Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 5 de 5
Lancet ; 401(10375): 486-502, 2023 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36764314


Despite proven benefits, less than half of infants and young children globally are breastfed in accordance with the recommendations of WHO. In comparison, commercial milk formula (CMF) sales have increased to about US$55 billion annually, with more infants and young children receiving formula products than ever. This Series paper describes the CMF marketing playbook and its influence on families, health professionals, science, and policy processes, drawing on national survey data, company reports, case studies, methodical scoping reviews, and two multicountry research studies. We report how CMF sales are driven by multifaceted, well resourced marketing strategies that portray CMF products, with little or no supporting evidence, as solutions to common infant health and developmental challenges in ways that systematically undermine breastfeeding. Digital platforms substantially extend the reach and influence of marketing while circumventing the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes. Creating an enabling policy environment for breastfeeding that is free from commercial influence requires greater political commitment, financial investment, CMF industry transparency, and sustained advocacy. A framework convention on the commercial marketing of food products for infants and children is needed to end CMF marketing.

Substitutos do Leite , Leite , Lactente , Feminino , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Animais , Aleitamento Materno , Marketing , Política de Saúde , Pais , Fórmulas Infantis
Lancet ; 401(10375): 472-485, 2023 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36764313


In this Series paper, we examine how mother and baby attributes at the individual level interact with breastfeeding determinants at other levels, how these interactions drive breastfeeding outcomes, and what policies and interventions are necessary to achieve optimal breastfeeding. About one in three neonates in low-income and middle-income countries receive prelacteal feeds, and only one in two neonates are put to the breast within the first hour of life. Prelacteal feeds are strongly associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding. Self-reported insufficient milk continues to be one of the most common reasons for introducing commercial milk formula (CMF) and stopping breastfeeding. Parents and health professionals frequently misinterpret typical, unsettled baby behaviours as signs of milk insufficiency or inadequacy. In our market-driven world and in violation of the WHO International Code for Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes, the CMF industry exploits concerns of parents about these behaviours with unfounded product claims and advertising messages. A synthesis of reviews between 2016 and 2021 and country-based case studies indicate that breastfeeding practices at a population level can be improved rapidly through multilevel and multicomponent interventions across the socioecological model and settings. Breastfeeding is not the sole responsibility of women and requires collective societal approaches that take gender inequities into consideration.

Aleitamento Materno , Substitutos do Leite , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Feminino , Mães , Marketing , Pobreza
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236055, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663227


This study aimed to assess agreement between antenatal estimates of gestational age by ultrasound and clinical records at birth in the Brazilian Amazon. Ultrasound examinations were scheduled during the second trimester for 578 pregnant women prospectively screened at primary health care units, following a standardized protocol for image quality control. A multistage algorithm was used to assess the best estimate of gestational age during the antenatal period, considering reliability of last menstrual period (LMP) and acceptable differences in relation to ultrasound estimates derived from fetal biparietal diameter and femur length. Agreement of antenatal estimates of gestational age confirmed by ultrasound and clinical records at birth was analyzed with Bland-Altman plots and kappa coefficients (preterm and postterm births). Overall, ultrasound examinations presented high quality (>90% of satisfactory images), and were adopted as the best estimate of gestational age among 83.4% of pregnant women, confirming reliable LMP in the remaining proportion. On average, difference in gestational age between antenatal estimates and clinical records was 0.43 week (95% CI: 0.32, 0.53). Classification of preterm births had a good agreement (kappa: 0.82, p<0.001), but a poor performance was observed for postterm births (kappa: -0.06, p = 0.92). Higher differences in gestational age were noted for participants with >11 years of education and cases of caesarean deliveries. In conclusion, high-quality ultrasound images from the second trimester of pregnancy based the assessment of gestational age, while reliability of LMP was limited. Information from clinical records at birth presented an acceptable agreement on average and for classification of preterm births, which is relevant for properly interpreting perinatal outcomes. Discrepancies in caesarean deliveries may warrant further investigation.

