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1.
Cancer Res ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383647

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer and has limited treatment options. Snail family transcriptional repressor 1 (SNAI1) is a master regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and has been implicated in HCC initiation and progression. However, the precise role of SNAI1 and the way it contributes to hepatocarcinogenesis have not been investigated in depth, especially in vivo. Here, we analyzed the functional relevance of SNAI1 in promoting hepatocarcinogenesis in the context of the AKT/c-Met driven mouse liver tumor model (AKT/c-Met/SNAI1). Overexpression of SNAI1 did not accelerate AKT/c-Met-induced HCC development or induce metastasis in mice. Elevated SNAI1 expression rather led to the formation of cholangiocellular (CCA) lesions in the mouse liver, a phenotype that was paralleled by increased activation of Yap and Notch. Ablation of Yap strongly inhibited AKT/c-Met/SNAI-induced HCC and CCA development, whereas inhibition of the Notch pathway specifically blocked the CCA-like phenotype in mice. Intriguingly, overexpression of SNAI1 failed to induce EMT, indicated by strong E-cadherin expression and lack of vimentin expression by AKT/c-Met/SNAI tumor cells. SNAI1 mRNA levels strongly correlated with the expression of CCA markers including SOX9, CK19 and EPCAM, but not with EMT markers such as E-cadherin and ZO-1, in human HCC samples. Overall, our findings suggest SNAI1 regulates the CCA-like phenotype in hepatocarcinogenesis via regulation of Yap and Notch.

2.
J Hepatol ; 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The ubiquitin ligase F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7 (FBXW7) is recognized as a tumor suppressor in many cancer types due to its ability to promote the degradation of numerous oncogenic target proteins. Herein, we aimed to elucidate its role in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA). METHODS: Herein, we first confirmed that FBXW7 gene expression was reduced in human iCCA specimens. To identify the molecular mechanisms by which FBXW7 dysfunction promotes cholangiocarcinogenesis, we generated a mouse model by hydrodynamic tail vein injection of Fbxw7ΔF, a dominant negative form of Fbxw7, either alone or in association with an activated/myristylated form of AKT (myr-AKT). We then confirmed the role of c-MYC in human iCCA cell lines and its relationship to FBXW7 expression in human iCCA specimens. RESULTS: FBXW7 mRNA expression is almost ubiquitously downregulated in human iCCA specimens. While forced overexpression of Fbxw7ΔF alone did not induce any appreciable abnormality in the mouse liver, co-expression with AKT triggered cholangiocarcinogenesis and mice had to be euthanized by 15 weeks post-injection. At the molecular level, a strong induction of Fbxw7 canonical targets, including Yap, Notch2, and c-Myc oncoproteins, was detected. However, only c-MYC was consistently confirmed as a FBXW7 target in human CCA cell lines. Most importantly, selected ablation of c-Myc completely impaired iCCA formation in AKT/Fbxw7ΔF mice, whereas deletion of either Yap or Notch2 only delayed tumorigenesis in the same model. In human iCCA specimens, an inverse correlation between the expression levels of FBXW7 and c-MYC transcriptional activity was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Downregulation of FBXW7 is ubiquitous in human iCCA and cooperates with AKT to induce cholangiocarcinogenesis in mice via c-Myc-dependent mechanisms. Targeting c-MYC might represent an innovative therapy against iCCA exhibiting low FBXW7 expression. LAY SUMMARY: There is mounting evidence that FBXW7 functions as a tumor suppressor in many cancer types, including intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, through its ability to promote the degradation of numerous oncoproteins. Herein, we have shown that the low expression of FBXW7 is ubiquitous in human cholangiocarcinoma specimens. This low expression is correlated with increased c-MYC activity, leading to tumorigenesis. Our findings suggest that targeting c-MYC might be an effective treatment for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

3.
Hepatology ; 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062368

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a deadly form of liver cancer with limited treatment options. The c-Myc transcription factor is a pivotal player in hepatocarcinogenesis, but the mechanisms underlying c-Myc oncogenic activity in the liver remain poorly delineated. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) has been implicated in cancer by regulating multiple AGC kinases, especially AKT proteins. In the liver, AKT1 and AKT2 are widely expressed. While AKT2 is the major isoform downstream of activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase and loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog-induced HCC, the precise function of AKT1 in hepatocarcinogenesis is largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that mTORC2 is activated in c-Myc-driven mouse HCC, leading to phosphorylation/activation of Akt1 but not Akt2. Ablation of Rictor inhibited c-Myc-induced HCC formation in vivo. Mechanistically, we discovered that loss of Akt1, but not Akt2, completely prevented c-Myc HCC formation in mice. Silencing of Rictor or Akt1 in c-Myc HCC cell lines inhibited phosphorylated forkhead box o1 expression and strongly suppressed cell growth in vitro. In human HCC samples, c-MYC activation is strongly correlated with phosphorylated AKT1 expression. Higher expression of RICTOR and AKT1, but not AKT2, is associated with poor survival of patients with HCC. In c-Myc mice, while rapamycin, an mTORC1 inhibitor, had limited efficacy at preventing c-Myc-driven HCC progression, the dual mTORC1 and mTORC2 inhibitor MLN0128 effectively promoted tumor regression by inducing apoptosis and necrosis. Conclusion: Our study indicates the functional contribution of mTORC2/Akt1 along c-Myc-induced hepatocarcinogenesis, with AKT1 and AKT2 having distinct roles in HCC development and progression; targeting both mTORC1 and mTORC2 may be required for effective treatment of human HCC displaying c-Myc amplification or overexpression.

4.
Gut ; 2019 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954949

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Increased de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis and cholesterol biosynthesis have been independently described in many tumour types, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). DESIGN: We investigated the functional contribution of fatty acid synthase (Fasn)-mediated de novo FA synthesis in a murine HCC model induced by loss of Pten and overexpression of c-Met (sgPten/c-Met) using liver-specific Fasn knockout mice. Expression arrays and lipidomic analysis were performed to characterise the global gene expression and lipid profiles, respectively, of sgPten/c-Met HCC from wild-type and Fasn knockout mice. Human HCC cell lines were used for in vitro studies. RESULTS: Ablation of Fasn significantly delayed sgPten/c-Met-driven hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. However, eventually, HCC emerged in Fasn knockout mice. Comparative genomic and lipidomic analyses revealed the upregulation of genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis, as well as decreased triglyceride levels and increased cholesterol esters, in HCC from these mice. Mechanistically, loss of Fasn promoted nuclear localisation and activation of sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (Srebp2), which triggered cholesterogenesis. Blocking cholesterol synthesis via the dominant negative form of Srebp2 (dnSrebp2) completely prevented sgPten/c-Met-driven hepatocarcinogenesis in Fasn knockout mice. Similarly, silencing of FASN resulted in increased SREBP2 activation and hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase (HMGCR) expression in human HCC cell lines. Concomitant inhibition of FASN-mediated FA synthesis and HMGCR-driven cholesterol production was highly detrimental for HCC cell growth in culture. CONCLUSION: Our study uncovers a novel functional crosstalk between aberrant lipogenesis and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways in hepatocarcinogenesis, whose concomitant inhibition might represent a therapeutic option for HCC.

5.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 343, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. The PI3K cascade is one of the major signaling pathways underlying HCC development and progression. Activating mutations of PI3K catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) and/or loss of Pten often occur in human HCCs. Serum and glucocorticoid kinase 3 (SGK3) belongs to the SGK family of AGK kinases and functions in parallel to AKT downstream of PI3K. Previous studies have shown that SGK3 may be the major kinase responsible for the oncogenic potential of PIK3CA helical domain mutants, such as PIK3CA(E545K), but not kinase domain mutants, such as PIK3CA(H1047R). METHODS: We investigated the functional contribution of SGK3 in mediating activated PIK3CA mutant or loss of Pten induced HCC development using Sgk3 knockout mice. RESULTS: We found that ablation of Sgk3 does not affect PIK3CA(H1047R) or PIK3CA(E545K) induced lipogenesis in the liver. Using PIK3CA(H1047R)/c-Met, PIK3CA(E545K)/c-Met, and sgPten/c-Met murine HCC models, we also demonstrated that deletion of Sgk3 moderately delays PIK3CA(E545K)/c-Met driven HCC, while not affecting PIK3CA(H1047R)/c-Met or sgPten/c-Met HCC formation in mice. Similarly, in human HCC cell lines, silencing of SGK3 reduced PIK3CA(E545K) -but not PIK3CA(H1047R)- induced accelerated tumor cell proliferation. CONCLUSION: Altogether, our data suggest that SGK3 plays a role in transducing helical domain mutant PIK3CA signaling during liver tumor development.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Idoso , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Cell Metab ; 29(5): 1135-1150.e6, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30713111

RESUMO

Based on their lobule location, hepatocytes display differential gene expression, including pericentral hepatocytes that surround the central vein, which are marked by Wnt-ß-catenin signaling. Activating ß-catenin mutations occur in a variety of liver tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but no specific therapies are available to treat these tumor subsets. Here, we identify a positive relationship between ß-catenin activation, its transcriptional target glutamine synthetase (GS), and p-mTOR-S2448, an indicator of mTORC1 activation. In normal livers of mice and humans, pericentral hepatocytes were simultaneously GS and p-mTOR-S2448 positive, as were ß-catenin-mutated liver tumors. Genetic disruption of ß-catenin signaling or GS prevented p-mTOR-S2448 expression, while its forced expression in ß-catenin-deficient livers led to ectopic p-mTOR-S2448 expression. Further, we found notable therapeutic benefit of mTORC1 inhibition in mutant-ß-catenin-driven HCC through suppression of cell proliferation and survival. Thus, mTORC1 inhibitors could be highly relevant in the treatment of liver tumors that are ß-catenin mutated and GS positive.

7.
Am J Pathol ; 189(5): 1077-1090, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794805

RESUMO

Hepatoblastoma (HB) is the most common type of pediatric liver cancer. Activation of yes-associated protein (YAP) has been implicated in HB molecular pathogenesis. The transcriptional co-activator Yap regulates downstream gene expression through interaction with the TEA domain (TEAD) proteins. Nonetheless, YAP also displays functions that are independent of its transcriptional activity. The underlying molecular mechanisms by which Yap promotes HB development remain elusive. In the current study, we demonstrated that blocking TEAD function via the dominant-negative form of TEAD2 abolishes Yap-driven HB formation in mice and restrains human HB growth in vitro. When TEAD2 DNA-binding domain was fused with virus protein 16 transcriptional activation domain, it synergized with activated ß-catenin to promote HB formation in vivo. Among TEAD genes, silencing of TEAD4 consistently inhibited tumor growth and Yap target gene expression in HB cell lines. Furthermore, TEAD4 mRNA expression was significantly higher in human HB lesions when compared with corresponding nontumorous liver tissues. Human HB specimens also exhibited strong nuclear immunoreactivity for TEAD4. Altogether, data demonstrate that TEAD-mediated transcriptional activity is both sufficient and necessary for Yap-driven HB development. TEAD4 is the major TEAD isoform and Yap partner in human HB. Targeting TEAD4 may represent an effective treatment option for human HB.

9.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2018 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30084835

RESUMO

Purpose: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is an aggressive cancer type, lacking effective therapies and associated with a dismal prognosis. Palbociclib is a selective CDK4/6 inhibitor, which has been shown to suppress cell proliferation in many experimental cancer models. Recently, we demonstrated that pan-mTOR inhibitors, such as MLN0128, effectively induce apoptosis, although have limited efficacy in restraining proliferation of ICC cells. Here, we tested the hypothesis that palbociclib, due to its antproliferative properties in many cancer types, might synergize with MLN0128 to impair ICC growth.Experimental Design: Human ICC cell lines and the AKT/YapS127A ICC mouse model were used to test the therapeutic efficacy of palbociclib and MLN0128, either alone or in combination.Results: Administration of palbociclib suppressed in vitro ICC cell growth by inhibiting cell-cycle progression. Concomitant administration of palbociclib and MLN0128 led to a pronounced, synergistic growth constraint of ICC cell lines. Furthermore, while treatment with palbociclib or MLN0128 alone resulted in tumor growth reduction in AKT/YapS127A mice, a remarkable tumor regression was achieved when the two drugs were administered simultaneously. Mechanistically, palbociclib was found to potentiate MLN0128 mTOR inhibition activity, whereas MLN0128 prevented the upregulation of cyclin D1 induced by palbociclib treatment.Conclusions: Our study indicates the synergistic activity of palbociclib and MLN0128 in inhibiting ICC cell proliferation. Thus, combination of CDK4/6 and mTOR inhibitors might represent a novel, promising, and effective therapeutic approach against human ICC. Clin Cancer Res; 1-11. ©2018 AACR.

10.
Gastroenterology ; 155(5): 1625-1639.e2, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30092175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Changes to the microenvironment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) have been associated with poor outcomes of patients. We studied the associations between composition of the pancreatic stroma (fibrogenic, inert, dormant, or fibrolytic stroma) and infiltration by inflammatory cells and times of progression-free survival (PFS) of patients with PDACs after resection. METHODS: We obtained 1824 tissue microarray specimens from 385 patients included in the European Study Group for Pancreatic Cancer trial 1 and 3 and performed immunohistochemistry to detect alpha smooth muscle actin, type 1 collagen, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD68, CD206, and neutrophils. Tumors that expressed high and low levels of these markers were compared with patient outcomes using Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariable recursive partitioning for discrete-time survival tree analysis. Prognostic index was delineated by a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model of immune cell and stromal markers and PFS. Findings were validated using 279 tissue microarray specimens from 93 patients in a separate cohort. RESULTS: Levels of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD68, and CD206 were independently associated with tumor recurrence. Recursive partitioning for discrete-time survival tree analysis identified a high level of CD3 as the strongest independent predictor for longer PFS. Tumors with levels of CD3 and high levels of CD206 associated with a median PFS time of 16.6 months and a median prognostic index of -0.32 (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.35 to -0.31), whereas tumors with low level of CD3 cell and low level of CD8 and high level of CD68 associated with a median PFS time of 7.9 months and a prognostic index of 0.32 (95% CI 0.050-0.32); we called these patterns histologic signatures. Stroma composition, when unassociated with inflammatory cell markers, did not associate significantly with PFS. In the validation cohort, the histologic signature resulted in an error matrix accuracy of predicted response of 0.75 (95% CI 0.64-0.83; accuracy P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of PDAC tissue microarray specimens, we identified and validated a histologic signature, based on leukocyte and stromal factors, that associates with PFS times of patients with resected PDACs. Immune cells might affect the composition of the pancreatic stroma to affect progression of PDAC. These findings provide new insights into the immune response to PDAC.

11.
Cell Cycle ; 17(12): 1496-1512, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29965794

RESUMO

Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of many cancer types, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Identifying the critical players in this process might be crucial for the generation of novel and effective anti-neoplastic therapies. In the present investigation, we determined the importance of carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP), a central player in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism in the liver, on the development of HCC in in vitro and in vivo models. We found that genetic deletion of ChREBP (that will be referred to as ChREBPKO mice) strongly delays or impairs hepatocarcinogenesis driven by AKT or AKT/c-Met overexpression in mice, respectively. In contrast, HCC development was found to be completely unaffected by ChREBP depletion in mice co-expressing AKT and N-Ras protooncogenes. In mouse and human HCC cell lines, suppression of ChREBP via specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) resulted in decreased proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Of note, these cellular events were strongly augmented by concomitant inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The present data indicate that ChREBP activity might be required or dispensable for HCC growth, depending on the oncogenes involved. In particular, the activation of Ras/MAPK signaling might represent a possible mechanism of resistance to ChREBP depletion in this tumor type. Additional studies are needed to unravel the molecular mechanisms rendering HCC cells insensitive to ChREBP suppression.

12.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 172: 93-95, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29986203

RESUMO

In this case report we present an immunocompetent 64-year-old patient presenting with an orbitofrontal invasive aspergillosis treated successfully with voriconazole monotherapy following biopsy and orbital decompression.

13.
Cell Death Dis ; 9(2): 31, 2018 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29348467

RESUMO

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is a deadly malignancy with limited treatment options. Gain-of-function mutations in K-Ras is a very frequent alteration, occurring in ~15 to 25% of human iCCA patients. Here, we established a new iCCA model by expressing activated forms of Notch1 (NICD) and K-Ras (K-RasV12D) in the mouse liver (K-Ras/NICD mice). Furthermore, we investigated the therapeutic potential of MEK inhibitors in vitro and in vivo using human CCA cell lines and K-Ras/NICD mice, respectively. Treatment with U0126, PD901, and Selumetinib MEK inhibitors triggered growth restraint in all CCA cell lines tested, with the most pronounced growth suppressive effects being observed in K-Ras mutant cells. Growth inhibition was due to reduction in proliferation and massive apoptosis. Furthermore, treatment of K-Ras/NICD tumor-bearing mice with PD901 resulted in stable disease. At the molecular level, PD901 efficiently inhibited ERK activation in K-Ras/NICD tumor cells, mainly leading to increased apoptosis. Altogether, our study demonstrates that K-Ras/NICD mice represent a novel and useful preclinical model to study K-Ras-driven iCCA development and the effectiveness of MEK inhibitors in counteracting this process. Our data support the usefulness of MEK inhibitors for the treatment of human iCCA.

14.
Exp Mol Med ; 50(1): e417, 2018 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29303510

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a deadly malignancy with limited treatment options. Activation of the AKT/mTOR cascade is one of the most frequent events along hepatocarcinogenesis. mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase and presents in two distinct complexes: mTORC1 and mTORC2. While mTORC1 has been extensively studied in HCC, the functional contribution of mTORC2 during hepatocarcinogenesis has not been well characterized, especially in vivo. Pten expression is one of the major mechanisms leading to the aberrant activation of the AKT/mTOR signaling. Here, we show that concomitant downregulation of Pten and upregulation of c-Met occurs in a subset of human HCC, mainly characterized by poor prognosis. Using CRISPR-based gene editing in combination with hydrodynamic injection, Pten was deleted in a subset of mouse hepatocytes (sgPten). We found that loss of Pten synergizes with overexpression of c-Met to promote HCC development in mice (sgPten/c-Met). At the molecular level, sgPten/c-Met liver tumor tissues display increased AKT and mTOR signaling. Using Rictor conditional knockout mice, we demonstrate that sgPten/c-Met-driven HCC development strictly depends on an intact mTORC2 complex. Our findings therefore support the critical role of mTORC2 in hepatocarcinogenesis. sgPten/c-Met mouse model represents a novel valuable system that can be used for the development of targeted therapy against this deadly malignancy.

15.
Am J Pathol ; 188(4): 995-1006, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29378174

RESUMO

Primary liver cancer consists mainly of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). A subset of human HCCs expresses a ICC-like gene signature and is classified as ICC-like HCC. The Hippo pathway is a critical regulator of normal and malignant liver development. However, the precise function(s) of the Hippo cascade along liver carcinogenesis remain to be fully delineated. The role of the Hippo pathway in a murine mixed HCC/ICC model induced by activated forms of AKT and Ras oncogenes (AKT/Ras) was investigated. The authors demonstrated the inactivation of Hippo in AKT/Ras liver tumors leading to nuclear localization of Yap and TAZ. Coexpression of AKT/Ras with Lats2, which activates Hippo, or the dominant negative form of TEAD2 (dnTEAD2), which blocks Yap/TAZ activity, resulted in delayed hepatocarcinogenesis and elimination of ICC-like lesions in the liver. Mechanistically, Notch2 expression was found to be down-regulated by the Hippo pathway in liver tumors. Overexpression of Lats2 or dnTEAD2 in human HCC cell lines inhibited their growth and led to the decreased expression of ICC-like markers, as well as Notch2 expression. Altogether, this study supports the key role of the Hippo cascade in regulating the differentiation status of liver tumors.

16.
Cancer Res ; 78(2): 475-488, 2018 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29180478

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly lethal and disseminating cancer resistant to therapy, including checkpoint immunotherapies, and early tumor resection and (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy fails to improve a poor prognosis. In a transgenic mouse model of resectable PDAC, we investigated the coordinated activation of T and natural killier (NK) cells in addition to gemcitabine chemotherapy to prevent tumor recurrence. Only neoadjuvant, but not adjuvant treatment with a PD-1 antagonist effectively supported chemotherapy and suppressed local tumor recurrence and improved survival involving both NK and T cells. Local T-cell activation was confirmed by increased tumor infiltration with CD103+CD8+ T cells and neoantigen-specific CD8 T lymphocytes against the marker neoepitope LAMA4-G1254V. To achieve effective prevention of distant metastases in a complementary approach, we blocked the NK-cell checkpoint CD96, an inhibitory NK-cell receptor that binds CD155, which was abundantly expressed in primary PDAC and metastases of human patients. In gemcitabine-treated mice, neoadjuvant PD-1 blockade followed by adjuvant inhibition of CD96 significantly prevented relapse of PDAC, allowing for long-term survival. In summary, our results show in an aggressively growing transgenic mouse model of PDAC that the coordinated activation of both innate and adaptive immunity can effectively reduce the risk of tumor recurrence after surgery, facilitating long-term remission of this lethal disease.Significance: Coordinated neoadjuvant and adjuvant immunotherapies reduce the risk of disease relapse after resection of murine PDAC, suggesting this concept for future clinical trials. Cancer Res; 78(2); 475-88. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/prevenção & controle , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Imunoterapia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/imunologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirurgia , Proliferação de Células , Terapia Combinada , Desoxicitidina/farmacologia , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Camundongos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Assistência Perioperatória , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
17.
BJU Int ; 121(1): 84-92, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28803448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To validate microvascular (MVI) and lymphovascular (LVI) invasion as prognostic factors in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data of patients with RCC who underwent radical or nephron-sparing surgery were prospectively collected from three academic centres. The occurrence of MVI and LVI was determined with standard staining protocols by experienced pathologists at the time of diagnosis. The association of MVI and LVI with clinicopathological data, metastatic spread, and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were evaluated with Fisher's exact tests, binary logistic regression analyses, and univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models. RESULTS: MVI was present in 201 of 747 patients (26.9%) and was associated with advanced Tumour-Node-Metastasis (TNM) stages, high Fuhrman grades, and sarcomatoid features (all P < 0.001). MVI was associated with a higher rate of metastatic spread. LVI was present in 32 of 573 patients (5.5%) and was associated with advanced TNM stages, high Fuhrman grade, and sarcomatoid features (all P < 0.001). Two-thirds of LVI-positive patients died (P < 0.001). Both LVI and MVI were significantly associated with CSS in all patients, clear cell RCC (ccRCC), and localised RCC in univariable analysis (all P < 0.001). On multivariable analysis, presence of MVI was identified as an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio 2.09; P = 0.001). Moreover, MVI [odds ratio (OR) 2.7; P = 0.001] and not macrovascular invasion (P = 0.895) was an independent predictor of sychronuous metastatic spread. LVI was the strongest factor associated with sychronous metastatic spread (OR 4.73, 95% confidence interval 1.84-12.14; P = 0.001) in all patients and in the subgroup of patients with ccRCC (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The present study validated LVI and MVI as prognostic factors for poor outcome in RCC. These findings endorse an evaluation of both variables in the clinical routine setting to facilitate survival prognostication in follow-up protocols and for assignment to adjuvant treatment trials.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/cirurgia , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Nefrectomia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
18.
Oncotarget ; 8(61): 104315-104329, 2017 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29262643

RESUMO

Aims: The intraportal pancreatic islet transplantation (IPIT) model of diabetic rats is an insulin mediated model of hepatocarcinogenesis characterized by the induction of clear cell foci (CCF) of altered hepatocytes, which are pre-neoplastic lesions excessively storing glycogen (glycogenosis) and exhibiting activation of the AKT/mTOR protooncogenic pathway. In this study, we transferred the IPIT model to the mouse and combined it with the knockout of the transcription factor carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (chREBP). Methods: C57BL/6J Wild-type (WT) and chREBP-knockout (chREBP-KO) mice (n = 297) were matched to 16 groups (WT/ chREBP-KO, experimental/control, streptozotocine-induced diabetic/not diabetic, one/four weeks). Experimental groups received the intraportal transplantation of 70 pancreatic islets. Liver and pancreatic tissue was examined using histology, morphometry, enzyme- and immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Results: CCF emerged in the liver acini downstream of the transplanted islets. In comparison to WT lesions, CCF of chREBP-KO mice displayed more glycogen accumulation, reduced activity of the gluconeogenic enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase, decreased glycolysis, lipogenesis and reduced levels of the AKT/mTOR cascade members. Proliferative activity of CCF was ∼two folds higher in WT mice than in chREBP-KO mice. Conclusions: The IPIT model is applicable to mice, as murine CCF resemble preneoplastic liver lesions from this hepatocarcinogenesis model in the rat in terms of morphological, metabolic and molecular alterations and proliferative activity, which is diminished after chREBP knockout. chREBP appears to be an essential component of AKT/mTOR mediated cell proliferation and the metabolic switch from a glycogenotic to lipogenic phenotype in precursor lesions of hepatocarcinogenesis.

19.
Oncotarget ; 8(53): 90638-90650, 2017 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29207593

RESUMO

Deregulated activity of the c-Myc protooncogene is a frequent molecular event underlying mouse and human hepatocarcinogenesis. Nonetheless, the mechanisms sustaining c-Myc oncogenic activity in liver cancer remain scarcely delineated. Recently, we showed that the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) cascade is induced and necessary for c-Myc dependent liver tumor development and progression. Since the heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) transcription factor is a major positive regulator of mTORC1 in the cell, we investigated the functional interaction between HSF1 and c-Myc using in vitro and in vivo approaches. We found that ablation of HSF1 restrains the growth of c-Myc-derived mouse hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, where it induces downregulation of c-Myc levels. Conversely, silencing of c-Myc gene in human and mouse HCC cells led to downregulation of HSF1 expression. Most importantly, overexpression of a dominant negative form of HSF1 (HSF1dn) in the mouse liver via hydrodynamic gene delivery resulted in the complete inhibition of mouse hepatocarcinogenesis driven by overexpression of c-Myc. Altogether, the present results indicate that a functional HSF1 is necessary for c-Myc-driven hepatocarcinogenesis. Consequently, targeting HSF1 might represent a novel and effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of HCC subsets with activated c-Myc signaling.

20.
Oncotarget ; 8(43): 73433-73447, 2017 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29088718

RESUMO

Hepatoblastoma (HB) is the most common type of liver malignancy in children. Recent studies suggest that activation of Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a major molecular event in HB development, as activated YAP synergizes with mutant ß-catenin to promote HB formation in mice (YAP/ß-catenin). However, how YAP regulates HB development remains poorly defined. Similarly, de-regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling has been implicated in multiple tumor types, but its functional role in HB development is scarcely understood. In the present study, we found that mTORC1 is activated in human HB cells and YAP/ß-catenin-induced mouse HB tumor tissues. mTOR inhibitor MLN0128 significantly inhibits human HB cell growth in vitro. Furthermore, ablation of Raptor, the unique subunit of mTORC1, strongly delayed YAP/ß-catenin-induced HB development in mice. At the molecular level, we found that expression of the amino acid transporter SLC38A1 is induced in mouse HB tissues, and amino acid deprivation leads to mTORC1 suppression in HB cell lines. Silencing of YAP and/or its paralog, transcriptional co-activator with PDZ binding motif (TAZ), decreased SLC38A1 expression as well as mTORC1 activation in HB cells. Furthermore, a frequent and concomitant upregulation of mTORC1 and SLC38A1 was detected in a collection of human HB specimens. Altogether, our study demonstrates the key role of mTORC1 in HB development. YAP and TAZ promote HB development via inducing SLC38A1 expression, whose upregulation leads to mTORC1 activation. Targeting mTOR pathway or amino acid transporters may represent novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of human HB.

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