneidad clínica del trastorno e identificar nuevos mecanismos implicados en su desarrollo (AU)


Introduction. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has a complex aetiology, mainly attributed to a number of susceptibility genes and environmental factors. Genetic association studies, however, have been inconsistent and have identified genetic variants with a moderate effect that explain a small proportion of the estimated inheritability of the disorder (< 10%). Recent studies suggest that the gut microbiota and diet play an important role in the development and symptoms of different mental disorders. Nevertheless, no clear evidence exists on the issue. This project proposes an alternative approach to identify mechanisms by which the intestinal microbial ecosystem and diet could contribute to the presence of ADHD. Aim. To identify biomarkers for ADHD by examining the gut microbiota. Subjects and methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study of adult patients with ADHD (n = 100) and control subjects (n = 100). Measures of ADHD evaluation and eating habits were performed in both groups. Samples of faecal material were obtained from which to extract bacterial DNA, then used to characterise the participants’ gut microbiota. A metagenomics association study was later performed to attempt to correlate the bacterial composition of the intestine with the clinical subtypes of the disorder. Results and conclusions. Comparing the gut microbiota profiles of subjects with ADHD and controls is expected to help account for the clinical heterogeneity of the disorder and identify new mechanisms involved in its development (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Biomarcadores/análise , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Transversais
13.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 1881, 2018 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29382897

RESUMO

Methylphenidate (MPH) is the most frequently used pharmacological treatment in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, a considerable interindividual variability exists in clinical outcome. Thus, we performed a genome-wide association study of MPH efficacy in 173 ADHD paediatric patients. Although no variant reached genome-wide significance, the set of genes containing single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) nominally associated with MPH response (P < 0.05) was significantly enriched for candidates previously studied in ADHD or treatment outcome. We prioritised the nominally significant SNPs by functional annotation and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis in human brain, and we identified 33 SNPs tagging cis-eQTL in 32 different loci (referred to as eSNPs and eGenes, respectively). Pathway enrichment analyses revealed an over-representation of genes involved in nervous system development and function among the eGenes. Categories related to neurological diseases, psychological disorders and behaviour were also significantly enriched. We subsequently meta-analysed the association with clinical outcome for the 33 eSNPs across the discovery sample and an independent cohort of 189 ADHD adult patients (target sample) and we detected 15 suggestive signals. Following this comprehensive strategy, our results provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms implicated in MPH treatment effects and suggest promising candidates that may encourage future studies.

14.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 10110, 2017 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28860459

RESUMO

Genetic factors involved in the susceptibility to drug addiction still remain largely unknown. MiRNAs seem to play key roles in the drug-induced plasticity of the brain that likely drives the emergence of addiction. In this work we explored the role of miRNAs in drug addiction. With this aim, we selected 62 SNPs located in the 3'UTR of target genes that are predicted to alter the binding of miRNA molecules and performed a case-control association study in a Spanish sample of 735 cases (mainly cocaine-dependent subjects with multiple drug dependencies) and 739 controls. We found an association between rs1047383 in the PLCB1 gene and drug dependence that was replicated in an independent sample (663 cases and 667 controls). Then we selected 9 miRNAs predicted to bind the rs1047383 region, but none of them showed any effect on PLCB1 expression. We also assessed two miRNAs binding a region that contains a SNP in linkage disequilibrium with rs1047383, but although one of them, hsa-miR-582, was found to downregulate PLCB1, no differences were observed between alleles. Finally, we explored the possibility that PLCB1 expression is altered by cocaine and we observed a significant upregulation of the gene in the nucleus accumbens of cocaine abusers and in human dopaminergic-like neurons after cocaine treatment. Our results, together with previous studies, suggest that PLCB1 participates in the susceptibility to drug dependence.

15.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 5407, 2017 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28710364

RESUMO

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood-onset neurodevelopmental condition characterized by pervasive impairment of attention, hyperactivity, and/or impulsivity that can persist into adulthood. The aetiology of ADHD is complex and multifactorial and, despite the wealth of evidence for its high heritability, genetic studies have provided modest evidence for the involvement of specific genes and have failed to identify consistent and replicable results. Due to the lack of robust findings, we performed gene-wide and pathway enrichment analyses using pre-existing GWAS data from 607 persistent ADHD subjects and 584 controls, produced by our group. Subsequently, expression profiles of genes surpassing a follow-up threshold of P-value < 1e-03 in the gene-wide analyses were tested in peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs) of 45 medication-naive adults with ADHD and 39 healthy unrelated controls. We found preliminary evidence for genetic association between RNF122 and ADHD and for its overexpression in adults with ADHD. RNF122 encodes for an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in the proteasome-mediated processing, trafficking, and degradation of proteins that acts as an essential mediator of the substrate specificity of ubiquitin ligation. Thus, our findings support previous data that place the ubiquitin-proteasome system as a promising candidate for its involvement in the aetiology of ADHD.

16.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 58(7): 798-809, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28224622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder with profound cognitive, behavioral, and psychosocial impairments with persistence across the life cycle. Our initial genome-wide screening approach for copy number variants (CNVs) in ADHD implicated a duplication of SLC2A3, encoding glucose transporter-3 (GLUT3). GLUT3 plays a critical role in cerebral glucose metabolism, providing energy for the activity of neurons, which, in turn, moderates the excitatory-inhibitory balance impacting both brain development and activity-dependent neural plasticity. We therefore aimed to provide additional genetic and functional evidence for GLUT3 dysfunction in ADHD. METHODS: Case-control association analyses of SLC2A3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and CNVs were conducted in several European cohorts of patients with childhood and adult ADHD (SNP, n = 1,886 vs. 1,988; CNV, n = 1,692 vs. 1,721). These studies were complemented by SLC2A3 expression analyses in peripheral cells, functional EEG recordings during neurocognitive tasks, and ratings of food energy content. RESULTS: Meta-analysis of all cohorts detected an association of SNP rs12842 with ADHD. While CNV analysis detected a population-specific enrichment of SLC2A3 duplications only in German ADHD patients, the CNV + rs12842 haplotype influenced ADHD risk in both the German and Spanish cohorts. Duplication carriers displayed elevated SLC2A3 mRNA expression in peripheral blood cells and altered event-related potentials reflecting deficits in working memory and cognitive response control, both endophenotypic traits of ADHD, and an underestimation of energy units of high-caloric food. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results indicate that both common and rare SLC2A3 variation impacting regulation of neuronal glucose utilization and energy homeostasis may result in neurocognitive deficits known to contribute to ADHD risk.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 3/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Duplicação Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Alemanha , Humanos , Noruega , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
17.
Autism Res ; 10(2): 202-211, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27417655

RESUMO

Common variants contribute significantly to the genetics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), although the identification of individual risk polymorphisms remains still elusive due to their small effect sizes and limited sample sizes available for association studies. During the last decade several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have enabled the detection of a few plausible risk variants. The three main studies are family-based and pointed at SEMA5A (rs10513025), MACROD2 (rs4141463) and MSNP1 (rs4307059). In our study we attempted to replicate these GWAS hits using a case-control association study in five European populations of ASD patients and gender-matched controls, all Caucasians. Results showed no association of individual variants with ASD in any of the population groups considered or in the combined European sample. We performed a meta-analysis study across five European populations for rs10513025 (1,904 ASD cases and 2,674 controls), seven European populations for rs4141463 (2,855 ASD cases and 36,177 controls) and five European populations for rs4307059 (2,347 ASD cases and 2,764 controls). The results showed an odds ratio (OR) of 1.05 (95% CI = 0.84-1.32) for rs10513025, 1.0002 (95% CI = 0.93-1.08) for rs4141463 and 1.01 (95% CI = 0.92-1.1) for rs4307059, with no significant P-values (rs10513025, P = 0.73; rs4141463, P = 0.95; rs4307059, P = 0.9). No association was found when we considered either only high functioning autism (HFA), genders separately or only multiplex families. Ongoing GWAS projects with larger ASD cohorts will contribute to clarify the role of common variation in the disorder and will likely identify risk variants of modest effect not detected previously. Autism Res 2017, 10: 202-211. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Sci Rep ; 6: 31033, 2016 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27498889

RESUMO

Cocaine dependence is a complex psychiatric disorder involving both genetic and environmental factors. Several neurotransmitter systems mediate cocaine's effects, dependence and relapse, being the components of the neurotransmitter release machinery good candidates for the disorder. Previously, we identified a risk haplotype for cocaine dependence in the NSF gene, encoding the protein N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor essential for synaptic vesicle turnover. Here we examined the possible contribution to cocaine dependence of a large copy number variant (CNV) that encompasses part of the NSF gene. We performed a case-control association study in a discovery sample (359 cases and 356 controls) and identified an association between cocaine dependence and the CNV (P = 0.013), that was confirmed in the replication sample (508 cases and 569 controls, P = 7.1e-03) and in a pooled analysis (P = 1.8e-04), with an over-representation of low number of copies in cases. Subsequently, we studied the functional impact of the CNV on gene expression and found that the levels of two NSF transcripts were significantly increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) along with the number of copies of the CNV. These results, together with a previous study from our group, support the role of NSF in the susceptibility to cocaine dependence.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/genética , Proteínas Sensíveis a N-Etilmaleimida/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 171(5): 733-47, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27021288

RESUMO

Aggressiveness is a behavioral trait that has the potential to be harmful to individuals and society. With an estimated heritability of about 40%, genetics is important in its development. We performed an exploratory genome-wide association (GWA) analysis of childhood aggressiveness in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to gain insight into the underlying biological processes associated with this trait. Our primary sample consisted of 1,060 adult ADHD patients (aADHD). To further explore the genetic architecture of childhood aggressiveness, we performed enrichment analyses of suggestive genome-wide associations observed in aADHD among GWA signals of dimensions of oppositionality (defiant/vindictive and irritable dimensions) in childhood ADHD (cADHD). No single polymorphism reached genome-wide significance (P < 5.00E-08). The strongest signal in aADHD was observed at rs10826548, within a long noncoding RNA gene (beta = -1.66, standard error (SE) = 0.34, P = 1.07E-06), closely followed by rs35974940 in the neurotrimin gene (beta = 3.23, SE = 0.67, P = 1.26E-06). The top GWA SNPs observed in aADHD showed significant enrichment of signals from both the defiant/vindictive dimension (Fisher's P-value = 2.28E-06) and the irritable dimension in cADHD (Fisher's P-value = 0.0061). In sum, our results identify a number of biologically interesting markers possibly underlying childhood aggressiveness and provide targets for further genetic exploration of aggressiveness across psychiatric disorders. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Agressão/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
20.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 168(6): 480-491, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26174753

RESUMO

We performed a case-control association study in persistent ADHD considering eight candidate genes (DRD4, DAT1/SLC6A3, COMT, ADRA2A, CES1, CYP2D6, LPHN3, and OPRM1) and found additional evidence for the involvement of the Dup 120bp and VNTR 48bp functional variants within the dopamine receptor DRD4 gene in the etiology of adult ADHD. We subsequently investigated the interaction of stressful life events with these two DRD4 polymorphisms, and the impact of such events on the severity of ADHD symptomatology. The gene-by-environment analysis revealed an independent effect of stressful experiences on the severity of persistent ADHD, and a gene-by-environment interaction on the inattentive dimension of the disorder, where non carriers of the Dup 120bp (L) - VNTR 48bp (7R) haplotype were more sensitive to environmental adversity than carriers. These results are in agreement with previous works reporting a relationship between DRD4 and the effect of adverse experiences, which may explain the discordant findings in previous genetic studies and strengthen the importance of gene-by-environment interactions on the severity of ADHD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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