Declaração de Nascimento , Idade Gestacional , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
Nutr Hosp ; 29(5): 1132-40, 2014 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24951995


INTRODUCTION: In developing countries, night blindness is a very common public health problem among pregnant women. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effect of the changes occurred on prenatal care concerning prenatal nutritional care on the occurrence of night blindness (XN) in adult pregnant women in public maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro between 1999-2001 and between 2007-2008. METHODS: Two cross-sectional studies were conducted, been the first one conducted between 1999-2001 and the second one between 2007-2008. Were studied 402 puerperal women, 225 between 1999-2001 (GI) and 177 between 2007-2008 (GII). The gestational XN was investigated during the immediate puerperium (GI) and during the prenatal/puerperium (GII), diagnosed by the World Health Organization. The study collected sociodemographic, clinical, obstetric, anthropometric and prenatal care information. RESULTS: It verified significant reduce of prevalence of gestational XN (GI = 18.7% e GII = 0.6%, p < 0.001). The occurrence of gestational XN was associated to sanitary conditions, education level, more than six prenatal consultations, miscarriage at last pregnancy, higher average number of deliveries, average number of prenatal care consultations and prenatal nutritional (p < 0.05). There was no association between gestational XN and marital status, skin color, pre-gestational nutritional status, adequacy of gain of total gestational weight, gestational anaemia and average number of pregnancies (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The inclusion of nutritional care in routine prenatal care may have contributed to the reduction of gestational XN. Studies to assess the nutritional intervention in the prevention and treatment of gestational XN at regions at greatest risk are suggested.

Introducción: En los países en desarrollo, la ceguera nocturna (CN) es un problema muy común de la salud pública entre las mujeres embarazadas. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto de los cambios ocurridos en la atención prenatal sobre el cuidado nutricional prenatal sobre la aparición de CN en mujeres adultas embarazadas en una maternidad pública en Rio de Janeiro entre 1999-2001 y entre 2007-2008. Métodos: Se realizaron dos estudios transversales, el primero entre 1999-2001 y el segundo entre 2007-2008. Se estudiaron 402 mujeres puérperas, 225 entre 1999-2001 (GI) y 177 entre 2007-2008 (GII). La CN gestacional fue investigada durante el puerperio inmediato (GI) y durante el prenatal/puerperio (GII), diagnosticada por la Organización Mundial de La Salud. El estudio incluió informaciones sociodemográficas, clínicas, obstétricas, antropométricas y del cuidado prenatal. Resultados: Se verificó reducción significativa de la prevalencia de CN gestacional (GI = 18,7% e GII = 0,6%, p < 0,001). La ocurrencia de CN gestacional se asoció con las condiciones sanitarias, el nivel de educación, más de seis consultas prenatales, abortos espontáneos en el último embarazo, mayor número promedio de partos, el número promedio de consultas de atención prenatal y de nutrición prenatal (p < 0,05). No hubo asociación entre CN gestacional y el estado civil, color de piel, estado nutricional pregestacional, adecuación de la ganancia de peso durante la gestación, incluyendo anemia gestacional y el número medio de embarazos (p > 0,05). Conclusión: La inclusión de la atención nutricional en el cuidado prenatal de rutina puede haber contribuido para la reducción de CN gestacional. Se sugiere más estudios para evaluar la intervención nutricional en la prevención y el tratamiento de CN gestacional en las regiones de mayor riesgo.

Cegueira Noturna/epidemiologia , Cegueira Noturna/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal , Adulto , Antropometria , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
Nutr Hosp ; 28(6): 1806-14, 2013 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24506355


INTRODUCTION: Several methods of dietetic counseling can be used in the nutritional therapy in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The main methods are the traditional method (TM) and the carbohydrate counting (CCM). OBJECTIVE: Presenting a systematic review of the literature on the impact of nutritional therapy in GDM, through TM and CCM, evaluating the results for maternal and child health. METHODS: We searched databases PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Lilacs and CAPES Digital Bank of Thesis. The methodological quality of all the studies included was made using the Jadad score. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We have found five studies that evaluated the effects of nutritional therapy, through the TM, on the maternal and child health. None study evaluating the CCM was detected in pregnant women with GDM Nutritional therapy given during antenatal care was effective in reducing pregnancy complications (preeclampsia, excessive gestational weight gain, necessity for cesarean delivery, for insulin therapy and for shoulder dystocia), perinatal complications (macrosomia, neonatal hypoglycemia, and birth weight) and also in better glycemic control. The use of nutritional therapy should be highlighted within the antenatal care for pregnant women with GDM, giving the satisfactory results on metabolic control and on pregnancy outcomes. Studies examining the CCM to GDM patients should be conducted to show its effects on maternal and child health.

Diabetes Gestacional/dietoterapia , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Adulto , Carboidratos da Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez